The cat of MOOD. Different points of view on the number of moods in modern Eng. Forms used to express unreality in Eng.

The category of mood expresses the character of connection between the process denoted by the verb and the actual reality, either presenting the process as a fact that really happened, happens or will happen, or treating it as an imaginary phenomenon # the subject of a hypothesis, speculation, desire.

Traditionally there are 3 Moods: 1) Indicative 2) Imperative 3) Subjunctive. But Some Grammarians think there are from 10 to 16 Moods to no moods at all. But Barhundarovthinks that there are only 2 :Indicative and Imperative, and the rest is a shift of tenses, modal Ws or whatever.

1. #: I suggest that u do smth = a special form of Imperative Mood he says

 Reasons to this:

• Morphologically "he go/be" coincides with the forms of the Imperative Mood

• This form is used after the verbs of volition and order and in direct commands.

2. #: If he knew, he would go...

   If he had known, he would have gone...

Originally it belongs to the Subj Mood. In Modern Eng they should be regarded as forms of the Indicative Mood. The unreality is expressed NOT by a Mood form but by the use of the Past Tense with the reference to the Present. It's just shift of tenses, he says. Forms used to express unreality:

The Subjunctive mood is used in conditionalSs to express an unreal condition (=subordinate clause) and an unreal consequence (=principal clause).

1. Unreal condition referring to the present or futurethe Past Subjunctive of the verb to be is in the subordinate clause, in the principal clause we find analytical subjunctive (would, should + Infinitive) [would/should], (were...)

# :The world would behealthier if every chemist's shop in England were demolished.

Unreal condition referring to the futurecan also be expressed by the Past Subj of the verb to be+ infinitive of the notional verb or the analytical subj with the mood auxiliary should for all persons.

#: If I were to offermy home, they were probably be accepted.

If you should sendme to a difficult spot with this man alone, I'd feel secure.

If there's should in the subordinate clause, we often find the Indicative or Imperative Mood in the principal clause.

#: If any of your family should cometo my house, I shall be delightedto welcome them.

2: Unreal condition referring to the pastthe Past Perfect of the Indicative mood is used in the subordinate clause, in the principal clause we find should/would + Perfect Infinitive( have done) [Past Perfect], ( should/would have done)

#    If I had consulted my own interests, I should have come here.

3. Unreal Condition is often used with might/could. They fully retain their modal meaning and they don't form analytical subjunctive, (modal verb+Infmitive)

#: If she were still waiting, she might berestless.


1. "he go/he be"

#: I insist that he come in time

2. "were" for all persons

I wish I were 10 yrs younger

3. #:1 wish I knew it

4.had known/had gone

#:As if he had known it

5.should/would + Inf

#: If I could, I would go

6. should/ would + Perf Inf

#:he would have gone...

7. should+Inf

#: I insist that he should go i

8. May/might + Inf

9. Would + Inf

#:If he would do smth...

10. can/could+ Inf


The category of Mood. Different points of view on the number of Moods in Modern English. Forms used to express unreality in English.

M= mood

There is no unity of opinion concerning the cat. Of M in E. Owing to the difference of approach to Ms (mutual relation between Mg and form) grammarians single out:

Смирницкий:  6 Ms in E: Indicat., Imperat., Subj. I, Subj. II ( conditional and suppositional).

Ильиш, Иванова, Жигадло: 3 Ms: Indic., Imper.,Subj. The latter, according to Ильиш, appears in 2 forms- the conditional and subjunctive.

Бархударов distinguish only 2 Ms- Indic. m and Subjunctive. The latter is subdivided into Subj. I and Subj. II. The Imperat. and the Conjunctive are treated as forms outside the cat. of M.

 In general the number of Ms in diff. Theories varies from 2 to 17. In modern E there are 3 Ms:The Indicative M. (IM), The Imperative M (IMP.M), The Subjunctive M (SM)

IM is the basic M of the V. Morphologically it is the most developed system including all the cat-es of the V. It serves to present an action as a fact of reality. It conveys minimum personal attitude to the fact. The speaker’s attitude is neutral.(We went home.)

IM is also used to express a real condition (condition the realization of which is considered possible). (If it rains, I shall stay home.)

IMP.M in E is represented by one form only. Without any suffix or ending. It differs from other Ms in several important points: has no person, number, tense or aspect distinctions is limited in its use to one type of sentence only- imperative sent.

IMP.M expresses a command or a request.

 Most usually a verb in the IMP.M has no pronoun acting as subject. However, the pronoun may be used in emotional speech, as in the following example: «But, Tessie”- he pleaded, going towards her. «You leave me alone!»- she cried out loudly.

These are essential peculiarities distinguishing the IMP.M and they have given rise to doubts as to whether the imperative can be numbered among the Ms at all. A serious difficulty connected with the IMP. Is the absence of any specific morphological characteristics: with all Vs including the V be, it also coincides with the infinitive, and in all Vs, except be, it also coincides with the Pres. Indic apart from the 3d person Sing. Even the absence of a subject pronoun you which would be its syntactical characteristic, is not reliable feature at all, as sentences You sit here! occur often enough.

Mg alone may not seem sufficient ground for establishing a grammatical category.

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