Conjoint forms of possessive pronouns


St person        2nd person          3rd person

SINGULAR            my                                                  his, her, its,


PLURAL                 our                                                     their



Absolute forms of possessive pronouns

SINGULAR           mine                                                   his, hers


PLURAL                ours                                                       theirs


Theconjoint form is used when the possessive pronoun comes before the noun it modifies. The conjoint form of the possessive pronoun is used as an attribute.

In his turn old Jolyon looked back athis son. (Galsworthy)

Theabsolute form is used when the possessive pronoun does not modify any noun.

The absolute form of the possessive pronoun may be used as subject, predicative or object. The group “preposition + absolute form” may be used as an attribute.

"Yours (sum of money) won't come short of a hundred thousand, my boy," said old Jolyon. (Galsworthy) (SUBJECT)

When he turned round again he saw Fleur standing near the door holding a handkerchief, which the boy had evidently just handed to her. "F.F.", he heard her say. "Fleur Forsyte—it's mine all right. Thank you ever so." (Galsworthy) (predicative)

... he realized that she was making an effort to talk his talk, and he resolved to get away from it and talk hers. (London) (object)

 ... and while she rattled on, he strove to follow her, marveling at all the knowledge that was stowed away in that pretty head of hers ... (London) (attribute)

3. Possessive pronouns are often used before the names of the parts of the body, clothing, things belonging to a person, etc. In that case they are not translated into Russian.

Young Jolyon rose and held outhis hand to helphis father up.

 Молодой Джолион поднялся и протянул руку, чтобы помочь отцу встать.

The girl droppedher handkerchief and he picked it up. (Galsworthy)

Девушка уронила платок, а он поднял его.


§ 5. Reflexive pronouns.

1. Reflexive pronouns have the categories ofperson, number,andgender in the third person singular.

                    1st person            2nd person     3rd person

singular:      myself                   yourself     himself, herself,                       


      plural:      ourselves               yourselves   themselves

2. Reflexive pronouns refer to the subject of the sentence in which they are used, indicating that the action performed by the doer passes back to him or is associated with him. In the sentence they are usually used as direct objects.

In that moment of emotion he betrayed the Forsyte in him—for­gothimself, his interests, his property—was capable of almost anything... (Galsworthy) (object)

Reflexive pronouns may be used as predicatives.

 When she came back she was herself again. (Hardy) (predicative)

Reflexive pronouns preceded by a preposition may be used as indirect prepositional objects, as attributes and as adverbial mo­difiers.

He could not see that it would be better to make her feel that she was competing with herself... (Dreiser) (prepositional indi­rect object)

“I fancied you looked a little downcast when you came in,” she ventured to observe, anxious to keep away from the subjectof herself. (Hardy) (attribute)

If June did not like this, she could have an allowance and live by herself. (Galsworthy) (adverbial modifier of manner)

Reflexive pronouns may be used to form the reflexive voice (in this case reflexive pronouns are structural words):

Undressing again, she washed herself intensively... (Galsworthy)

And then I dressed myself and came away to find you. (Hardy)

Sometimes reflexive pronouns are used emphatically:

Moreover, Soameshimself disliked the thought of that. (Galsworthy)

   She was never idle it seemed to him, and he envied her now that hehimself was idle nearly all his time. (Galsworthy)


§ 6. Reciprocal pronouns.

1. Reciprocal pronouns are the group-pronouns each other and one another. They express mutual action or relation. The subject to which they refer must always be in the plural.

"I didn't really know him," he thought, "and he didn't know me; but we loved each other." (Galsworthy)

 We haven't set eyes onone another for years. (Priestly)

Each other generally implies only two, one another two or more than two persons:

He had never heard his father or his mother speak in an angry voice, either to each other, himself, or anybody else. (Galsworthy)

Seated in a row close to one another were three ladies—Aunts Ann, Hester (the two Forsyte maids) and Julie (short for Julia)... (Galsworthy)

It must be mentioned that this distinction, is not always strictly observed:

I should have been surprised if those two could have thought very highly ofone another. (Dickens)

 2. Reciprocal pronouns have two case forms.

Girls banged into each other and stamped on each other's feet. (Mansfield)

The common case of reciprocal pronouns is used as an object.

The men were not grave and dignified. They lost their tempers easily and calledone another names... (London)

      Elizabeth and George talked and foundeach other delightful. (Aldington)

The genitive case of reciprocal pronouns may be used as an attribute.

At first it struck me that I might live by selling my works to the ten per cent who were like myself; but a moment's reflection showed me that these must all be as penniless as I, and that we could not live by, so to speak, taking inone another's washing. (Shaw)

 Not until moon and stars faded away and streaks of daylight began to appear, did Meitje Brinker and Hans look hopelessly intoeach other's face. (Dodge)

Reciprocal pronouns preceded by a preposition are used as a prepositional indirect object:

They lookat one another for a moment. (Dickens) silence they staredat each other. (Saxton)


§ 7. Demonstrative pronouns.

1. The demonstrative pronouns are this, that, such, (the) same.

The demonstrative pronouns this and thathave two numbers thisthese; that—those.

Thisis used to point at what is nearer in time or space; thatpoints at what is farther away in time or space.

He looked him over critically. "Yes, this boy might do," he thought. (Dreiser)

"I like that fellow," Henry Waterman confided to his brother the moment Frank had gone with instructions to report the following morning. (Dreiser)

This and thatmay be applied both to persons and things.

Andthis girl was French, not likely to lose her head, or accept any unlegalized position. (Galsworthy)

 Other people were anxious to getthis soap atthis price. (Dreiser)

What do you think of that Belgian fellow, Profond? (Galsworthy)

 To Forsyte imaginationthat house was now a sort of Chinese pillbox... (Galsworthy)

The pronoun such.

She wore a red ribbon in her hair, and was the only one of the white company who could boast of such a pronounced adornment. (Hardy)

The pronoun sameis always used with the definite article.

The driver was a young man... wearing a dandy cap, drab jacket, breeches of the same hue. (Hardy)

2. The demonstrative pronouns this and that are used as sub­jects, predicatives, objects and attributes.

It's all right, but I'd rather try my hand at brokerage, I think that appeals to me. (Dreiser) (subject)

 The only honest people — if they existed — werethose who said: "This is foul brutality..." (Aldington) (predicative)

Tell me just how you didthis. (Dreiser) (object)

 "Ifthat young fellow wanted a place, I'd give it to him," he thought. (Dreiser) (attribute)

The demonstrative pronoun that (those) may be used as a word-substitute:

But in thinking of his remaining guest, an expression likethat of a cat who is just going to purr stole over his (Swithin's) old face.. (Galsworthy)

The features (of young Jolyon) were certainlythose of a Forsyte, but the expression was more the introspective look of a student or philosopher. (Galsworthy)

The pronoun such is used as subject, predicative, object, and attribute:

If any living man can manage this horse I can: —I won't say any living man can do it— but if such has the power, I am here. (Hardy) (subject)

Her idolatry of this man was such that she herself almost feared it to be ill omened. (Hardy) (predicative)

But such thoughts and visions did not prevent him from following Professor Caldwell closely. (London) (attribute)

The pronoun (the) same usually performs the function of an at­tribute, but it may be used as subject, predicative, object:

We were in the same classes. (London) (attribute)

 It is to be feared the same could not be said of you, were you to be called hence. (Ch. Bronte) (subject)

 Martin's Sunday was the same as before. (London) (predicative)

 May this young man do the same!" said Angel fervently. (Hardy) (object)

Interrogative pronouns.

1. Interrogative pronouns are used in inquiry, to form special questions. They are: who, whose, what, which.

 The interrogative pronoun who has the category of case; the nominative case is who, the objective case whom.

Who refers to human beings?

Slipping her hand under his arm, she said: "Who was that?" "He picked up my handkerchief. We talked about pictures." (Galsworthy)

What when not attributive usually refers to things but it may be applied to persons when one inquires about their occupation.

"What are you looking for, Tess?" the doctor called. "Hairpins," she replied. (London) "What was he?" "A painter." (Galsworthy)

Which has a selective meaning: it corresponds to the Russian “который из” (an individual of the group). It may refer to persons and things.

The boys clasped each other suddenly in an agony of fright. "Which of us does he mean?" gasped Huckleberry. (Twain)

 Which side of the bed do you like, Mum? (Galsworthy)

The questions Who is he? What is he? Which is he? differ in their meaning. The first question inquires about the name or par­entage of some person. The second question inquires about the occupation of the person spoken about. The third question inquires about some particular person out of a definite group of persons.

 2. In the sentence interrogative pronouns may have different functions—those of subject, predicative, object and attribute:

Who, do you think, has been to see you, Dad? She couldn't wait! Guess. (Galsworthy) (subject)

"What's been happening, then?" he said sharply. (Eliot) (subject)

"No,who's he?" "Oh, he's a Polish Jew." (Aldington) (predica­tive)

"What are you, Mr. Mont, if I may ask?" "I, sir? I wasgoingto be a painter." (Galsworthy) (predicative)

 "What was her father?" "Heron was his name, a Professor, so they tell me." (Galsworthy) (predicative)

      "He says he's married," said Winifred. "Whom to, for goodness' sake?" (Galsworthy) (object)

"Who do you mean?" I said. (Du Maurier) (object)

 "What did you see in Clensofantrim?" "Nothing but beauty, dar­ling." (Galsworthy) (object)

"What sort of a quarrel?" he heard Fleur say. (Galsworthy) (ATTRIBUTE)

Whose pain can have been like mine?Whose injury is like mine? (Eliot) (attribute) Which day is it that Dorloote Mill is to be sold? (Eliot) (attribute)


§ 9. Relative pronouns

1. Relative pronouns (who, whose, which, that, as) not only point back to a noun or a pronoun mentioned before but also have conjunctive power. They introduce attributive clauses. The word they refer to is called their antecedent. It may be a noun or a pronoun.

Whois used in reference to human beings or animals.

Jolyon bit his lips; he who had always hated rows almost wel­comed the thought of one now. (Galsworthy) his voice was a strange note of fear that frightened the animal, who had never known the man speak in such way before. (London)

Whose is mainly used in reference to human beings or animals but it may be applied to things.

Then there was the proud Rychie Korbes, whose father, Mynheer van Korbes, was one of the leading men of Amsterdam. (Dodge)

 Again he (Soames) looked at her (Irene) huddled like a bird that is shot and dying, whose poor breast you see panting as the air is taken from it, whose poor eyes look at you who have shot it, with a slow, soft, unseeing look... (Galsworthy)

... he (superintendent), wore a stiff standing-collar whose upper edge almost reached his ears, and whose sharp points curved forward abreast the corners of his mouth... (Twain)

Which is used in reference to things and animals.

Here was her own style—a bed,which did not look like one and many mirrors. (Galsworthy).

 They strove to steal a dog —the fattest, which was very thin — but I showed my pistol in their faces and told them be gone. (London)


That is mainly used in reference to animals and things. It may also be used in reference to human beings.

This... gave him much the same feeling a man has when a dog that he owns wriggles and looks at him. (Galsworthy)

On one side was a low wall that separated it from the street. (London)

In the factory quarter, doors were opening everywhere, and he was soon one of a multitude that pressed onward through the dark. (London)

As usually introduces attributive clauses when the demonstra­tive pronoun such is used in the principal clause (it is a rare case when as is used without such in the principal clause).

As may refer to living beings and things. 

...perhaps the books were right and there were many such as she (Ruth) in the upper walks of life. (London)

 His mother was a poor peasant woman; too poor even to think of such a thing as buying skates for her little ones. (Dodge)

 For nobody's ever heard me say, as it wasn't lucky for my chil­dren to have aunts and uncles as can live independent. (Eliot)

 .... I went into Snow Park. It wasn't as one expects a municipal park to be... (Braine)

2. Relative pronouns can also refer to a clause. Relative pronouns always perform some syntactical function in the clause they introduce.

 Gemma, there's a man downstairswho wants to see you. (Voynich)(subject).

 She flashed a look at him that was more anger than appeal. (London) (subject)

 ...then discussion assumed that random volubility which softens a decision already forced on one. (Galsworthy) (subject)

I think I have taken nothing that you or your people have given me. (Galsworthy) (object)       

Families often think it due to themselves to turn their back on newcomers, whom they may not think quite enough for them. (Shaw) (object)

It pleased Denny to exert, the full force of his irony upon the work, which they were doing. (Cronin) (object)

Conjunctive pronouns.

1. Conjunctive pronouns (who, what, whose, which) not only point back to some person or thing mentioned before but also have conjunctive power, introducing subordinate clauses (subject clauses, object clauses, predicative clauses).

What June had taken for personal interest was only the imper­sonal excitement of every Forsyte... (Galsworthy) (subject clause)

What you want, in fact, is a first-rate man for a fourth-rate fee, and that's exactly what you've got! (Galsworthy) (predicative clause)

I don't want to hearwhat you've come for. (Galsworthy) (object clause)

2. In the clause they introduce they perform different functions, those of subject, predicative, attribute and object.

What had made her yield he could never make out; and from Mrs. Heron, a woman of some diplomatic talent, he learnt nothing. (Galsworthy) (subject)

Erik realized with a sinking sensation that Haviland didn't know who he was. (Wilson) (predicative)

I've spent a lot of time in the chart-room now, and I'm on the edge of knowing my way about,what charts I want to refer to, what coasts I want to explore. (London) (attribute)

 What Savina could no longer do for him, he did himself, and brutally brushed aside all other interests except her. (Wilson) (object)

Defining pronouns.

The defining pronouns are: all, each, every, everybody, every­one, everything, either, both, other, another.

 1. All is a generalizing pronoun; it takes a group of things or persons as a whole. All may be used as subject, predicative, object, and attribute.

... whenall is said and done... (London) (subject)

He just loved me, that isall. (London) (predicative)

And Martin forgotall about it. (London) (object)

 ... if all the doors are closed... (London) (attribute)

2. Both points out two persons, things or notions mentioned before.

“But there is more to be said,” he continued, after a pause painful toboth. (London)

You can study French, or you can study German, or cut them both out and study Esperanto... (London)

The pronoun both may be used as subject, object and attribute.

Both seemed to implore something to shelter them from reality. (Hardy) (subject)

The light, admitted by windows atboth ends, was unfortunately not Chinese. (Galsworthy) (attribute)

When preceded by a preposition both may be used as a pre­positional indirect object.

He invariably paid the way forboth, and it was through him that Martin learned the refinement of food. (London)

3. Each, every, everybody, everyone, everything.

 Each and every refer to all the members of the group of per­sons, things, or notions mentioned before and taken one by one. When used as subject, eachetc. require a verb in the singular.

Eachmay be used as subject, object, and attribute.

The train coming in a minute later, the two brothers parted and entered their respective compartments.Each felt aggrieved that the other had not modified his habits to secure his society a little longer. (Galsworthy) (subject)  

He paid a dollareach. (London) (object)

 It (a blackbird) started singing as I looked out of the window endingeach phrase abruptly as if out of breath, a curiously ama­teur effect. (Braine) (attribute)

When preceded by a preposition each may be used as a pre­positional indirect object:

They began to deal swiftly with the cocoa tins, slipping a stick of dynamite ineach. (Cronin)

Every is used only as an attribute:

This is something more than genius. It is true, every line of it. (London)

Everybody, everyone refer to all the members of the group of persons mentioned before or taken one by one.

The pronouns everybody, everyone have two cases: the common case and the genitive case.

The common case may be used as subject and object.

You walked into the waiting room, into a great buzz of conver­sation, and there was everybody; you knew almosteverybody.(Mansfield) (subject, object)

The genitive case of the pronouns everyone and everybody is used as an attribute.

... he almost forgot the nearly intolerable discomfort of his new clothes in the entirely intolerable discomfort of being set up as a target for everybody's gaze and everybody's laudations. (Twain)

When preceded by a preposition everyone and everybody may be used as a prepositional indirect object.

How know? And without knowing how give such pain to every­one? (Galsworthy)

Everything may be applied to things, animals and abstract notions. In the sentence it is used as subject, predicative, and object.

No one will see us. Pull down that veil andeverything will be all right. (London) (subject)

Of course, class is everything really. (Galsworthy) (predicative)

He was not long in assuming that Brissenden kneweverything.(London) (object)

4. Either has two meanings:

(a) each of the two;

(b) one or the other.

The trail wasn't three feet wide on the crest, and on either side the ridge fell away in precipices hundreds, of feet deep. (London)

Then he remembered the underwriters and the owners, the two masters a captain must serve, either of which could and would break him and whose interests were diametrically opposed. (London)

In the sentence either is usually used as attribute or part of the subject (see the above examples).

5. Other, another.

   Other denotes some object different from the one mentioned before.

Other has two numbers: singular—other, plural—others. It has two cases: the common case and the genitive case (other's, others').

He walked at the other's heels with a swing to his shoulders and his legs spread unwittingly... (London)

In the sentence it is used as subject, object and attribute.


 After tea theothers went off to bathe... (Mansfield) (subject)

When he brought his suitcase down into the hall, Isabel left the others and went over to him. (Mansfield) (object)

 But the circumstance was sufficient to lead him to select Tess in preference to theother pretty milkmaids. (Hardy) (attribute)

When preceded by a preposition it may be used as a preposi­tional indirect object:

You are not fair to theothers. (Voynich)

Another has two meanings:

(1) “a different one”,

(2)  “an additional one”.

He has learnt sheep farming atanother place, and he's now mas­tering dairy work. (Hardy)

Yes, thought Soames,another year of London and that sort of life, and she'll be spoiled. (Galsworthy)

Another may be used as subject, object, and attribute.

The lantern hanging at her wagon had gone out butanotherwas shining in her face much brighter than her own had been. (Hardy) (subject)

Often among the women he met, he would see now one, now another, looking at him, appraising him, selecting him. (London) (OBJECT)

Now I won't say another word. I am overwhelmed, crushed. (London) (ATTRIBUTE)


§ 12. Indefinite pronouns.

Indefinite pronouns point out some person or thing indefi­nitely. The indefinite pronouns are some, any, somebody, anybody, someone, anyone, something, anything, and one.

The pronouns somebody, anybody, someone, anyone, one have two cases: the common case and the genitive case.

1. Some is chiefly used in affirmative sentences while any is used in negative and interrogative sentences and in conditional clauses.

We spread down some wide blankets. (0. Henry)

 But his chief trouble was that he did not know any editors or writers. (London)

Do you see any sign of his appreciating beauty? (Galsworthy)

If you have any new books, show them to me, please.

When used with nouns of material some and any have the meaning of indefinite quantity.

Now run along and getsome candy, and don't forget to give some to your brothers and sisters. (London)

Some, not any, is used in special and general questions ex­pressing some request or proposal.

"Do you wantsome water?" "No, I don't want any water." (Maltz)

Some may have the meaning of “certain” (некоторые) before a noun in the plural.

You havesome queer customers. Do you like this life? (Gals­worthy)

Any may be used in affirmative sentences with the meaning of “every” (любой).

Above a square-domed forehead he saw a mop of brown hair ... nut-brown, with a wave to it and hints of curls that were a de­light to any woman ... (London)

Somebody, someone, something are chiefly used in affirmative sentences.

He wantedsomeone young; you know a dark Spanish type... (Mansfield)

 I want to saysomething. (Galsworthy)

Anybody, anyone, anything are used in negative and interroga­tive sentences and in conditional clauses.

I don't wantanything. (Voynich)

 Is there anything between him and Annette? (Galsworthy)

 Ifanyone had asked him if he wanted to own her soul, the question would have seemed to him both ridiculous and senti­mental. (Galsworthy)

If Erik were ever to doanything of importance he would have to find a third way. (Wilson)

Somebody, someone, something are used in special and general questions if they express some request or proposal.

Willsomeone help me?

Anyone, anybody, anything may be used in affirmative senten­ces. Anyone, anybody are used with the meaning of “everyone” (любой); anything is used with the meaning of “everything'”(что угодно).

"You've no business to say such a thing!" she exclaimed. "Why not?Anybody can see it." (Galsworthy)

There is a limit to whatanyone can bear. (Voynich)

... she sank in spirit inwardly and fluttered feebly at the heart as she thought of enteringanyoneof these mighty concerns and asking for something to do — something that she could do — anything. (Dreiser)

2. The indefinite pronouns some and any may be used as sub­ject, object and attribute.

Some say the world will end in fire,

   Some say in ice (Frost) (subject)

“I watch the fire—and the boiling and the roasting—" "When there isany," says Mr. George, with great expression. (Dickens) (subject)

... and his attention slid at once from such finality to the dust motes in the bluish sunlight coming in. Thrusting his hand up he tried to catchsome. (Galsworthy) (object)

 Where is his home? He didn't have any (Maltz) (object)

Are there any real Indians in the woods? (O. Henry) (attribute)

Someone, anyone, somebody, anybody, something, anything may be used as subject, predicative or object. When used as a subject they require a verb in the singular.

In the next house someone was playing over and over again “La Donna e mobile” on an untuned piano. (Galsworthy) (subject)

... What he likes is anything except art. (Aldington) (predicative)

 And not merely did he not know any writers, but he did not know anybody who had ever attempted to write. (London) (object)

The genitive case of the pronouns somebody, someone, anybody, anyone is used as an attribute:

... lie could pull his cap down over his eyes and screen himself behind someone's shoulder. (London)

 "It's anybody's right," Martin heard somebody saying. (London)

...Hooked up: I was in somebody's arms. (Shaw)

When preceded by a preposition the pronouns somebody, someone, something, anybody, anyone, anything may be used as prepositional indirect objects.

The girl doesn't belongto anybody — is no useto anybodybut me. (Shaw)

Such a purse had never been carriedby anyone attentive to her. (Dreiser)

So, though he wasn't very successfulat anything, he got along all right. (Aldington)

3. The indefinite-personal pronoun one is often used in the sense of any person or every person.

New York presents so many temptations forone to run into extravagance (O. Henry)

The indefinite pronoun one is often used in a general sense.

 ...Only one with constitution of iron could have held himself down, as Martin did. (London)

The pronoun one may be used in the genitive case:

I know exactly what it feels like to be held down onone's back. (Galsworthy)

One may be used as a word-substitute:

I was looking at them, and also at intervals examining the teach­ers—none of whom precisely pleased me; for the stoutonewas a little coarse, the darkone not a little fierce. (Ch. Bronte)

As a word-substitute one may be used in the plural:

Some of the gentlemen were gone to the stables; the younger ones, together with the younger ladies, were playing billiards in the billiard room. (Ch. Bronte)

Negative pronouns.

Most of the indefinite pronouns correspond to negative pro­nouns: some — no, none; something — nothing, none; somebody, someone—nobody, no one, none.

Some defining pronouns also correspond to negative pronouns: everything—nothing; all, everybody, every, each—no, none, no­body; both, either—neither.

1. The negative pronoun nois used only before a noun as its attribute.

No dreams were possible in Dufton, where the snow seemed to turn black almost before it hit the ground. (Braine)

 No Forsyte can stand it for a minute. (Galsworthy)

The negative pronoun none may be applied both to human beings and things.

Noneofus—none of us can hold on forever! (Galsworthy)

... he took the letters from the gilt wire cage into which they had been thrust through the slit in the door.None from Irene. (Galsworthy)

It can be used as subject or object.

In this he would make little fires, and cook the birds he had not shot with his gun, hunting in the coppice and fields, or the fish he did not catch in the pond because there werenone. (Galsworthy) (subject)

. ... besides, it required woods and animals, of which he had none in his nursery except his two cats... (Galsworthy) (object)

2. The negative pronouns nobody, no one refer to human beings. They correspond to the indefinite pronouns somebody, someone and to the defining pronouns all, every, each, everybody.

The negative pronoun nobody may be used in the genitive case: nobody's.

The negative pronouns nobody and no one are mostly used as subjects and objects.

Nobody seemed, to know him well. (Galsworthy) (subject)

 He remembered the days of his desperate starvation whenno oneinvited him to dinner. (London) (subject)

 I told you once that I haveno one in the world but you. (Voynich) (object)

 We'd havenobody to fight the war. (Heym) (object)

The pronoun nobody in the genitive case is used as an attribute.

Now Mr. Pullet never rode anything taller than a low pony, and was the least predatory of men, considering firearms dangerous, as apt to go off themselves bynobody's particular desire. (Eliot)

The pronouns nobody, no one preceded by a preposition are used as prepositional indirect objects.

Among all the crowd who came and went here, there and every­where, she caredfornobody. (Galsworthy)

3. The negative pronoun nothing refers to things. It is oppo­site to the indefinite pronoun something and to the defining pro­noun everything.

Andnothing of vital importance had happened after that till the year turned. (Galsworthy)

Nothing may be used as subject, predicative or object.

There isnothing to worry about. (Galsworthy) (subject)

 Now, look here, Marian, this isnothing but nonsense," Martin began. (London) (predicative)

... she broughtnothing with her but the feeling of adventure. (Galsworthy) (object)

When preceded by a preposition nothing may be used as a prepositional indirect object:

On that train he thoughtof nothing but Lilly. (Wilson)

The negative pronoun neitheris opposite to the defining pro­nouns either, both.

Neither of them answered; but their faces seemed to him as if contemptuous. (Galsworthy)

In the sentence it may be used as subject, object and attri­bute.

Neither was wise enough to be sure of the working of the mind of the other. (Dreiser) (subject)

I likeneither of them. (object)

 We approved neither plan. (attribute)

The negative pronouns nobody, no one, nothing are singular in meaning and when they are used as the subject of the sentence they require a verb in the singular (see the above examples).


                                               Chapter V

                                      THE NUMERAL


 § 1. The numeral is a part of speech, which indicates number or the order of persons and things in a series.

Accordingly numerals are divided into cardinals (cardinal nu­merals) and ordinals (ordinal numerals).

§ 2. Cardinal numerals.

 Cardinal numerals indicate exact number; they are used in count­ing. As to their structure, the cardinal numerals from 1 to 12 and 100, 1000, 1,000,000 are simple words (one, two, three, etc., hund­red, thousand, milliоп); those from 13 to 19 are derivatives with the suffix -teen (thirteen, fourteen, etc.); the cardinal numerals indicating tens are formed by means of the suffix --ty (twenty, thirty, etc.). The numerals from 21 to 29, from 31 to 39, etc. are composite: twenty-two, thirty-five, etc.

Note 1. Twenty-two, thirty-five etc. are spelt with a hyphen.

   Note 2. In two hundred and twenty-three, four hundred and sixteen etc. there must be the word and after the word hundred.

Such cardinal numerals as hundred, thousand, million may be used with articles (a hundred, a thousand, a million), they may be substantivized and used in the plural (hundreds, thousands, millions). When used after other numerals they do not take -s (two hundred times, thirty thousand years etc.). The word million may be used with or without -s (two million, two millions). When the word million is followed by some other cardinal nu­meral only the first variant is possible: two million five hundred inhabitants.

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