Types of Public Relations advertising



Учебное пособие по английскому языку



МОСКВА – 2011






Кафедра «Иностранные языки-1»




Рекомендовано редакционно-издательским советом университета в качестве учебного пособия

для студентов специальностей «Реклама и связи с общественностью в отрасли» и «Реклама и связи с общественностью в государственном и муниципальном управлении»

под редакцией Федоткиной Е.В.



МОСКВА – 2011

УДК 42

И 60


Реклама и связи с общественностью. Учебное пособие по английскому языку / под редакцией Федоткиной Е.В. – М.: МИИТ, 2011. – 162 с.


Учебное пособие предназначено для развития навыков и умений устной речи по темам, указанным в «Примерной программе» по иностранным языкам от 2011 года.


Оно включает 36 тем и англо-русский словарь. Текстовой материал заимствован из оригинальной английской литературы и адаптирован.

Пособие представляет собой коллективный труд преподавателей кафедры «Иностранные языки - 1»:


Апресян К.Г. (тема1,2,5,7,9,10,11,13,15,17,18-24,26,29,36)

Дергунова Л.Е. (тема 3, 4, 6,8,25,30,31)

Петрова И. М. (тема 27,28,32,)

Cолопенко Т.А.(тема 33,34,35)

Матвеева Н.В. (тема 12,16)

Кометиани Е.А. (тема 14)


Ó ФГБ ОУ ВПО «Московский государственный университет путей  сообщения», 2011

Text 1

Public Relations

Public Relations (PR) is a 20th century phenomenon. It is the art and science of managing communication between an organization and its key audience to build, manage and sustain its positive image.

PR is often confused with advertising. It is, however, a distinct branch of communication and involves informing and educating the public about the activities or philosophy of an organisation. PR is a powerful management function and a serious business activity. The importance of PR is growing by the day. Both government departments and the private sector have realised that advertising must be supplemented with an effective PR. This helps in two aspects: first in keeping close to the customer to satisfy needs and anticipate changes in customer demand, and second, to create a favourable impression among the people which advertising may sometimes not do.

The functions of PR can be described as follows:

a) Press Relations: One objective of the PR manager is to ensure that the press write about the company favourably. For this, relations with media correspondents have to be maintained. They have to be provided with information and handouts.

b) Communications: Customers, suppliers, employees, dealers and others in contact with the company must know what it is doing or plans to do in the future. Misunderstandings may otherwise arise which may affect the business in the long run.

c) Lobbying: Effective PR can influence public policy. An important function of the PR professional will be to maintain close relations and convince influential people in various walks of life

d) Counseling: Doubts have to be removed from the minds of people through meetings and counseling, which will help keep a direct contact and not let doubts remain, which may have an adverse impact on the company.    

       Corporations use marketing public relations to convey information about the products they manufacture or services they provide to potential customers to support their direct sales efforts. Corporations also use public-relations as a vehicle to reach legislators and other politicians, seeking favorable tax, regulatory, and other treatment. Non-profit organizations, including schools, universities, hospitals, human and social service agencies use public relations in support of awareness programs, fund-raising programs, staff recruiting, and to increase patronage of their services. Politicians use public relations to attract votes and raise money. Nowadays, most PR companies have a team that will come from a mixture of media backgrounds and may be able to offer all sorts of PR-related services such as branding, marketing, copywriting and advertising.

     Edward Louis Bernays (November 22, 1891 – March 9, 1995) is considered one of the fathers of the field of public relations along with Ivy Lee. Combining the ideas of Gustave Le Bon and Wilfred Trotter on crowd psychology with the psychoanalytical ideas of his uncle, Sigmund Freud, Bernays was one of the first to attempt to manipulate public opinion using the subconscious. Bernays pioneered the PR industry's use of psychology and other social sciences to design its public persuasion campaigns. "If we understand the mechanism and motives of the group mind, is it not possible to control and regiment the masses according to our will without their knowing about it?” Bernays played a major role in defining the industry's philosophy and methods and thus is widely praised as the "father of public relations".

The importance of PR is expected to grow in times. One reason is that globalisation has made a lot of difference to the business environment. Global companies are very effective in PR activities. As advertising is becoming prohibitively expensive, companies understand that their campaign must have an element of direct contact also since that is the only way to know how the customers perceive the company or particular products. The future of public relations is thus very bright and will often be done in conjunction with other media.



1. What are Public Relations?

2. What are the functions of PR?

3. Why do corporations use marketing PR?

4. Why is PR necessary for non-profit organizations?

5. How do politicians use PR?

6. What is the result of effective PR?

7. Who is Edward Bernays?

8. What are the reasons of using media by PR?

9. What kind of team do most PR companies have?

10. Why is the importance of PR expected to grow in time?

Text 2

My speciality is PR       

I study at Moscow State University of Railway Engineering, which is the largest educational and scientific complex in Russia. I am a student of the Humanitarian Institute. My speciality is Public Relations. We study both general and special subjects. The general disciplines are: history, Russian, philosophy, foreign languages and others. The special subjects are philosophy, psychology, sociology, marketing, advertising, culture of communication and so on. Each year is divided into two terms. At the end of each term we take exams and tests. Those, who pass all their exams successfully, get grants.

I am going to become a PR specialist as it is very interesting and challenging profession. Nowadays corporations, politicians, non-profit organizations use public relations.PR helps in two aspects: first in keeping close to the customer to satisfy needs and anticipate changes in customer demand, and second, to create a favorable impression among the people which advertising may sometimes not do.

One can be a good PR professional if he is smart and outgoing, a go-getter who enjoys meeting people and has a flair for media relations. The plus point of the job is that one meets high profile people from various fields. There is a certain amount of glamour. The effectiveness of PR is judged on the basis of reports that are actually published; it is a tough job indeed. When things go wrong, client companies will want the news to be blacked out or that their own viewpoint is published as well, so it is the PR department which must handle the negative publicity and try to create a favorable impression.

A PR specialist must have excellent communication skills, both spoken and written, an organising ability is required too, as one may have to organise press conferences, lectures, exhibitions and events. A person must have resilience and the ability to work under pressure.

 Effective PR is a lot of hard work; after all, changing mindsets is not an easy task. This is not only difficult, but very challenging too. The PR professional becomes a jack-of-all-trades writing press releases, organizing news conferences and producing company newsletters.

A PR professional has several options for jobs. The first is to join companies or organizations in their PR departments and hope to rise to the level of Public Relations Officer (PRO). The second option is to join professional PR firms which work for their client companies. Such agencies work on contractual basis. Many advertising agencies have started sister PR firms. A third alternative would be to set up one's own consultancy, provided that one has some contacts with media persons.

So, the future of public relations is very bright. Finally, it may be said that a career in PR is a promising one, as more and more organizations are realizing its importance.

I am looking forward with pride and confidence in my future profession. I am sure that I have all the reasons to feel so, because nowadays globalization has made a lot of difference to the business environment and the importance of PR is growing by the day.



1. What university do you study at?

2. What disciplines do you study?

3. What is your future profession?

4. How can PR help to corporations, politicians, non-profit organizations?

5. What skills should you have to be successful in PR career?

6. How could you describe the job of a PR specialist?

7. What functions do PR specialists assume?

8. Why it could be said that a career in PR is a promising one?

9. What are the options for job?

10. What are the plus points of the job?

Text 3


The word propaganda comes from the Latin word meaning to propagate or to sow. In its most neutral sense it means to disseminate or promote particular ideas. Propaganda has been defined in many ways, most of which center on synonyms such as lies, distortions, deceit, manipulation, psychological warfare, brainwashing, and the more recent word spin.

Spin, in particular, emphasizes the frequent difficulty of differentiating public relations from propaganda in that it is associated with the manipulation of political and corporate information to affect the way in which news is presented. As a result, the term spin doctors is now often used as a synonym for professional public relations practitioners. Propaganda has been associated with mass communication, mass persuasion, mind control, and mass brainwashing. It has a history of being used to promote an ideology and way of life that benefits some to the disadvantage of others. Few examples are more notorious than the propaganda efforts of Hitler, which he claimed to have learned from the British and American propaganda machines during the First World War. People often see tactics they don’t like as “propaganda,” whereas when they approve of mass media campaigns they call them “preaching of the truth.” Modern practitioners of public relations and academics focus on the concepts of symbolic manipulation, cognitive manipulation, scientific mass persuasion, and asymmetry as defining attributes that separate propaganda and unethical public relations from ethical and responsible approaches to the profession.

The relationship of propaganda to public relations has always been a contentious one. Both of these practices stem from a common desire to affect the attitudes and perceptions held by people, collectively defined as publics, crowds, citizens, or consumers, toward an infinite variety of subjects, in order to shift opinion and beliefs in a desired direction. Propaganda in particular has been defined in largely negative terms because of its close historical association with religion, warfare, and political practices. Public relations, thanks largely to the strenuous efforts of its own practitioners, has managed to establish itself as a legitimate activity that enhances the images and perceptions of a wide variety of institutions. However, the common ancestry of these two practices tends to blur the distinction between them; with the result that there is often confusion in the minds of the public as to what propaganda is and what is legitimate and ethical public relations. Many leading public relations practitioners, in addition to Lee and Bernays, had their tussle with the aura and ethics of propaganda. John Hill drew what he thought to be a clear line between the ethical approach to public relations and the unethical approach to propaganda that tainted it and its practitioners: «Public relations in its controversial usage is sometimes dubbed “propaganda.” Actually propaganda was a “good” word until brought into disrepute when Hitler and the Communists began to pollute the airways with their “Big Lies,” and made it a “bad” word. In a public relations battle in a free country it is important that there be no lies. Different interpretation of the facts is possible, and each side is entitled to present its views, leaving it to public opinion to decide which to accept. The purpose of public relations in its best sense is to inform and to keep minds open. The purpose of “propaganda” in the bad sense is to misinform and to keep minds closed. Business managements have every reason and right to communicate regularly with all segments of the public whose support they seek; and more, to work for better understanding of the private enterprise system. »



1. What does the word «propaganda» mean?

2. What does spin emphasize?

3. What is propaganda associated with?

4. What do the modern practitioners of public relations and academics focus on?

5. What is the relationship of propaganda to public relations?

6. Why is propaganda defined in largely negative terms?

7. What does public relation enhance?

8. What do these two practices tend to?

9. What does John Hill think about propaganda?

10. What does John Hill think about public relations?

Text 4


Publicity is one function of public relations that involves deliberately disseminating strategic messages through mass media outlets (such as newspaper, television, radio, or Internet), without payment to the media, to advance the particular interest of the publicity client. While publicity generally refers to information placed in the mass media, publicity can also involve placing information in a controlled medium such as an organizational publication or corporate report.

While publicity is a critical function of public relations, it is not synonymous with public relations.

This is a common misperception among those who do not fully understand the role or scope of public relations, because publicity is among the most visible parts of public relations. Publicity is focused on the information dissemination aspect and is not generally considered a management function. Publicity is geared toward coverage obtained and does not play a role in setting policy or providing counsel at a top organizational level. Generating publicity involves advancing the client’s interest through target-media coverage of strategic messages and events.

A good publicist has a comprehensive understanding of media outlets and appropriate content in those outlets and is able to carefully select the most appropriate outlets to obtain free coverage and be of interest to the client’s target audience. Much of the success or failure in obtaining publicity hinges on the ability to understand what the media gatekeeper deems newsworthy.

Publicity is not always favorable, however. In the time of a crisis, negative publicity is also generated. It is a public relations practitioner’s responsibility to provide the organization’s side of the story in a way that accurately and favorable represents the client. Some similarities between publicity and advertising do exist. For example, both use mass media as a channel to distribute messages. Format and context are different, however. Publicity appears in the mass media as a news or feature item or editorial content, and the source of the material is a public relations practitioner. One major advantage that publicity has over advertising is the added element of credibility because of the implicit third-party endorsement of the news medium. Information that has been deemed newsworthy by the media outlet is often perceived as more credible than a paid advertisement. Another advantage of publicity is the cost. There is no cost for the time or space in the mass medium; however, the publicist does incur some expenses for the time and energy associated with the publicity process. A major disadvantage of publicity, however, is the lack of control over the message and delivery of the material. An editor may choose to print the written material precisely as it was written in the news release, or it may be altered dramatically, to paint a negative picture or include competitors. The information goes to a metaphorical media gatekeeper who has the responsibility of making the decision to let the information pass through to the mass media channel or not to use the information at all. Therefore, the information appearing in the media is uncontrolled.

Some guidelines to increase the odds of effectively generating publicity include the following:

Timeliness—News value of the information hinges in large part on how current the information is and the degree to which it can be incorporated into other current news angles. It is also crucial for the publicist to keep abreast of journalists’ deadlines and lead times, so the information can be delivered at the most appropriate and useful time.

Newsworthiness—Material that is directly linked with a promotional event or sales element will not likely garner media attention. It is essential that the writer construct a logical link between an angle of interest to the gatekeeper and a favorable angle about the company or client.

Style—News editors prefer to receive information in journalistically approvable format. This often includes writing in AP style and inverted pyramid format. Materials that must be reorganized, rewritten, or edited are frequently disregarded in lieu of material that is already in the correct style.

Eliminating Errors—This includes spelling, grammar, and mechanics as well as facts, dates, figures, titles, and statistics. A public relations practitioner should always double check his or her copy before it is submitted to the journalist. Any errors will not only ruin chances of publication, but may also jeopardize future credibility.

Medium—Consider if the nature of the material is appropriate for a trade publication, or would it be better suited for an alternative-news weekly? Don’t forget to carefully research and consider which specialized news outlets would be considered credible for the ultimate target audience of the message. It’s also helpful to find out ahead of time how the journalist prefers to receive information (via facsimile, e-mail, phone call, or regular mail).

There are several common ways to measure publicity. Most organizations monitor common news outlets for publicity about the organization.



1. What does publicity involve?

2. What is publicity focused on?

3. What is ``a good publicist``?

4. What do the success or failure in obtaining publicity depend on?

5. What are similarities between publicity and advertising?

6. What are the differences?

7. What are the advantages of publicity?

8. What are the disadvantages of publicity?

9. What is the responsibility of the gatekeeper?

10. What do the guidelines for increasing the odds of effectively generating publicity include?

Text 5

The Difference between Advertising and PR


Advertising VS Public Relations…which is better? Many people don’t even know the difference between advertising and public relations!

Public relations is the discipline which looks after reputation, with the aim of earning understanding and support, influencing opinion and behavior. It is the planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain goodwill and mutual understanding between a business and its public(s).

Advertising is paid communication through a non-personal medium in which the sponsor is identified and the message is controlled. It can also be defined as the business that specializes in creating publicity. Every major medium is used to deliver messages: television, radio, movies, magazines, newspapers, the internet, and billboards.

No matter how interesting an advertisement might be, it is recognized as a self-serving communication. The only implication here is that someone paid to have a message filtered directly to a consumer. There is no third-party endorsement before it reaches you. Public relations afford the credibility of indirect third-party endorsements. This means you are not paying to get advertising placed, but a publication is freely giving space to a story about your company. Anyone can buy visibility, however PR plays a critical role in sorting out the hype. Advertising exposure is often proportional to the amount of money spent on the advertisement. Whether your ad sits on a billboard overlooking the highway or plays during prime time television, advertising will consume your budget faster than a well-positioned, well-written press release. For small companies, public relations is the better method for direct and personal communication with a target audience. For larger companies with a sufficient budget, advertising along with public relations may be the right combination for success.

Public relations has an advantage over advertising in several key areas:

Flexible strategies – a PR campaign is a living, dynamic process and can be re-shaped in mid-stream if necessary. Companies have more flexibility to adjust and change the focus of their messages over the course of a campaign.

Flexible resources –A public relations consultant is well-versed in multiple elements, e.g. strategy development, writing, media relations and etc. But an advertising team might consist of strategists, writers, designers and media placement specialist. Removing or weakening any one element results in a weakening of the overall campaign.

Longer lifecycle – a properly executed PR campaign not only brings short-term results, but long-term relationships which yield benefits over time. By comparison, the life cycle of advertising is defined by placement schedules which inevitably show diminished returns when extended.

Time to market – PR campaigns tend to have a shorter turn-around time than advertising campaigns. Communications professionals can re-use information from one campaign to the next. More resources can be devoted to initial strategy, cutting the overall delivery time.

Public relations can almost be regarded as a bigger activity than advertising because it relates to all the communications of the total organization, whereas advertising, although it may cost more than public relations, is mainly limited to the marketing/sales function.

Public Relations embraces everyone and everything, whereas advertising is limited to selling and buying tasks such as promoting goods and services, buying supplies and recruiting staff. Public relations has to do with the total communications of an organization; it is therefore, more extensive and comprehensive than advertising. Advertising may not be used by an organization but every organization is involved in public relations at some level.

Researchers concluded that advertising and public relations activity each has its own impact on consumers, and these impacts interact to influence perceptions, attitudes and behavior. A distinct difference between PR and advertising is their extent of message control. Today more savvy marketing professionals understand that advertising and public relations work hand-in-hand to produce desired results to break into a new market or to introduce a new and unknown product or service.



1. What is the aim of PR?

2. What is the aim of advertising?

3. What are the key areas where PR has an advantage over advertising?

4. What do the terms “Flexible strategies” and “Flexible resources” mean?

5. What do the terms “Longer lifecycle” and “Time to market” mean?

6. Is there a third-party endorsement in advertising before it reaches you?

7. What is the better method for small companies for direct and personal communication with the audience? 

8. Why is PR regarded as a bigger activity than advertising?

9. Why should marketing professionals use both advertising and public relations to produce desired results? 

10. What is the distinct difference between PR and advertising?


Text 6

Types of Public Relations advertising

Public relations advertising takes several forms. Institutional advertising promotes an organization (versus merely a product or service) and typically is used to announce a new corporate identity, to attract investors, to enhance an organization’s overall reputation, or to reach out to local communities by promoting the sponsor as a good citizen engaged in social concerns such as the environment.

Financial advertising is used by for-profit corporations to announce new financial developments. Securities underwriters routinely publish simple tombstone ads when new securities are offered for a client. These ads are published as a matter of public record as reputation enhancement, not as an offer to sell or a solicitation to purchase securities (which requires receipt of a prospectus). Many firms try to attract investor interest through ads that tout their financial performance. Other financial ads are used in contested tender offers, where proponents or opponents of an acquisition urge shareholders to either sell or not sell their shares to the acquirer. Minority shareholders and activists also use advertising to sway shareholder votes in proxy fights or other actions to be considered at corporate annual meetings.

 Issues advertising enables an organization to speak out on an important social problem or situation in which it has a stake. Advocacy advertising is being used with increased frequency as part of issues management programs to sway public opinion on public discussions of social issues. Issues ads also can be run as part of government relations programs to influence voters in local ballot measures, referenda, and initiatives and to reach congressmen, state legislators, and local officials when votes are pending on important legislation.

Political advertising is used to lend support to political candidates that a sponsoring organization supports (or to undermine or attack a candidate they oppose). Such independent expenditures are permissible under federal election laws (and under state laws) but have been the focus of intense scrutiny in recent years as labor unions, corporations, and advocacy groups have become major factors in elections.

Crisis advertising involves the use of print ads or broadcast commercials to inform people about how an organization is responding to an adverse situation—such as a natural disaster, strike, or other event that disrupts service or relationships.

Events advertisingis intended to promote public attendance or participation in special activities that organizations want to promote. Not-for-profit organizations (sometimes funded by their for-profit partners) use paid ads to create public support for upcoming fundraising activities. Not-for-profit organizations use public service advertising to promote social causes and ideals (also referred to as social marketing). Public service announcements (PSAs) take the form of print ads or broadcast commercials in the non-editorial portions of public media as well as messages that appear in out-of-home media (billboards, transit ads, etc.).

Media organizations donate the space or time as a public service—to engender themselves to audiences and to demonstrate social responsibility to their regulators.

Public relations advertisingdiffers from traditional product or service advertising by its focus on promoting an organization’s image or advocating a position on a particular topic. However, fully separating product/service promotion from organizational goals is often difficult. Many product advertising campaigns, for example, seek to enhance the organization’s reputation while also selling products. Similarly, some public relations firms provide product advertising and related promotional services as part of an integrated marketing communications program for clients.



1. What types of advertising do you know?

2. What does crisis advertising involve?

3.  What does Institutional advertising promote?

4. What is financial advertising?

5. What does issues advertising enable?

6. What is political advertising used for?

7. What does crises advertising involve?

8. What is invents advertising intended to promote?

9. What is PSA?

10. How does public relation advertising differ from traditional one?


Text 7


A slogan is a memorable phrase used in a political, commercial, religious and other context as an expression of an idea or purpose.Slogans are the most effective means of drawing attention to one or more aspects of a product or products, making claims about being the best quality, the tastiest, cheapest, most nutritious, providing an important benefit or solution, or being most suitable for the potential customer. Marketing slogans are often called taglines in the United States or straplines in the U.K. Europeans use the terms baselines, signatures or claims.

Advertising slogans often play a large part in the interplay between rival companies. Advertising slogans can take several different communication approaches:

· Descriptive: makes a simple, direct, concise statement for an uncommon or confusing product or an unusual brand name to add clarity.

· Benefit Based: states the main benefits of the product or brand for the potential user or buyer. Help customers visualize the brand's key value by focusing attention on a benefit.

· Point of Difference: implies a distinction between it and other firms' products. In a highly competitive market place, moving beyond the benefit to what makes the brand better can help it stand out.

· Witty Catchphrase: Some brands have achieved places in pop culture with catchphrases that have caught fire.

· Personality: gives a credible impression of a brand or product. Some of the more famous taglines can establish the brand's personality or the corporate image.

· Visionary: is hard to forget - it adheres to one's memory (whether one likes it or not), especially if it is accompanied by ditties, pictures or film sequences on televised commercials. A tagline that evokes the mission or vision of the company can be very effective.

· Provocative or Motivating: Telling customers what to do or why a brand is important, can motivate action, makes the consumer feel a desire or need

Here are some example slogans:

· "Get the London look" - Rimmel

· "Because you're worth it" – L`Oreal

· "Connecting people" - Nokia

· "I'm lovin' it" – McDonald`s

· "Just do it" - Nike

· " Think different” - Apple (after IBM's internal slogan "Think!")

Nowadays slogans are effective political devices. A political slogan generally expresses a goal or aim, often summarizes the essence of a platform effectively.

Here are several political slogans:

· A Chicken in Every Pot. A car in every garage. — 1928 Republican presidential campaign slogan of Herbert Hoover.

· Don’t stop thinking about tomorrow, Putting People First — Bill Clinton

· Power to the people — A frequent slogan of Socialist movement



1. What does the term “slogan” mean?

2. Why do slogans considered the most effective means of drawing attention?

3. How are marketing slogans called in the United States, the U.K and Europe?

4. What are the communication approaches of advertising slogans?

5. What does Descriptiveapproach of slogans imply?

6. What does Benefit Basedapproach of slogans imply?

7. What does Point of Difference approach of slogans imply?

8.What do WittyCatchphrase and Visionaryapproaches of slogans imply?

9.What do Personality and Motivatingapproaches of slogans imply?

10. Why do politicians use slogans?

Text 8

PR in Russia


PR in Russia is very young and complex industry, full of contradictions and with a questionable reputation inside and outside the country. But this does not stop the industry from growing at an annual rate of 30-40 per cent a year.
The complexity of the industry is a mirror of the complexity of Russia itself: a country of 140 million people, 89 regions, 11 time zones, hundreds of cultures, nationalities, and many religions. It is a place where East meets West, and where Christianity co-existed with Islam for centuries.

We also need to remember that Russians said 'No' to communism only in 1991, and the process of building a market economy has been painful. The same complexity applies to the Russian communications and media environment. There are hundreds of national media outlets and dozens of local media in every city, and every year there are new publications and broadcast channels.
   The Soviet Union had its own working tool of communication - propaganda - and although public relations is now regarded as an accepted communications vehicle, propaganda is far from dead.
The origins of Russian PR can be traced to the first public relations campaign in the country: the launch of McDonald's in Moscow in the late 1980s. This was a PR stunt that turned into propaganda, as Soviet journalists had no choice but to praise the only fast food chain in town, particularly in the midst of a frenzy of criticising everything that had to do with the old Soviet culture and praising anything Western. This precedent of a propaganda/PR mix proved to have a long-lasting effect on the Russian public relations industry. It evolved into the so-called "black PR", used mostly by political parties during election campaigns, when PR tools were combined with such methods as the pouring of informational garbage on political rivals. In this market, hundreds of millions of unaccounted dollars landed in the pockets of corrupt journalists and "PR technologists".

In the rise of the crony capitalism in the ex-Soviet Union and the triumph of the oligarchs, the richest and biggest companies had the best PR: not only did they buy stories, editors and reporters, but entire media outlets. Black PR agents still work in Russia today, but have no future as the market matures.

In this "Wild East" set-up a new industry was born. A handful of young public relations enthusiasts and bookworms started working as communications consultants to international companies operating in the emerging Russian market. They were wise enough not to get involved in shady privatization deals and corrupt media arrangements.
When the financial crisis of 1998 hit Russia and many foreign investments fled the country, local manufacturing had seen the first growth in years. In particular, FMCG production picked up and has been on the rise ever since. Today, the drivers of growth in the PR industry are the IT, consumer, healthcare and finance industries.

Oil oligarchs and raw materials companies still use the PR/propaganda vehicle and try not to outsource public relations services, and when they do go looking for a Western PR consultant this can lead to misunderstanding. Being used to black PR methods, local firms that attempt an IPO or a communications breakthrough in the West find it difficult to work with international PR networks. Education of Russian clients is thus a must.

 The rapidly evolving nature of the Russian consumer market provides great opportunities for innovative, Western-standard PR campaigns to make a real difference. We worked with leading white goods producer Bosch, for instance, to run a programme to boost the fledging dishwasher market in Russia. The product was not new, but was viewed as an unnecessary expense by most Russian consumers, and less than five per cent of Russian homes had a dishwasher. Through an innovative campaign which included original consumer research, competitions, support from artist and musician opinion leaders, and an art installation - A Monument to the Time Wasted on Washing Up - Bosch shifted public opinion towards the advantages of owning a dishwasher, growing the market by more than 50 per cent and its own sales by 70 per cent.

The PR industry is worth around US $100 million of fees paid to agencies, but a huge proportion of PR is carried out in-house, particularly by oil and raw materials producers. In a developing market like Russia, where many industries have double-digit growth figures, PR and advertising are regarded as costs, and shareholders often decide that this function should be maintained inside the company.

Russian television - particularly national channels controlled or influenced by the government - has a simple way of understanding business news: if the company name is mentioned, it is considered to be an advertisement. This means that the story has to be paid for, regardless of whether a company is creating thousands of jobs or investing millions into infrastructure and social welfare. Some print media outlets take a similar approach, but as the local media market is maturing, there has been a positive change in attitude.
There are many challenges for modern PR practitioners in Russia, thanks to its cultural, political and industrial heritage. But things are changing fast: black PR has a limited future as respected international communications networks become more established, and local companies become more transparent and seek to integrate themselves into the world economy.



1. Why is the Russian Pr a young industry?

2. How was the Russian PR originated?

3. How was “Black PR” used in Russia?

4. What was the first PR campaign in Russia?

5. How did crisis of 1998 affect Russia?

6. Why is it difficult for oil oligarchs and raw materials companies to work with international PR networks?

7. What does the rapidly evolving nature of the Russian consumer market provide?

8. What is the PR industry is worth?

9. What is the simplest way of understanding business news for Russian television?

10. Are there many challenges for modern PR practitioners in Russia?


Text 9

PR and Law 

Since the time when people first began living together rules have been adopted to protect individuals and groups and to govern their relationship. Law is the best kind of authority.

Law in politics and jurisprudence is a set of rules or norms of conduct which mandate proscribe or permit specified relationships among people and organizations, provide methods for ensuring the impartial treatment of such people, and provide punishments for those who do not follow the established rules of conduct.

Justice is a concept involving the fair, moral, and impartial treatment of all persons, especially in law. It is often seen as the continued effort to do what is "right." In most of all cases what one regards as "right" is determined by consulting the majority, employing logic, or referring to divine authority, in the case of religion. If a person lives under a certain law in a certain country, justice is considered making the person follow the law and be punished if not.

 To be effective PR writing must be conducted within a legal and ethical framework. PR writer must know legal concepts. Careless work can lead to costly litigation for PR writer and his employer. Actions are ordinarily brought against the top officials of an organization but PR writer can be named as a co-defendant. 

Any false statement about a person that is printed or broadcast and tends to bring on this person public hatred, contempt, or ridicule or to inflict injury on his or her business or occupation may be libel. If the statement is broadcast it may constitute either libel or slander. If it is made to a third person but neither broadcast or printed it may be slander. Remember that one needn`t use a name to commit libel. A recognizable description serves the same purpose. If the subject remains unnamed but the public knows who is being talked about, there may be ground for a libel case. In recent years there has been a great increase in sensitivity to invasion of privacy. To protect the privacy of individuals laws have been passed and lawsuits have been filed.

When the story is written PR writer should show it to the person mentioned. Once the material is approved it is necessary to get the subject`s written consent. Using names and photos of people in advertising, product publicity and promotions requires special handling and extra legal attention. The courts have ruled that a person’s right of privacy is violated when photos or names of individuals are published without prior written consent for commercial purposes or purposes of trade. In addition to a signed consent form, individuals are usually offered a cash payment.

Signed consent forms and releases usually cover a specified period of time that the person’s name or image can be used. Consent forms for advertising can be complex, while for most PR purposes a simple release will probably suffice. A release is not necessary when the photo records a public event, but if that picture is later used for promotional purposes and individuals are identifiable PR writer should have releases.

PR writers use information from a variety of sources and it is important for them to understand the difference between fair use and copyright infringement. The copyright law protects original materials published during and after the author`s lifetime as well as unpublished materials. PR staff should not copy anything if the intent is to capitalize on or take advantage of its renown. The use of cartoons, illustration and photographs always requires copyright permission. The use of a quotation from outside source in a product news release or sale brochure should be cleared with the source to avoid possible lawsuits.

If a PR writer quotes a lengthy passage of more than 1000 –word from an article or a book, it is best to get permission, otherwise it might constitute copyright infringement. Writers should be careful about using whole paragraphs of copyrighted material with only few words changed. If the content and structure of the sentences are the same, this constitutes not only copyright infringement but also plagiarism.

Releasing false or misleading information can get PR writer in trouble with government regulatory agencies, which may issue cease-and-desist orders, injunctions or levy fines. In summary, a public relations firm and its writers have a responsibility to know all pertinent regulatory guidelines. 



1. What is the definition for the term “Law”?

2. Why must PR writing be conducted within a legal and ethical framework?

3. What is libel?

4. What is slander?

5. Why does a PR specialist need the subject`s written consent?

6. When is a right of privacy violated?

7. What can get PR writer in trouble with government regulatory agencies?

8. What are offered individuals in addition to a signed consent form?

9. What does the copyright law protect?

10. What is plagiarism?

Text 10

Psychology of Mass Communication

Psychology is the science of mind and behavior; it involves the scientific study, of mental processes such as such perception, cognition, emotion, personality, behavior, and interpersonal relationships. Psychology is a broad and diverse field and some of the major areas of research are Cognitive Psychology, Industrial-Organizational Psychology, Personality Psychology, School Psychology, Social Psychology, etc.

Mass communication is the term used to describe the academic study of print and electronic media such as newspapers, magazines, radio, television, internet which are used for disseminating news and for advertising. Psychologists find out how the mind can function to a person's benefit and mass media play a significant role in shaping public perceptions on a variety of important issues.  

The basic purpose of PR is to persuade and influence people. Thus to be effective PR specialist should understand public opinion and individual`s attitude and in this case the knowledge of main psychological approaches are important.

Gustave Le Bona French social psychologist was the author of the theory of crowd psychology which became important during the first half of the twentieth century when it was used by media researchers. Crowd manipulation is the intentional use of techniques based on the principles of crowd psychology to engage, control, or influence the desires of a crowd in order to direct its behavior toward a specific action. This practice is common to politics and business. Combining the ideas of Gustave Le Bon on crowd psychology with thepsychoanalytical ideas of his uncle, Dr.Sigmund Freud, Edward Bernays was one of the first to attempt to manipulate public opinion using the subconscious. Edward Bernays, the so-called “Father of Public Relations”, believed that public manipulation was not only moral, but a necessity. He argued that “a small, invisible government who understands the mental processes and social patterns of the masses, rules public opinion by consent.” He was the inventor of some of the most important and influential modern PR techniques such as Press Release and Third Party Advocacy.

Hera is a list of the main methods of influence through psychology:

· Persuasion

· Impromptu effect

· Panic Phenomenon

· Visual impression

· Method of reiteration

· Laconism

· Charisma or the idea dominations over the mind

· Individual dependence on the crowd

All these factors should be taken into account while organizing any PR campaign. Public opinion does not really exist until something affects a number of people. Someone must call for action, and PR specialist should use his knowledge properly to create favourable opinion about an organization, its goods and services.



1. What is Psychology?

2. What are some of the major areas of research in Psychology?

3. What is mass communication?

4. What is the basic purpose of PR?

5. Who was Gustave Le Bon?

6. What is Crowd manipulation?

7. Who was Edward Bernays?

8. Who was the inventor of some of the most important and influential modern PR techniques?

9. What are the main methods of influence through psychology?

10. Why should a PR specialist be aware of psychological approaches?


Text 11

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