Objective and subjective modality. Means of expressing modality. Mood and modality
! Modalityis a semantic category that expresses the relations between the utterance and objective reality from the point of view of the speaker.
The speaker can establish different types of relations between the action expressed in the utterance and reality. We can regard the action as real/unreal, likely/unlikely, possible/impossible, necessary/unnecessary, etc.
The representation of a contents of a sentence as real/unreal is called objective modality,since the contents of a sentence are correlated with objective reality.
#: The girl is clever. The father is angry. Here the speaker states facts.
Objective modality expressed in these sentences is modality of reality. But as to subjective modality, these sentences are neutral.
#: I doubt if the girl is clever. Unfortunately father is angry. Here the speaker expresses not only objective, but also subjective modality. Subjective modalityexpresses the attitude of the speaker towards the contents of a sentence, the evaluation of contents of the sentence or part of the sentence. The speaker can express doubt, agreement, disagreement, etc.
! Modality is expressed by:
- modal verbs
- modal words (possibly, probably, fortunately, certainly, indeed, maybe, etc)
Moodis a grammatical category which indicates the attitude of the speaker towards the action expressed by the verb from the point of view of its reality.
There are many points of view on how many moods there are in English, but if we take traditional classification:
- the indicative mood
- the imperative mood
- the subjunctive mood
- The indicative mood shows that the action or state expressed by the verb is presented as a fact:We went home early in the evening.
It is also used toexpress a real condition,that is a condition the realization of which is considered possible: If it rains, I will stay at home.
- The imperative mood expresses a command or request:Put the papers on my table.
- The subjunctive mood shows that the action or state expressed by the verb is presented as non-fact, as something imaginary or desired.It's also used to express an emotional attitude of the speaker to real facts(emotional should)
Objective and subjective modality. Means of expressing modality. Mood and modality.
Modality (Mod)- is a linguistic term which denotes the relation of the contents of speech to reality as viewed by the speaker.
In the case of Objective Mod. We must introduce a V into a sentence and it will show the connection with reality.
In the case of Subjective Mod. We can choose some additional means to express our attitude.
Means of expressing Mod: modal words express the speaker’s evaluation of the relation between the made in the sentence and reality. They stand outside phrases; their syntactical function - parenthesis. Semantically can denote: 1) certainty (certainly, of course, no doubt, surely)
2) supposition (may be, perhaps) 3) desirability (luckily, happily).
Modal Vs do not denote actions or states but show the attitude of the speaker towards the action expressed by the infinitive. Thus the action is viewed as possible, obligatory, requested etc.
So, modal Vs- is lexico-grammatical Mod. Mood- is the Gr. Category of the V reflecting the relation of the action denoted by the V to reality from the speaker’s point of view.
The cat of MOOD. Different points of view on the number of moods in modern Eng. Forms used to express unreality in Eng.
The category of mood expresses the character of connection between the process denoted, by the verb and the actual reality, either presenting the process as a fact that really happened, happens or will happen, or treating it as an imaginary phenomenon # the subject of a hypothesis, speculation, desire.
Forms used to express unreality:
The Subjunctive mood is used in conditionalSs to express an unreal condition (=subordinate
clause) and an unreal consequence (=principal clause).
1.Unreal condition referring to the present or futurethe Past Subjunctive of the verb to be is in the subordinate clause, in the principal clause we find analytical subjunctive (would, should + Infinitive) [would/should],(were...)
#:The world would behealthier if every chemist's shop in England were demolished.
Unreal condition referring to the futurecan also be expressed by the Past Subj of the verb to be+ infinitive of the notional verb or the analytical subj with the mood auxiliary should for all persons.
#:If I were to offermy home, they were probably be accepted.
If you should sendme to a difficult spot with this man alone, I'd feel secure.
If there's should in the subordinate clause, we often find the Indicative or Imperative Mood in the principal clause.
#:If any of your family should cometo my house, I shall be delightedto welcome them.
2. Unreal condition referring to the pastthe Past Perfect of the Indicative mood is used in the subordinate clause, in the principal clause we find should/would + Perfect Infinitive ( have done) [Past Perfect],(should/would have done)
#:If I had consulted my own interests, I should have come here.
3.Unreal Condition is often used with might/could. They fully retain their modal meaning and they don't form analytical subjunctive, (modal verb+Infinitive)
#:If she were still waiting, she might be restless.
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