Complete the sentences with your own ideas.

1. Neither HR managers nor applicants …

2. … neither the strengths nor the weaknesses of the company.

3. He had neither motivation nor satisfaction …

4. Neither the top management nor the staff …

5. Neither national nor regional cultures …

Change direct questions into indirect ones. Open the brackets. Mind a direct word order in indirect questions. Follow the models.

Model 1: What is organizational culture? (to ask) – They ask what organizational culture is.

Model 2: Is HRM a reflection of the culture in which it operates? (to wonder) – I wonder if HRM is a reflection of the culture in which it operates.

1. What is culture of an organization as a system made up of? (to inquire)

2. What are the most effective ways to facilitate corporate culture? (to wonder)

3. Do different nations have different work ethics? (to ask)

4. Should HRM establish clear goals and create a fair reward system? (to  question)

Speak on what HR managers are likely/unlikely to do. Follow the model.

Model: HR managers are likely to be knowledgeable about their company culture. Good HR managers are unlikely to fail to exhibit work ethics.

Choose the appropriate forms from the alternatives.

Cross culture: hidden rules

There are 1) hiding/hidden rules for playing the game of 2) done/doing business with people of other cultures. It is important to know the way things are usually 3) dealing/dealt with in your host country. Problems arise because we see things differently. It helps to be aware of how other nationalities perceive/perceived certain things.

It is, however, very dangerous to have 4) stereotype/stereotyped views of what the other culture is like. Such views are often narrow and can cause 5) criticism/critics and 6) intolerance/intolerant. “A little knowledge is a dangerous thing” and can encourage you to make 7) predicting/predictions about what will happen in your business 8) actions/transactions. If your ideas are too narrow, you may be surprised at all the people you meet who do not fit into your pattern and who behave 9) different/differently from the way you 10) predict/predicted they would.

Our ideas then, have to be flexible and 11) constructing/constructed from 12) through/thorough research and observation. We should also recognize that it is not only people’s national background that influences their 13) behavior/behaving and personality, but also their 14) particular/particularly regional background, their personal background and their company culture.

Translate the text into English and entitle it.

Любая организация имеет свою историю, которая влияет на ее образ жизни, традиции, нормы и правила взаимодействия. Сформировавшись когда-то, такая культура сильно влияет и на людей в организации, и на организацию в целом. Чаще всего организационная культура нацелена на управление данной организацией, причем ее влияние может тормозить развитие предприятия.

Основу корпоративной культуры составляют те идеи, взгляды, ценности, которые разделяются членами организации. Они могут быть абсолютно разными, в том числе и в зависимости от того, что лежит в основе: интересы организации в целом или интересы ее отдельных членов. Из ценностей вытекает стиль поведения, общения.

Корпоративная культура – одно из самых эффективных средств привлечения и мотивации сотрудников. Как только человек удовлетворяет чисто материальные потребности, у него возникает потребность в другом: положении в коллективе, общности ценностей, нематериальной мотивации. И здесь на первый план выходит корпоративная культура.

Организационная культура имеет принципиальное значение для изучения истории и пути развития компании, трансформации системы отношений внутри нее.


You are a manager in a multinational company. There is some cross-cultural misunderstanding between you and your foreign co-worker(s). Talk to him/her/them to clear up the misunderstanding.


Make a report on the peculiarities of business culture of some country (e.g. Russia, the U.K., the USA, China, Japan or any other).

Self-assessment grid

Tick (✓) “Yes” or “No” answers in appropriate columns and lines to self-assess your knowledge and skills. Yes No

I know:

- the topical vocabulary “Organizational culture”;
- the pronunciation of the suffix –ate in verbs, nouns and adjectives;
- the rule of reading of the suffix –que;
- collocations with the word culture;
- the meanings of the prefixes sub- and co-;
- the meaning of Wh-words with the element –ever.
I can:
- use the structure be likely/unlikely to do sth;
- change direct questions into indirect ones;
- use the conjunction neither… nor;
- role-play a dialogue between people who belong to different cultures;
- make a report on business culture differences.
Total number of positive/negative answers:


Module 7

Pre-reading issues


1. What steps can HR managers take to improve groups at work?

2. How can key HR concepts like motivation and commitment be linked to teams and their performance?

3. What effect, if any, does a diverse workforce have on team working?

4. In your opinion, how will the use of groups and teams in organizations change in the future?

Group and team management

Groups can be defined as a collection of individuals who share common goals, have a collective identity and relate to each other in a meaningful way.

Employees join in groups for four main reasons: security, task achievement, social need and power. Being in a group gives a sense of security and confidence to employees. A group of employees, by putting all their ability, skills and time together, is likely to improve the efficiency and the quality of the outcome.

People are social beings and they need a sense of belonging. Building social relationships at work improves communication and employee well-being which in return increases employee motivation and job satisfaction.

Groups have more power in enabling change than individuals. If a group of employees raise the issue, the management is more likely to listen. Groups can exert control over their members’ behavior and this makes group leaders powerful individuals.

There are two types of groups: informal and formal groups. Informal groups emerge through the initiative of individuals who are trying to satisfy their social needs. Informal groups are essential in organizational life as people often feel happier and involved at work if they have common interests with their colleagues. The more employees have a shared understanding, interests and values, the more pleasant the working environment will be.

Formal groups are the ones which are established by the management to carry out certain organizational tasks. Once the desired organizational task is achieved, formal groups are often dispersed, until the next time they are needed.

Whether in formal or informal groups, individuals are expected to have certain roles. A role is an expected or an attached behavior. Group roles can be problematic: they can lead to role ambiguity or role conflict. Role ambiguity exists when the aims of one’s tasks or the methods of performing them are not very clear. Role conflicts occur when an employee is given more than one role to fulfill.

A group’s success depends on the individual. Loyalty commitment and trust, obedience and effective leadership are essential factors that determine the performance of the group.

The terms group and team are sometimes used interchangeably but there are subtle differences. All teams can be seen as groups but not all groups can be regarded as teams. Groups can be medium or large in size but teams in organizations are generally small. Teams tend to have a shared or rotating leadership, whereas groups usually have a single leader.

Also, there is a difference in the management of teams and groups. Formal groups are constantly required to report back to management. Teams are more self-managed and autonomous, i.e. they are given enough flexibility to finish the tasks without constant need for supervision.

Groups and teams are crucial for organizations. When established effectively, teamwork improves competitiveness and enhances the quality of work life for employees.

Text comprehension

1. What is a group?

2. Why do employees join in groups?

3. How many group types can be singled out?

4. How and why do informal groups emerge?

5. Who establishes formal groups?

6. When are formal groups dispersed?

7. What is a role?

8. When does role ambiguity or role conflict occur?

9. What essential factors determine the performance of the group?

10. What are the differences between groups and teams?

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