1. The topic studied actuality. Data about blood grouping is essential in clinical and theoretical medicine as well as in people' everyday life. Blood groups can be determined in saliva because there are proteins similar structurally to the ones of erythrocytes agglutinogens of human being corresponding blood group.

Blood groups role in medicine

I.Identic blood groups are only in one-egged twins. Anjes has proposed blood-replacers in 1838. Blood transfusion leads to hepatitis A, B, C (25%), AIDS. Cancer rate is increased after blood transfusions (recidives, metastases et al.) as well as the one of many infectious diseases. Artificial blood does not have antigenic features. If blood loss is from 800 ml to 1500 ml than measurements must not be done. Blood comes from depot. Deponated blood is viscous because it contains many erythrocytes. That is why doctor must inject 0,9% of NaCl and the patient should drink much. Autotransfusions are rather useful during operations: the patient gives his blood that is given him back during the surgery. Blood transfusions are possible only at acute surgical situations and at obstetric-gynecological ones.

There are 3 rules of hemotransfusion:

1) the donor environment must correspond to the one of recipient: one must describe agglutinogens content in donor (they are very stable) and agglutinins in recipients;

2) donor and recipient blood must be compatible.

Universal donor (one-grouped blood) and recipient must not be because there are more than 500 antigens on erythrocytic membrane (400 mln of combinations). If to add other blood antigens than there will be 700 bln of combinations. Thus, blood is different in every person (because combinations amount is more than people on Earth).

Agglutination must be absent at donor's blood mixture with the recipient's one.

3) Only the freshest, warm blood can be transfused. Plasma is less antigenic.

II. Transplanting problem. Every cell allows assessment blood group. For instance, if agglutinogen A is present in blood it is present in every cell. Organs banks are created.

III. Blood groups and diseases:

I (0): - ulcer disease of stomach and duodenum – agglutinogens A and B having been released in stomach and pancreatic juice content prevent wall from proteolytic enzymes (these agglutinogens are absent in people with the I-st blood group):

     - abscesses;

     - lymphadenopathies;

     - syphilis;

     - liver cirrhosis;

     - cholecystitis;

     - appendicitis;

     - ulcerous stomatitis;

     - gingivitis (and other inflammatory disease);

     - pernicious anemias;

     - acute respiratory viral infections;

     - excessive bleedings (blood coagulation weakening);

II (A): - thromboses (excessive blood coagulation);

      - diabetes mellitus;

      - heart-vascular system diseases in part hypertonic disease;

      - myocardial infarction and strokes (due to enforced blood coagulation);

III (B): - infectious (especially hard and atypic, tropical);

IV (AB): - tumors;

           - thrombotic states (less than in people with the A (II).

Rh-negative people have blood diseases more often in 6 times in comparison to Rh-positive people. Patients with congenital heart vices complicated with infectious endocarditis are most often the ones with negative rhesus. O(I)Rh- often have paroxysmal night hemoglobinury (disease of Markiafava-Mikelli), innate hemolytic, hypoplastic and aplastic anemias.

People with II (A), IV (AB) are drug-dependent more than the others.

Although one must take into account that links between blood groups and morbidity carry not direct character but the one mediated by other factors. More visible dependence is present between leucocytes antigens (HLA) and especially the ones of the II-nd class and predisposition to different diseases. This fact is determined by the following: HLA defines immune response intensiveness as well as answer for local immunity in separate organs. 

Rh-conflict can lead to miscarriages, fetus intrauteral death, immaturity, toxicoses of mothers.

Paternity canceling – on the base of MNS-system genes.

Forensic medicine – hairs, urine, sperm or other organs and tissues contains antigens that can prove or disprove personality.

Blood groups significance in theoretical medicine and everyday life

Anthropology deals with blood grouping because every race, even simple ethnic groups can be differentiated by one or another blood group dominance. For example, seldom antigen Diego has been discovered in Polynesia inhabitants. Syria Arabs possess O(I) and A(II) more often than B(III). IV(AB) is practically absent in them. 90% of American Indians have 0(I).

2. Study aims:

To know: main blood group by ABO-system and Rh-belonging, all probes performance principles (probes before blood transfusion).

To be able to: determine blood group by ABO system with standard sera, Tsoliclones anti-A and anti-B as well as Rh-belonging with Tsoliclones anti-C, anti-D and anti-E.


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