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 I вариант – Several towns will be linked this line.-Несколько городов будут связаны этой линией.

Will severaltownsbe linked this line?

Will several towns be linked this lineor other line?

Several towns will be linked this line, won^t it?

What will be linked this line?

Than will several towns be linked?


II вариант – The letter will be sent tomorrow.-Письмо будет отправлено завтра.



III вариант – Old cars were equipped with gas lamp.


IV вариант – The railway ticket was bought my wife.



1. The cars used on the early railways were very much like the stage-coaches and wagons travelling on ordinary roads. Although drawn by horses, these vehicles had flanged wheels which kept them on the rails. The very first freight cars were used in coal mines in England. They were open-top wagons which had wooden wheels and were pulled by horses along wooden rails. They were followed by platform cars. The freight was piled and covered with tarpaulin to protect it from the weather. As the goods often fell off and were easily damaged, the platforms were fitted with low sides and ends. Later, covered cars came into existence. As time went on and railroads had to carry more and more freight, bigger and better cars were invented for hauling different kinds of goods.

2. The box car is considered to be the most common type of covered car. It is a general-purpose car intended to carry all kinds of ordinary goods which must be protected from the weather. A special type of box car is a refrigerator car used for hauling food products. The walls, floor and roof of this wagon are air- and waterproof to protect goods from the heat of the outside air.

 3. Another type of car is a tank car intended for liquid goods. The long cylindrical tank of the car is filled through an opening on the top and emptied through a special device in the bottom. Coal, ore, gravel, and other similar goods are known to be conveyed in opentop cars, the principal types of these being the gondola and the hopper car. Both types are designed for mechanized loading and unloading and built especially strong and durable.

 4. The simplest type of car is the flat car. Being usually employed for transporting rails, beams, timber, and heavy machines, they, if fitted with special devices, can also carry containers. The container traffic is now coming into wide use on all modes of transport because it reduces the cost of loading and unloading goods and decreases the danger of their breakage The fact is that goods are packed into containers at factories or warehouses and are not disturbed while in transit thus being conveyed from "door-todoor". In addition to the normal-type wagons there exist special freight cars for special kinds of goods. The example of a special-type car is a double-deck car used to carry automobiles.

 5. The early passenger cars were copied after stage-coaches and were very small and uncomfortable. In England, the carriages for the first class passengers had three compartments with soft seats and doors at either side. There was a high seat at the back for the guard, the baggage being carried at the roofs. The second class carriages also had roofs, but the sides were low and the seats were hard and primitive. As to the third class passengers, they had to ride in uncovered wagons having no seats at all.

6. 6. Some decades later, about 1840, there appeared carriages which looked more like today's cars. They had the body we are familiar with modem vehicles. The body was mounted on two four-wheel trucks. Inside, these carriages were open from end to end and the seats were arranged along either side. The carriages were lighted by oil lamps, heated by stoves, and had wash-rooms at both ends. These cars made it possible for the railroads to carry much more passengers in a single train.

 7. The prototype of the modern sleeping car have appeared in the middle of the last century. George M. Pitman, an American publisher, is regarded to be its inventor.

8. We know the passenger rolling stock of today to comprise several types of cars. There exist sleeping and dining cars, coaches for day and night service, saloon coaches for tourists. The modern rolling stock is built with two types of inside arrangement. One is the compartment type with a side corridor, and the other is the open vehicle with a central passage.

9. Many innovations have been introduced in car construction since the early days. Modern carriages are made of light-weight steel, aluminum and plastics. The application of these materials has resulted in considerable reduction of the rolling stock weight and has increased the resistance of cars to corrosion. These materials and design improvements have provided better performance of cars and decreased maintenance costs.

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