The category of case of nouns. The meanings of the common and the genitive case. Different points of view on the number of cases in Modern English.
C – the form of a N which shows the rel-n of that N to other Ws in the s-ce, helps to define its syntactical funct-n in the s-ce. C – morphology-l cat-ry as it’s represented by diff f-s of 1 & the same W. The terms for the Cs r: common(CC) & genitive (GC) Þ opp-n betw them. The form of the GC is marked. The formal marker’s m-me s which has the corresponding phonological var. The form of the CC is unmarkdÞ zero m-me. In pl form of the GC & the CC the № of m-mes coincide (boys’-boys) The m-ng of the CC’s broad. It shows that the N is non-G. The use of the N in CC’s very extensive. The use of the N in GC’s restricted: 1) GC’s mainly pos with N which denote animate obj. (we can substitute the W with 1 of the proN he, she, who® man, girl, dog. Yet GC’s used with Ns denoting measure & space (a year’s absence) 2) N in GC can only be used as attr to other N in the CC & they r alw placed in prep-n (Bill’s room)There r Ns which can be subst-d by such proN as he, she but not by who (sheep, sun, car). We can use them in the GC but can’t say they’r strictly animate. On the oth hand there r N which can be replaced by it & they have m-ng of animate (the committee’s report, party’s conference). If we can analyze the means of the GC through transormat-l analysis. I) Possesive G (jack’s car, the bird’s nest). These W-cob-s r transfermed into s-ce with the V to have (Jon has the car, The bird has a nest). II) Subjective G. (the Dr’s advice, the husband’s arrival// the Dr advised, the husband arrived) III) Obj-ve G (Jon’s surprise, the man’s release® 1st stage: J was surprised; 2nd: Sb surprised J. IV) Adverbal G (a month’s absence – The absence’s a month. Sb was absent 4 a month (how long). V) G of destination (ladies’ dresses (dresses 4 ladies) VI) G of authorship (Dicken’s book= by Dick) The № of Cs in En. In OEn there was 1 sys of Cs for N & proN ( N: Nom – boy, Gen – boy’s, Obj – boy. proN: Nom – he, G – his, Obj – him). Those who object: 1) If personal proN have 3 Cs that doesn’t mean N also have 3 Cs Poss-ve proN – Adj proN: he, his, him – r not f of one. He is a N proN & his - adj.proN. Воронцова states that the criter of C doesn’t exist cause by her ‘s is not a C inflex-n but the formant s. 1) the use of the infl-n ‘s is not obligatory, we can substitute its use by an of-phr (the man’s ? – the ? of the man) 2) the infl ‘s can be added to a limited № of N, they’re to denote living beings (the boy’s leg, but the leg of the table). It isn’t added to the N in the pl, we have only the ‘. 3) ‘s can be add to N as well as to Adv (yesterday’s paper). In all European l-ges adj r indeclinabl. 4)’s is used to form group poss-ve (the king of England’s daughter)Þ C is not real, it’s a funct W similar to a prep &it performs the same funct-s of exrp-n gr rel-s in a s-ce but not placed in prep, it alw followsÞ should be calle postposit-n. Analytical Cs. The notion of AC is connect with the regular use of some prep to expr C rel-ns. The prep of is very typ of GC, it expr the idea of posses-n. Many say AC not exist: 1) the amount of m-ng expr-ed by the prep & the m-ng of C infl-n do not complete by coincide 2) Comb-n of diff prep & Ns r too numerous to be interpreted as forms of cat of case the № of Cs can become unlimited 3) C is a morphol-l cat-ry & comb-n of prep & Ns belong to the sphere of syntax.
The general characteristics of the verb as a part of speech. The categories of person and number
Usually a verb is defined as a part of speech that denotes an action,
۷In modern English the verb is the only part of speech which has a developed system of categories:
- tense voice
۷It's the only part of speech that has analytical forms, plus it has some specific forms (verbals or non-fmites) which don't share all the features of this part of speech as a whole - the infinitive, the gerund, the participle.
۷The verb combines with nouns, adverbs, prepositions in prepositional noun phrases.
The categories of person and numberare closely connected with each other. In the English language the categories of person and number are expressed very poorly (слабо выражены)
In Modern English there are only a few forms indicating person and number in the synthetic forms of the verb:
1.In the present tense the expression of the category of person is divided into three peculiar subsystems:
- the first subsystem includes modal verbs that have no personal inflexions: can, may, must, shall, will, ought, need, dare. So, in the formal sense, the category of person is left unexpressed.
- The second subsystem is made up by the verb be. It has suppletive forms for different persons (singular and plural)
I- am, was
He - is, was
They, you, we - are, were
- The third subsystem presents the regular expression of person. The personal mark is confined here to the third person singular -(e)s [-z, -s, -iz], the other two persons (the first and the second) remain unmarked, e.g. comes — come, blows — blow, chooses — choose
2. The Future Simple -1 shall They will (и то уже нету такого)
The grammatical expression of number is hardly featured at all. We usually derive it from a personal pronoun.
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