IMAGE                                   REPUTATION



 A brand or corporate image is a tactical tool. Reputation on the other hand is strategic – as one decides what want to be known for and constantly work towards building that reputation. The tools employed to promote an image and build a reputation are quite different - but they are complementary and one goes with the other.

Typical Image Tools: Advertising, Promotions, Direct mail, Competitions

Typical Reputation Tools: Corporate Social Responsibility programs, Strategic sponsorships, Media outreach

And in today’s more aware and questioning society, it’s important that companies achieve not just a balance between the image and reputation, but are also more careful in how they manage the relationship between them.

There is no doubt that PR, with its ability to think and plan strategically, must take a more active role in promoting the importance of reputation. But to do this, PR specialists and the corporate and marketing executives need to be fully aware of how image and reputation are linked and managed.

 

Questions:

1. What does the term “reputation” implies?

2. What does the term “image” implies?

3. What are the differences between image and reputation?

4. What messages is Image based on?

5. What are the typical Image Tools?

6. What are the typical ReputationTools?

7. How could you explain the connection between image and a reputation?

8. Why do organizations need to change image sometimes?

9. Is it important for the companies to achieve a balance between the image and reputation?

10. Can you bring an example of a company with a good reputation and image and give some detailed description about it?

 

Text 18

Negotiations       

Negotiations are a part of life and occur in business, non-profit organizations, and government branches, legal proceedings, among nations and in personal situations such as marriage, divorce and parenting. Broadly speaking, negotiationis an interaction of influences. In a business context, can be used for selling, purchasing, staff (e.g. contracts), borrowing (e.g. loans) and transactions, along with anything else that are applicable for a business.

Negotiation is a skill that everyone in any business environment requires. The word 'negotiation' implies ability and a willingness to vary terms in some way. To negotiate successfully, one needs to communicate with the other side effectively.

Negotiation involves two basic elements: the process and the substance. The process refers to how the parties negotiate: the context of the negotiations, the parties to the negotiations, the relationships among these parties, the communication between these parties, the tactics used by the parties, and the sequence and stages in which all of these play out. The substance, however, refers to what the parties negotiate over: the agenda, the issues, the options, and the agreement(s) reached at the end.

It is necessary to highlight strengths and the benefits of reaching a decision. It is important to be well prepared, set out objectives, think about the rewards and incentives which can be offered to the other party during the negotiations. Business negotiations should be conducted in a friendly atmosphere to reach a decision acceptable to all the parties involved.

Few simple phrases can set the right tone for the positive outcome of the negotiations. So start by using the most powerful persuasive tools: "Questions". The first behavior of top negotiators is that they ask a lot of questions. A 'question' gets information and in negotiations, information is power. The more relevant information is, the better the position is.

Another important factor is image, how others in the negotiation perceive you. There are times when you have to change your character, your mindset, and your personality when negotiating, in order to create the environment that leads to the successful outcome of the negotiation. There will be times when you'll have to be stern and there will be times when you'll have to be soft, but always try to genuinely be nice.

Be humble. No matter how much expertise you possess on a subject matter, don't be a showoff. Being a know-it-all tends to turn people off. Aim highly, but don`t underestimate the opposition.

Be compassionate. If you have the upper hand in a negotiation, don't hammer the other person to submit to more concessions, simply because you're in the 'power position.

Remain flexible throughout the negotiation in case the opposition decides to change the direction of an agreement (they may want different incentives or change their objectives).

Always use active listening skills when negotiating. Paraphrase questions, thoughts, and ideas to convey your understanding of the other person's position and perspective. Be creative, think outside the box.

Understand the value of reading body language accurately and use its covenants during the negotiation. Use your body language skills to allow them to see, feel, and hear, your desire to seek the most favorable outcome for all parties involved in the negotiation.

When you negotiate, start out by putting the other person first. See the deal from inside their shoes. Make your proposal consistent with their value. Make sure they know you're not just viewing the negotiation from your perspective, but you also understand the perspective from which they view the negotiation. Summarize frequently: this enhances understanding. Present arguments calmly, without personalization, and make sure they are logically supported.

 

Questions:

1. What does the term” negotiation” mean?

2. Where do the negotiations occur? 

3. What are the basic elements of the negotiations?

4. What is the most powerful persuasive tool to start the negations with?

5. Why is image important in the negotiation process?

6. Why is it necessary to use active listening skills during the negotiations?

7. What atmosphere is necessary to reach a decision acceptable to all the parties involved?

8. Why is it necessary to pay attention on body language during the negotiations?

9. Why is it recommended to start out by putting the other person first?

10. What does the phrase “Aim highly, but don`t underestimate the opposition” mean?

Text 19

Contract     

A contract is an agreement between parties that the law will enforce. Almost everyone makes contracts every day. For a contract to arise the offerer (who makes the offer) must make a definite offer, and the offeree (one to whom the offer is made) must accept the offer. Of course, the parties may negotiate additional details to reach mutually acceptable terms. The offeree could reject the offer by demanding, for example a lower price or earlier delivery. The offerer in turn, could accept or reject such a counteroffer. Without both offer and acceptance there is no agreement. The contract's object and purpose must be legal. The form of the contract must meet the legal requirements.

Contracts are usually written but may be spoken or implied. Some contracts are made and carried out in a single face-to-face conversation.

Even when a written contract is not required by law, it is wise to put the agreement in the writing and have a signed copy for each party. This is particularly true if the contract is complex and contains many details which could lead to later misunderstandings. It also is important when large sums of money or long periods of time are involved. For example, contracts to transfer an interest in real property (land or objects permanently attached to the land) must be in writing.

According to enforceability contracts can be classified as valid, voidable, and voidor unenforceable.

A contract is valid if it meets the requirements to be legally enforceable. A contract is voidif it has no legal force orinvolves fraud in the execution. If a contract can be rejected by one of the parties on legal grounds, it is called a voidable contract, for example, when one party persuade the other to contract by means of fraud, if the contract is signed by a person with limited mental capacity, under the influence of illegal drugs, alcohol or medicines. A voidable contract can be enforced or avoided by the injured party or by a legally incompetent party. A void agreement on the other hand, cannot be enforced by either party. A contract is unenforceable, if there is no legal remedy. A valid contract sometimes becomes unenforceable because the time limit for filling suit to enforce it has passed or because the defendant has gone bankrupt and a judgment against the person cannot be collected.

Contracts can be classified as either executedor executory, according to whether or not they have been completed. Many contracts are performed almost immediately; others require days, months, or years to complete. Many life insurance contracts are not completed for decades.An executed contract is one that has been fully performed. Both parties have done all they promised to do. An executory contract is one that has not been fully performed. Something as agreed upon remains to be done by one or both of the parties.

 

Questions:

1. What does the term “contract” mean?

2. What is necessary for a contract to arise?

3. Why do the parties negotiate before signing a contract?

4. How are contracts classified according to enforceability?

5. What does unenforceability implies?

6. When is a contract void?

7. When is a contract voidable?

8. When does a valid contract become unenforceable?

9. How could you define executory contract?

10. How could you define an executed contract?

Text 20

Religion and PR    

From the ancient times religion plays a great role in the political and cultural life of people. As our world is multicultural there are a great many different religions and of course each one has its peculiarities. For centuries, religion has played a very important role in the cultural background of the many different ethnic groups in Russia. Yet the position of various religious sects and the loyalty of their followers are very dependent on the political unrests in the country.

So, PR writers should be careful and take into consideration an opinion of different nations and religions. For this purpose PR writers should have some general knowledge about the biggest religions, which are Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Judaism and Hinduism.

Judaism isthe most ancient of the world’s surviving monotheistic religions. It is deeply influential on Christianity and Islam. It sees the world as the creation of a living God and the Jews are his chosen people. Central is the Idea of the covenant made between God and Abraham, ancestor of the Jews. The religion is 3500 years old, began in the Middle East. Jews worship in Synagogues; the spiritual leaders are called Rabbis. The Jewish Holy book is the Hebrew Bible, especially the first 5 books, called The Torah, which contains a history if the Jews until the death of Moses, the ten commandments and a corpus of ritual and ethical precepts. There are also oral traditions and interpretations called the Talmud. An important weekly festival is Sabbath. Jewish food must be kosher, which means that it is to satisfy the requirements of the Jewish law.

Important sects that were influential during the time of Jesus Christ were the Sadducees, the Pharisees and the Zealots.

Christianity is the world’s biggest religion with about 2.1 billion followers worldwide. It is based on teaching of Jesus Christ who lived in the Holy land more than 2000 years ago. Christians are people who believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God, and that God sent his Son to earth to save humanity from the consequences of its sins. Jesus was fully human and experienced this world in the same way as other human being of this time. He was tortured and gave his life on the Cross, then rose from the dead on the third day. Christians believe in the Trinity – that is in God, as Father, Son and Holy Spirit.

Christians worship in Churches, which are recognized as God’s body on earth. The Eucharist is central to the Church and is recognized as a sign of unity amongst Christians. The holy book is the Old and New Testament of the Bible. The holiest city is Jerusalem. Eucharist is a rite that comes from the Last Supper of Jesus Christ: the wine represent His blood and the bread His body. The spiritual leaders are called priest. The major festivals are Easter and Christmas. Christians believes in justification by faith – that through their belief in Jesus as the son of God and in his death and resurrection, they can have a right relationship with God whose forgiveness was made once and for all through the death of Jesus Christ. Christians believe that there is a life after earthly death.

Islam is one of the major world religions, with over 1 billion followers worldwide (1/5 of the world population). Muslims are found all over the world, of every nation, color and race. The name Islam comes from an Arabic word meaning "peace" and "submission." Islam teaches that one can only find peace in one's life by submitting to Almighty God (Allah) in heart, soul and deed. A person who believes in and consciously follows Islam is called a Muslim.

The prophet Muhammad, which incorporates elements of Judaic and Christian belief, founded this religion in the Arabian Peninsula in the 7th century. Modern Muslims are divided into orthodox Sunnities, the majority of followers and Shi`ites, who concentrate mainly in Iran, Iraq, Azerbaijan and Tajikistan. Muslims believe that Muhammad was a human being, not a god. And that he was the last prophet of God. Initially the difference between Sunni and Shia was merely a difference concerning who should lead the Muslim community. Shia believe that only the Prophet’s family were the right leaders and Sunni believe that the elected caliph (leader) should be the Prophet’s successor. Sunni Muslims pray five times a day, whereas Shia Muslims pray three times a day.

The Muslim scripture is Holy Koran. The Muslim building for communal worship is called a Mosque. The pilgrimage to Mecca(the birthplace of Muhammad) is very important to the believers and is called Hajj. The second holiest city of Islam is Medina.   

Hinduism: True Hinduism began in the 2nd century BC. Itembraces diverse beliefs and practices with toleration, regarding none as essential. Even other religions are accepted though not their exclusiveness. Hindus have great respect of all life, many being vegetarian and revering and protecting the cow. The upper – class caste of Brahmins is respected as sacrosanct. Hindus believe in the doctrine of transmigration of souls in an endless cycle, under the law of Karma. The three paths of escape from the cycle are duty, knowledge (sought by meditation and yoga) and devotion to God.

Krishna is the major deity in later Hinduism, depicted as a blue –skinned, sportive youth generally playing the flute. He is worshipped as an incarnation of Vishnu, one of the major gods of modern Hinduism and advocates selfless action.

Buddhism is a widespread Asian religion and philosophy developed from Hinduism in the 6th century BC by Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha. The Pali cannon is the scriptural basis of Buddhism. The basic teachings of Buddhism are contained in the “four noble truths”:1 all existence is suffering; 2 the cause of suffering is desire; 3 freedom from suffering is nirvana (the final goal of harmony and satisfaction) ; 4 the means of attaining nirvana is prescribed in the “eight fold path” that combines ethical conduct, mental discipline and wisdom.

 

Questions:

1. What are the biggest religions of the world?

2. What are the main principles of Judaism? What are the main principles and festivals of Christianity? What is the holy book of Jew?

3. Who are Christians and what is the name of the holy book of Christians?

4. What are the main principles and festivals of Christianity?

5. Who is the founder of the Islamic faith?

6. Who are Sunnities and Shi`ites? What is the main difference between them?

7. What is the holy book of Muslims?

8. What are the peculiarities of Hinduism?

9. Where do Jews, Christians, and Muslims worship?

10. What are the “four noble truth” of Buddhism?

Text 21

Political Television Advertisements

Nowadays, political advertising is everywhere. The amounts of money spent on political advertising are staggering: hundreds of millions of dollars are poured into what has become the main means of political communication. In the right hands televised political advertising can be an effective educational tool. Televised political ads are the efficient way to bring new political ideas to people who have not previously experienced them, to convey easily understood information to the broadest possible audience. In today's political campaigns (ex. election campaigns) media plays a larger role than ever before. People in today's society are becoming more and more apathetic about voting and increasingly disinterested in spending time researching the various candidates and their platforms.

The electronic media of today offers an unprecedented opportunity for political candidates to disseminate positive, accurate information about their platform policies. Unfortunately in today's society, this is the exception, not the rule.

Advertising agencies producing political commercials provide politicians with the opportunity to control the image seen on television fully and completely. Election campaign managers produce materials that journalists can easily use. Turning advertisements into news stories allows candidates to set the campaign agenda and magnifies the effects of the ads considerably.

A significant trend in today`s political advertising is the increasing use of negative political advertising. Sometimes candidates or parties use negative ads from the beginning of a political campaign. Allegations of dishonesty and incompetence lay the seeds of controversy and scandal. Thus for journalists, it is a no-lose situation when candidates attack one another as the fight itself often becomes the story.

Negative advertising encourage people to vote not for the best candidate based upon objective positive information, but for the least evil candidate. Commercials are astronomically costly and the wealthiest candidate who slings the most mud at other candidates has a greater chance of being elected by "reaching" the voter population through these "marketing messages".

Negative campaigning may keep people away from the polls. It may discourage supporters of the candidate who is attacked. At the same time candidates unintentionally depress turnout among their own supporters by using negative advertising. Generally candidates attack to expand the scope of the political conflict, to drag organized interests and the media into the fray. The more intense the conflict, the more people are drawn to it. The more a candidate attacks, the more he or she makes news.

Voters are often most receptive to attack advertisements when the candidate who is attacked responds with self-promotional advertisements rather than a counterattack. Even candidates who would in principle like to run wholly positive campaigns are led to attack to protect themselves from the assault of the opposition.

 

Questions:

1. Do politicians use media for their campaigns?

2. What are the televised political ads used for?

3. What does the electronic media of today offers for political candidates?

4. What opportunities do the advertising agencies provide politicians with?

5. Are journalists against the situation when candidates attack one another?

6. What is the outcome of negative advertising?

7. How can negative campaigning keep people away from the polls?

8. What is the aim of attacking each other during the election campaign?

9. Is it possible to run positive campaigns and not get mixed up in negative campaigning?

10. When are voters most receptive to attack advertisements?

 

Text 22

Mass Media

Mass media is the means of communication that reach large numbers of people in a short time, such as television, newspapers, magazines, and radio. The term public media has a similar meaning. The Media include print and electronic media. More recently, the Internet has been added to the list. All of these public media sources inform the general public of what is going on in the world today.

Electronic media and print media include:

· Radio and television

· Various types of discs/tapes

· Films, most often used for entertainment, but also for documentaries

· Publishing, mainly via books, magazines, newspapers

· Internet, which has many uses and presents both opportunities and challenges. Blogs and podcasts, such as news, music, pre-recorded speech and video

· Computer games

In fact in some ways the first mass produced product was the book. Before the emergence of broadcasting in 1920s there were two types of mass communication: newspapers and magazines. But Broadcasting has brought the difference, because you can reach a great amount of listeners and viewers at the same time. It doesn`t matter where you live, how old you are, are you rich or poor, black or white. Everybody is bombarded with the same messages at the same time. So broadcasting provides shared mass common experience more than any other media.

Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video programs to a number of recipients ("listeners" or "viewers") that belong to a large group. This group may be the public in general, or a relatively large audience within the public. Broadcasting forms a very large segment of the mass media. When broadcasting is done via the Internet the term webcasting is often used. Broadcasting to a very narrow range of audience is called narrowcasting.

"Cross-media" means the idea of distributing the same message through different media channels. Cross-media publishing is the ability to publish in both print and on the web.

Toward the end of the 20th century, the advent of the World Wide Web marked the first era. The invention of the Internet has also allowed breaking news stories to reach around the globe within minutes. For the first time, anyone with a web site can address a global audience. The internet is quickly becoming the center of mass media. Everything is becoming accessible via the internet.Instead of picking up a newspaper, or watching the 10 o'clock news, people will log onto the internet to get the news they want, when they want it. Many workers listen to the radio through the internet while sitting at their desk. Games are played through the internet. Blogging has become a huge form of media, popular through the internet. Even the education system relies on the internet. Teachers can contact the entire class by sending one e-mail. They have web pages where students can get another copy of the class outline or assignments. Some classes even have class blogs where students must post weekly, and are graded on their contributions. 

Publishingis the industry concerned with the production of literature or information– the activity of making information available for public view. In some cases, authors may be their own publishers. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as books and newspapers. With the advent of digital information systems and the Internet, the scope of publishing has expanded to include websites, blogs and the like.

Non-mass or "personal" media (point-to-point and person-to-person communication) include: Speech, Gestures, Telephony, and Postal mail.

Through its various formats, the mass media can reach most people on earth. This is an incredible opportunity for communication and education among the peoples of the planet. Things are different now. The trend of people-oriented reporting is only on the rise as reporting news becomes more personal and more accurate. This element of intimate knowledge of the event or story being reported has dramatically changed the way we all view news stories. This is called the Social Media Revolution. 

                                                                                      

Questions:

1. What does electronic media and print media include?

2.  What is broadcasting?

3.  When is the term webcasting often used?

4. What is the difference between broadcasting and narrowcasting?

5. What are the main advantages of the Internet as a kind of Mass Media?

6. What does the term "Cross-media" mean?

7. What does the termPublishing” refer to?

8. What does the term "personal media”refer to?

9. What does the term Social Media Revolution imply?

10. What role does mass media play in your life?

 

Text 23

The Press        

The press usually refers just to newspapers, but the term can be extended to include magazines. A newspaper is a written publication containing news, information and advertising, usually printed on low-cost paper called newsprint.                                                                                                                            

Before the emergence of broadcasting in 1920s there were newspapers and magazines as forms of mass communication. Newspapers play an important role in shaping public opinion and informing people of current events. 

A newspaper is a publication containing news, information, and advertising. General-interest newspapers often feature articles on political events, crime, business, art/entertainment, society and sports. Most traditional papers also feature an editorial page containing columns that express the personal opinions of writers. Supplementary sections may contain advertising, comics, and coupons.

A wide variety of material has been published in newspapers, including editorial opinions, criticism, persuasion and op-eds; obituaries; entertainment features such as crosswords, sudoku and horoscopes; weather news and forecasts; advice, gossip, food and other columns; critical reviews of movies, plays and restaurants; classified ads; display ads, editorial cartoons and comic strips.

A newspaper's circulation is the number of copies it distributes on an average day, although circulation rates are decreasing. Readership(total number of people reading them) figures are usually higher than circulation figures because of the assumption that a typical copy of the newspaper is read by more than one person.       

Newspapers have certain advantages over other mass media — magazines, TV and radio. Newspaper can cover more news and in much detail than TV or radio newscast can do. Magazines focus on major national and international events of the preceding week. But newspaper focuses on local news as well and provides information and comments faster than magazine can do.

There are daily newspapersandweekly newspapers. Daily newspapers print world, national and local news. Many dailies are morning papers, others are afternoon papers. Sunday issues of the dailies are usually larger than the weekday ones. They may include special sections on such topics as entertainment, finance and travel or Sunday magazine, a guide to TV programmes, colored comics. Weekly newspapersserve usually for smaller areas. Weeklies report of weddings, births, deaths and news of local business and politics. Most weeklies do not print world or national news.


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