Read the text and speak on the importance of a motivation theory for HR management.

A motivation theory

When workers experience performance problems at work, it is the manager who must diagnose and develop remedies to those problems. It is a symptom of a motivation problem, an ability problem, or a combination of the two. For employees to successfully accomplish their work, they must “want to” and “be able to” to perform.

Motivation theory gives explanation for why people want to do things. Ability problems stem from inadequate or improper experience and training or a lack of organizational resources (physical, human, financial, or technological). Without motivation and ability, performance will not occur.

Managers should actively communicate and interact with their people to understand and foresee performance problems. They should also invest considerable time and effort studying how organizations function and operate. Only then can performance problems be identified and solved most effectively.

Text 10

Read the text to define corporate culture and say if it can be “imported.”  

Corporate culture

Corporate culture is used to control, coordinate, and integrate the company’s subsidiaries.

Corporate culture is the total sum of the values, customs, traditions, and meanings that make a company unique. Corporate culture is often called “the character of an organization,” since it embodies the vision of the company’s founders. The values of a corporate culture influence the ethical standards within a corporation, as well as managerial behavior.

Senior management may try to determine a corporate culture. They may wish to impose corporate values and standards of behavior that specifically reflect the objectives of the organization. In addition, there will also be an extent internal culture within the workforce. Work-groups within the organization have their own behavioral quirks and interactions which, to an extent, affect the whole system. Roger Harrison’s four-culture typology, later adapted by Charles Handy, suggests that unlike organizational culture, corporate culture can be “imported.” For example, computer technicians will have expertise, language and behaviors gained independently of the organization, but their presence can influence the culture of the organization as a whole.

Text 11

Read the text and refute the following statements.

1. Ethics and morality are practically equivalent.

2. Ethical decisions always conflict with the interests of customers.

3. Ethical decisions are idealistic and they cannot be reached in business.

Ethics and corporate social responsibility

Ethics deals with the fundamental issues of practical decision-making, and its main concerns include the nature of ultimate value and the standards by which human actions can be judged right or wrong.

The terms ethics and morality are closely related. We often refer to ethical judgments or ethical principles where it would have been more common to speak of moral judgments or moral principles. Strictly speaking, however, the term refers not to morality itself but to the field of study, or branch of enquiry, that has morality as its subject matter. In this sense, ethics is equivalent to moral philosophy.

Although ethics has always been viewed as a branch of philosophy, its all-embracing practical nature links it with many other areas of study, including anthropology, biology, history, economics, sociology, politics etc.

It is important to regard ethics as a framework within which we operate in society and the values or principles that society adopts should be applied to all disciplines.

Is there then a conflict between an organization that makes ethically sound decisions and the need to make profit? If one takes the view that the output of an organization may affect people or society in general, then are not the people or society customers of the organization? If they are regarded as customers, then there need not be a conflict between meeting their needs and achieving profit. Of course there may be instances when sound ethical decisions may conflict with the interests of certain customers, in which case the management must make a judgment on the long-term effects of their decision.

It is interesting to note that the Business Excellence model has a separate category in the assessment of results for the organization’s impact on society. This implies that the immediate customers of the organization are not the only ones whose needs must be catered for.

Text 12

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