Why businesses should be wary of going after eBay fakes

Types of lawyers. Present Simple

Types of laws. Conjunctions. Types of questions.

Crimes. Degrees of comparison of adjectives.

Business Law. Prepositions. Crossword.

Setting up a business. Modal verbs.

New business proposals. Continuous Tenses. Present Continuous and Past Continuous.

Why businesses should be wary of going after eBay fakes. Past Simple

Lesson 5

Types of lawyers

Exercise 1.Read and learn the following words and expressions.

lawyer – юрист

practice - практиковать, проходить практику

barrister – барристер (адвокат, имеющий право выступать в высших судах)

lawfirm – адвокатская фирма

attorney – адвокат, уполномоченное лицо

judge – судья

actingfor – представительство интересов

qualified – квалифицированный

legalpractice – адвокатская практика

partnership– партнерство

represent– представлять

litigation – судебное дело

advocacy – адвокатская деятельность, защита клиента

pleadingacase – защита дела в суде

specialize - специализироваться

rightofaudience – право выступать в суде

appear - появляться

solicitor – адвокат


consent – соглашаться


Exercise 2.Read and translate the text, paying attention to the words in italics.

There are two types of lawyer who practice in England. They are called barristers and solicitors. In the USA and most other countries, lawyers don’t make this distinction – a lawyer is simply known as an attorney-at-law, or an attorney.

In both England and the USA, it is not possible to take a special exam to be a judge. If you decide that you want to be a judge, you must get a lot of experience as a lawyer first, then apply to be a judge and wait to see if you are chosen.

Most law students in England become solicitors. When they finish their university studies they do a one-year legal practice course and then a two-year training contract with a law firm. After that, they are qualified solicitors. Many solicitors work for a legal practice, which is usually a partnership of solicitors who work together. Solicitors practice in many areas of law, although each solicitor usually chooses to specialize in one particular area. They represent their clients both in and out of court. We often describe this as acting for a client. The process of making a claim in the civil court is called litigation.

Barristers are usually self-employed lawyers but can work in partnerships in the way that solicitors do. They are specialists in advocacy, which is the skill of speaking for someone in court. We call this pleading a case. They also give opinions on areas of law to solicitors and the solicitors’ clients. It is not just barristers who have the right of audience in court. Solicitors are also allowed to represent their clients in court and many solicitors appear in court every day. It is not true to say that a client always needs a barrister in court.


Exercise 3.Answer the questions.

1. What are two types of lawyers?

2. What you must do, if you want to be a judge?

3. What do students do after finishing their university studies, if they want to become a solicitor?

4. What is usually a legal practice?

5. What does the litigation mean?

6. Who is a barrister?

7. What does the pleading a case mean?

8. Is barrister the only one who has the right of audience?

9. Do clients always need a barrister in court?


Vocabulary exercises

Exercise 1.Continue the sentences.

1. There are two types of lawyer who _____.

2. A lawyer is simply known as _____.

3. If you decide that you want to be a judge, you must _____.

4. Most law students in England become _____.

5. They do a one-year legal practice course and then a two-year training contract with _____.

6. Many solicitors work for a _____.

7. The process of making a claim in the civil court is called _____.

8. It is not just barristers who have _____.


Exercise 2.Decide if the statements are true or false.

1. There are two types of lawyer practicing in England.

2. Last year I finished my training contract and I started working for a large international law firm. I am now a qualified solicitor.

3. Only barristers can speak on behalf of clients in court.

4. Both solicitors and barristers can work together in partnerships.

5. In the USA and England lawyers can take a special exam to be a judge.


Exercise 3.Read these situations and decide if the person needs a criminal lawyer or a civil lawyer.

1. MrBellerby is opening a new factory. He needs to visit a lawyer to get a contract for all of his employees to sign.

2. Mrs Robson is thinking about what she wants to happen to her house and possessions after her death. She needs to visit a lawyer to get the correct document, which is called a ‘will’.

3. The police are taking Mr Dean to the police station because they say he stole a car. He needs a lawyer to come and visit him there to tell him what to do.

4. Mr Flynn owns a restaurant. He has a contract with a company to deliver fruit and vegetables to his restaurant. The company didn’t deliver them on the agreed date, so Mr Flynn lost money because he could not open his restaurant that day. Mr Flynn needs to see a lawyer about asking the delivery company to give him the money he lost.

5. Mr Allen is a bank manager. The bank is saying that some money is missing. Mr Allen has a new car and expensive clothes. The police are coming to ask Mr Allen some questions. Heneeds a lawyerimmediately.

Helping table

Criminal law – the law that punishes acts against a person or against property that people consider to be harmful to the whole community. The state prosecutes criminals. Civil law – the law concerning the rights and duties of private individuals and companies other than criminal matters.


Exercise 4.TranslateintoRussian.

1. Ты хочешь быть судьей или юристом?

2. После окончания университета я пойду работать в адвокатскую фирму.

3. Мне кажется, что представлять интересы в суде это очень ответственная работа.

4. Завтра в это время я буду представлять своего клиента в суде.

5. Мой друг недавно стал адвокатом.



Present Simple    
S + verb + object….. S + don’t/doesn’t + verb + object.. Do/Does + S + verb + object
I/we/they/you + like + tea. He/she/it + like + tea. I + don’t + like + tea. She + doesn’t + like + tea. Do+ you/we/they/I + like + tea ? Does + he/she/it + like + tea ?


Use it for…
  • Facts
  • Habitual actions
  • Things that don’t/won’t change
  • Describing yourself
Signal words Adverbs of frequency, like:
  • Often
  • Usually
  • Sometimes
  • Never
BUT REMEMBER *** The verb «to be» is different*** I + am (Australian.) He/she/it + is (clever.) You/we/they + are (nice.)



Grammar exercises:

Exercise 1.Put the verbs into the correct form.

1. I (to like) ________lemonade very much.

2. The girls always (to listen) ______to pop music

3. Janet never (to wear) _______jeans.

4. Mr Smith (to teach)_______Spanish and French.

5. You (to do) _______your homework after school.

Exercise 2.Fill in the correct form of the verbs.

1. We (to have)_______ a nice garden.

2. She (to be) _______six years old.

3. Simon (to have)_______ two rabbits and five goldfish.

4. I (to be)_______ from Vienna, Austria.

5. They (to be)_______ from Sandy's parents.

Exercise 3.Makequestions.

1. you / tospeak / English → ____________________

2. when / he / to go / home → ____________________

3. they / to clean / the bathroom → ____________________

4. where / she / to ride / her bike → ____________________

5. Billy / to work / in the supermarket → ____________________


Lesson 6

Types of laws

Exercise 1.Read and learn the following words and expressions.

lawoftorts – законоправонарушениях

dutyofcare – обязанность соблюдать осторожность

allegation – обвинениевсуде

carelessness – неосторожность

commitatort – совершить правонарушение

negligence – неосторожность

tort – правонарушение

tosue – подавать иск, привлекать к ответственности

nowinnofee – договор на обусловленную оплату

remuneration – оплата за услуги

damages – убытки

ground – повод

breach – нарушать

defendant - подзащитный


invoke - ссылаться


Exercise 2. Read and translate the text, paying attention to the words in italics.

The law of tort says that everyone has a civil duty to be careful and not to hurt or harm another person. Lawyers call this civil duty ‘the duty of care’. Sometimes people breach this duty of care. To breach means to break. Very often they breach the duty of care by accident but sometimes they do it deliberately. If someone hurts or harms another person because of a breach, we call this harmful action a tort. This means that some things that might be criminal in your legal system are a tort in England and the USA.

Look at the list of harmful actions below. In England and the USA they are usually torts.

1. Leaving the floor of a shop in a dangerous condition so that a customer falls and hurts her leg.

2. Saying something that is bad about someone, which isn’t true.

3. Writing a negative story in a newspaper about someone, which isn’t true.

4. Playing loud music late every night, which disturbs your neighbours.

This area of law is easier to understand by thinking of a tort as being a type of civil wrong. Each of the torts listed above has a special name. The tort that happens most often is called negligence.

Negligence is when someone is not careful enough and this person’s carelessness hurts another person as a result. The person who is hurt is called the injured person.

When someone hurts you as a result of his or her actions, you need to consult a lawyer who specializes in the right area of tort. The lawyer will try to get you money from the careless person. This money is called ‘compensation’ or, more correctly, ‘damages’. Sometimes the lawyers can’t agree on the amount of damages. When this happens, the injured person may decide to sue the person who has hurt them. Suing someone is a more informal way of saying starting proceedings against someone in a civil court. The claim form will state the claimant’s allegations against the defendant. An allegation is like an accusation. The claimant is stating that something happened, but the defendant has the opportunity to say that this is not true. The reasons for going to court are called ‘the grounds’. The grounds for an action in tort are that the defendant committed a tort.

Sometimes a lawyer who specializes in the tort of negligence makes an agreement with a client. The agreement is that if the client does not win the case then he or she does not have to pay for the lawyer’s services. This is called a ‘no win no fee’ arrangement. It is allowed in the UK and the USA.


Exercise 3.Answer the questions.

1. How do lawyers say to ‘break’ a duty of care?

2. In England and the USA. Is the law of tort an area of civil law?

3. There are different types of tort. In general, what is a tort?

4. What is the name of the tort that a person commits because he or she is careless and hurts someone else as a result of this carelessness?

5. What does suing mean?

6. What is the correct name for the money that an injured person gets from the defendant in a successful action in tort?

7. What is the correct name for an arrangement where a client does not have to pay his or her lawyer if the client loses his or her action in tort?


Vocabulary exercises

Exercise 1.Put a word from the Exercise 1 into the following sentences.

1. I am _____ the owner of the shop because there was water on the floor and I fell and hurt my back.

2. I am a lawyer who specializes in the tort of _____. People are just not careful enough! At the moment I am acting for the injured person in more than 20 different cases.

3. The machines in the clothing factory were old and dangerous and one of the employees injured his hand. The employee sued the factory owners and got £5000 in _____.

4. In your claim form you accuse us of breaching our duty of care. We do not accept that your _____ are true and we will defend your claim in court.

5. Do you have a good reason for suing the owner of the hotel? What exactly are your _____for starting legal action?


Exercise 2.Here is a list of some important areas of law. Read what the lawyers say on the next page. They are talking about the work they do. Match the lawyer with the correct area of law.

1. law of contract _____

2. company law _____

3. land law _____

4. law of tort _____

5. law of equity and trusts _____

6. employment law _____

7. family law _____

8. immigration law _____

9. intellectual property law _____

10. criminal law_____

David ‘I work in New York. I deal with clients from other countries who want to come and live here. I help them to get permission from the government to make their dream of living in the USA a reality.’

Tom ‘I am with a law firm in Manchester. I am now in the second year of my training contract. At the moment I deal with clients who are buying or selling their house. It is my job to make sure everything is correct and that the sale is valid.’

Jennifer ‘I work in a very exciting area of law here in Los Angeles. I meet a lot of writers and musicians and sometimes even people from movie studios! I protect their rights and make sure that no one can copy their work and make money from it without their permission.’

Alistair ‘When I write the story of my life I will call my book, "Robbers, Murderers and Other Friends of Mine!" I work in Newcastle, which is in the north of England. I defend people who are in trouble with the police. They may even go to prison! It is my job to help them.’

Sunitta ‘I work in Sydney, Australia. I give advice to people who are unhappy living together and they want a divorce. Sometimes people argue about money or the care of the children. It’s a difficult area of law and I feel very sympathetic towards my clients.’

Cory ‘I work in Chicago. I’m quite famous on TV here in the USA. That’s because Channel 10 show my advertisement five times every day! I ask people to call me if they were hurt or were in an accident because somebody else wasn’t careful enough. If people are not careful, then I’m afraid they will have to pay damages!’

Kayleigh ‘I work in Christchurch, New Zealand. Most of my clients have problems at work. I saw a lady this morning who is going to have a baby. When she told her boss that she was pregnant, he fired her from her job. That is not legal in New Zealand and I will help her to do something about it.’

Michael ‘I work for a very big London law firm. Our clients are banks and other big businesses. Today I am working on a merger agreement, which means that two companies are joining together to become one. Yesterday I advised a new client who wants to start an internet company on the different ways he can do it.’

Mary ‘I am based in Dublin, the capital city of Ireland. I see people or companies who want to make a legal agreement with another person or company. Today I am dealing with an agreement to deliver goods from Ireland to the USA. I have to check every word very carefully!’

Polly ‘I work in a very old and interesting area of law. Today I met a client who is 70 years old and has no family. When she dies, she wants to put all of her money into a special fund. Her two friends will use this money to help pay for a training school for actors and actresses from her home city here in Liverpool. I explained to her how to do that and I will draft the necessary legal documents for her.’


Helping table

to deal with someone or something to do business with someone or to take the correct action in an area of work
legal allowed by the law
valid legally correct and acceptable
to draft a document to write a document
to have a right (in intellectual property law) to have a legal interest in something; it is yours
robber a person who steals money or property while using or threatening to use violence
divorce the legal ending of a marriage
to merge (in company law) when two companies join together to form one
to be based somewhere to be established somewhere as the main place where you work or live
goods things that are produced so that they can be sold
fund an amount of money that a person or organisation keeps to pay for something in particular

Grammar exercises

Exercise 1.Translate into English using these conjunctions.

1. both … and …

как вчера, так и сегодня; как студенты, так и преподаватели; как Великобритания, так и другие европейские страны; как по радио, так и по телевизору; как газеты, так и журналы;

2. either … or …

либо завтра, либо сегодня; либо Ваш друг, либо Вы; или в театр, или в кино; или утром, или вечером; либо читать, либо смотреть телевизор;

3. neither … nor …

ни на лекции, ни на семинаре; ни мой друг, ни я; ни в этом месяце, ни в следующем; ни в библиотеке, ни в читальном зале; ни в учебнике ни в словаре.


Types of questions

Exercise 2.Look at the table and make a few sentences.

    I II III
1   Does My friend your sister lives live in Moscow in Moscow?
2   Did He she left leave school in 1988 School in 1987?
3   Will I you will become become a detective? a detective
4   Is My mother your mother is a lawyer a lawyer?


Exercise 3.Ask your partner a general question and listen to his shorts answer.

1. This book is interesting.

2. I like reading.

3. My sister goes to school.

4. My friend finished school two years ago.

5. They are students.

6. He will come tomorrow.

7. We study every day.

8. I was born in Moscow.

9. We like the film very much.

10. I saw my friend yesterday.

11. I shall tell you the news.

12. His mother works as a teacher.

13. This work is difficult.


Exercise 4.Ask your partner.

Example: Do you work or study?

1. Твоему другу 17 или 18 лет?

2. Вы ходили в кино или в театр вчера?

3. Вы будете играть в футбол или волейбол?

4. Вы родились в Москве или другом городе?

5. Ваш друг изучает английский или немецкий?

6. Вы любите кофе или чай?

7. Ты хочешь быть сыщиком или следователем?

8. Ваши друзья приедут в субботу или в воскресенье?

9. Вы знаете его или его жену?


Exercise 5.Put the words into the right order.

Example: 1. (when/ was/ built/ this house)

        When was this house built?

2. (how/ cheese/ is/ made)

3. (when/ invented/ the computer/ was)

4. (why/ Sue/ working/ isn't/ today)

5. (what time/ coming/ your friends/ are)

6. (why/ was/ cancelled/ the concert)

7. (where/ your mother/ was/ born)

8. (why/ you/ to the party/ didn't/ come)

9. (how/ the accident/ did/ happen)

10. (why/ this machine/ doesn't/ work)


Exercise 6.Ask the question starting with the word in brackets.

1. He speaks English very well. (How)

2. I studied history yesterday. (When)

3. My friend comes home late. (Why)

4. I will write you a letter. (What)

5. We play football at a stadium. (Where)

6. I read a very interesting book last week. (What book)

7. We worked in militia two years ago. (Where)

8. I will give you the book tomorrow. (What)

9. He asked me a lot of questions. (Whom)

10. The students go to school every day. (How often)


Exercise 7.Translate into Russian.

Example: 1. You know this man, don’t you?

Вы знаете этого человека, не так ли?

2. He finished his work yesterday, didn't he?

3. Your sister doesn't speak French, does she?

4. This text isn't difficult, is it?

5. You like Italian films, don't you?

6. Your friend doesn't read English newspapers, does he?

7. He will go to the seaside next summer, won't he?

8. You usually watch TV in the evening, don't you?

9. The students asked the teacher many questions, didn't they?


Exercise 8.Make four questions for every sentence (general, alternative, special and disjunctive)

1. We will meet on Sunday.

2. I was very busy on Wednesday.

3. He goes to school by bus.

4. My friend makes a lot of mistakes.

5. I finished school last year.

6. My friend served in the army in the Far East.

7. His parents work at the same factory.

8. The teacher answered all our questions.

9. He is fond of folk music.


Lesson 7


Exercise 1.Read and learn the following words and expressions.

criminallaw – уголовный закон

prohibit – запрещать, препятствовать

engage – участвовать, вовлекать, заниматься

prosecute – поддерживать обвинение, обвинять, предъявить иск

personalcrime – преступление против личности

propertycrime – преступление против собственности

inchoatecrime – незавершенное преступление

assault – словесное оскорбление, нападение

battery – избиение

falseimprisonment – незаконное решение свободы

kidnapping – похищение

homicide – убийство

rape – насилие

larceny – кража

robbery – воровство

robber – вор

burglary – взлом с кражей

burglar– человек, незаконно проникший в помещение (с целью совершения преступления); взломщик

arson – поджог

arsonist – поджигатель

embezzlement – присвоениечужогоимущества

forgery – подделка

falsepretenses – обман

solicitation – подстрекательство, попытка незаконно повлиять на кого-то

conspiracy – преступное сообщество, конспирация

shoplifting – кража в магазине

shoplifter – магазинный вор

smuggling – контрабанда

smuggler – контрабандист

treason – измена

bribery – взяточничество

murder – убийство

murderer – килллер, убийца

mugger – грабитель, разбойник

pickpocket – вор-карманник

extortion – вымогательство

blackmailer– шантажист

Exercise 2.Read and translate the text.

Crimes are defined by criminal law, which refers to a body of federal and state rules that prohibit behavior the government deems harmful to society. If one engages in such behavior, they may be guilty of a crime and prosecuted in criminal court.

In today’s society, criminal behavior and criminal trials are highly publicized in the media and commonly the storyline in hit television shows and movies. As a result, people may consider themselves well-informed on the different types of crimes. However, the law can be quite complicated.

There are many different types of crimes but, generally, crimes can be divided into four major categories, personal crimes, property crimes, inchoate crimes, and statutory crimes:

Personal Crimes – “Offenses against the Person”: These are crimes that result in physical or mental harm to another person. Personal crimes include:

- Assault

- Battery

- False Imprisonment

- Kidnapping

- Homicide – crimes such as first and second degree, murder, and involuntary manslaughter, and vehicular homicide

- Rape, statutory rape, sexual assault and other offenses of a sexual nature

Property Crimes – “Offenses against Property”: These are crimes that do not necessarily involve harm to another person. Instead, they involve an interference with another person’s right to use or enjoy their property. Property crimes include:

- Larceny (theft)

- Robbery (theft by force) – Note: this is also considered a personal crime since it results in physical and mental harm.

- Burglary (penalties for burglary)

- Arson

- Embezzlement

- Forgery

- False pretenses

- Receipt of stolen goods.

Inchoate Crimes – “Inchoate” translates into “incomplete”, meaning crimes that were begun, but not completed. This requires that a person take a substantial step to complete a crime, as opposed to just “intend” to commit a crime. Inchoate crimes include:

- Attempt – any crime that is attempted like “attempted robbery”

- Solicitation

- Conspiracy

Statutory Crimes – A violation of a specific state or federal statute and can involve either property offenses or personal offense. Statutory crimes include:

- Alcohol-related crimes such as drunk driving (DUI)

- Selling alcohol to a minor.

The crimes listed above are basically prohibited in every state, but each state is different in how the law is written, how the behavior is regulated and the penalties that each crime potentially carries. Also, the list is far from complete because behavior may be prohibited in one state and not in others. For example, prostitution is legal is some parts of Nevada, but is a crime in every other state. Likewise, carrying a concealed firearm is only legal in certain states.

Exercise 3.Retell the text using words from vocabulary.


Exercise 4.Answer the questions.

1. What categories are divided all crimes?

2. What is the personal crime? Give the examples.

3. What is the assault?

4. What is the property crime? Give the examples.

5. What is the larceny?

6. What is the inchoate crime?

7. What is the statuary crime?

Vocabulary exercises

Exercise 1.Match the types of crimes with its definitions.

  1   rape   a the systematic use of spies to obtain secret information, especially by governments to discover military or political secrets
2 robbery b the act of reproducing something for a deceitful or fraudulent purpose
3 burglary c a secret plan or agreement to carry out an illegal or harmful act, esp with political motivation.
4 arson d carrying a person away, without his consent, by means of force, threats, or fraud
    5     espionage     e the crime of either entering a building as a trespasser with the intention of committing theft, rape, grievous bodily harm, or damage, or, having entered as a trespasser, of committing one or more of these offences
6 homicide f the act of stealing goods from a shop during shopping hours
  7   bribery   g the offence of forcing a person, especially a woman, to submit to sexual intercourse against that person’s will
  8   kidnapping   h the offence of importing or exporting specified goods that are subject to customs or excise duties without having paid the requisite duties
9 forgery i a violent attack, either physical or verbal
10 conspiracy j the process of giving or taking bribes
  11   assault   k violation or betrayal of the allegiance that a person owes his sovereign or his country, especially by attempting to overthrow the government
12 shoplifting l the stealing of property from a person by using or threatening to use force
13 smuggling m the unlawful premeditated killing of one human being by another
14 treason n the act of intentionally or recklessly setting fire to another’s property or to one’s own property for some improper reason
15 murder o the killing of a human being by another person

Exercise 2.Unscramble the crimes.

1. s l t a a u s

2. o a r s n

3. g e f o r y r

4. rr u m d e

5. ggg l s m u i n

6. ii d e h o m c


Exercise 3.Guess what type of criminal it is.

1. A person who starts fires to damage or destroy something.

2. A person who steals from a bank.

3. A person who steals from a building.

4. A person who kills.

5. A person who attacks someone to steal their money.

6. A person who steals from shops.

7. A person who takes things or people to or from a place secretly and illegally.

8. A person who steals things out of pockets or bags secretly.

9. A person who engages in extortion.

Grammar exercises

Exercise 1. Choose an adjective or an adverb to make sentences grammatically correct.

Examples: It is clear. I see it clearly.

1. It is (correct, correctly).

2. Spell the word (correct, correctly).

3. You know it (good, well).

4. Of course it is (good, well).

5. It is (cold, coldly) in the room.

6. Don’t look so (cold, coldly) at me.

7. It is (easy, easily).

8. I can do it (easy, easily).

9. It is (warm, warmly) today.

10. He always greets us (warm, warmly).


Exercise 2. Give the Comparative and Superlative Degrees.

Sad, grey, bad, old, happy, free, far, dry, big, near, shy, unusual, able, mountainous, little, polite, famous, well-known, heavy.


Exercise 3. Put adjectives into correct forms.

1. John is (young) of the 3 brothers.

2. The Sun is (bright) the Moon.

3. Is the diameter of Jupiter (big) than that of the Earth?

4. That room is (light) than yours.

5. This room is (large) than the one upstairs.

6. It doesn’t take (much) than four days to cross the Atlantic, does it?


Exercise 4.Choose the correct form of an adjective.

1. Jane is the (taller — tallest) of the 2 girls.

2. Father was the (eldest — elder) of seven sons.

3. Albert is (elder — older) than John.

4. I think your plan is the (best — better) of the two.

5. This is the (most large-largest) power — station, I’ve ever seen.

6. Henry is the (oldest — eldest) of the 3 brothers.


Lesson 8

Business Law

Exercise 1.Read and learn the following words and expressions.

BusinessLaw – предпринимательское право, право торгового оборота

сorporation – корпорация

partnership – партнерство

employment – трудоустройство

venturecapital – капитал, вложенный с риском

commercialleas – договор аренды промышленной площади

mandatorydisclosure – обязательное соглашение

securities –ценные бумаги

dissolution – аннулирование, прекращение

negotiations – переговоры

amendment – поправка

entitlement – документ о праве, предоставление права

aliencorporation – иностранная корпорация

AppellateCourt – апелляционный суд

assignment – передача права, уступка

authority – власть, правительство

Board of Directors – советдиректоров

Breach of Contact – нарушениедоговора

CommonLaw – общееправо

complaint – жалоба

equity – налоговая сумма на маржевом счете

infringement – нарушение, ущемление

void – не имеющий юридической силы


Exercise 2.Read and translate the text.

In broad terms, business law refers to a large body of federal, state, and local laws that govern the formation and daily operation of business entities, ranging from corporations to partnerships. Understanding the basics of these laws is a beneficial step to take, whether one is starting a new business, maintaining an existing business or selling a business.

Business law can be incredibly complex due to how many different areas fall under the category. Generally, business law areas are:

- Contracts law

- Competition law

- Employment law

- Securities law

- Federal and State Tax law

- Venture capital

As mentioned above, local ordinances, state, and federal laws all play a role in certain aspects of the business. Thus, while business and commercial laws of each state will offer the main guidance, a local ordinance or federal regulation may also play a crucial role.

Nearly every aspect of a business, from startup to dissolution, will be affected in some way by a set of laws. For instance, the business laws of a state and local area will affect how the parties conduct commercial leases. Moreover, the laws of a state will play a large role in franchising and the financial documentation required for buying or selling a business.

The laws of each state will help determine the type of business organization structure most appropriate for a business. Both state and federal business and commercial laws regulate requirements of employment decisions, sales contracts and negotiations. Finally, federal laws will control certain mandatory disclosures and the sale of securities.


Exercise 3.Answer the questions.

1. What does business law refer to?

2. Is business law simple or complex? Why?

3. What business law areas do exist?

4. What will play an important role in franchising and the financial documentations?

5. What will control certain mandatory disclosures and the sale of securities?

Vocabulary exercises

Exercise 1.Continue the sentences.

1. Local ordinances, state, and federal laws all play a role in certain aspects of the _____.

2. Local ordinance or federal regulation may also _____.

3. Nearly every aspect of a business will be affected in some way by _____.

4. The business laws of a state and local area will affect how the parties conduct _____.

5. Business law refers to a large body of _____.

6. Business law can be incredibly complex due to _____.


Exercise 2.Cathy replies to Thierry's email. First put the words into sentences and then put the sentences in the correct order.


Dear Mr. Schwarz

  compromise /a /suggest/Perhaps/could/here  
  to / happy/ suggested amendments / with / I / clauses 1.2 and 4.5 / the / am  
  let / if / know / be / possible / Please / might / me / this  
  Take / extra month / to /give / it / would / which / an / it / me / also / in  
  year / would / stands / still / eight days' leave / As / risk / up to / a / it / losing  
  the / sending / amendments / Thank you / yesterday / me / for / contract  
  by / would / the end of / any / leave / have to/ February / I / Furthermore / take / unused  
  by / end / ten days / taken / the / you / to / Would / to / March / agree / be / of?  
  me / 25 / minimum / days' / would / a / of / This / leave / guarantee  
  am / about / leave entitlement / little / However / clause / a / the / I / concerned  

Kind regards

Cathy O'Brien


Exercise 3.Match the words with its definitions.

1 alien corporation a to take into police custody.
2 Appellate Court b a situation in which one of the parties to a contract fails or otherwise refuses to perform the obligation established in that contract
3 arrest c a written request initiating a civil suit
4 assignment d customs that have become recognized by the courts as binding on the community
5 Authority e a means whereby one party conveys rights to another person who is not a party to the original contract
6 Board of Directors f court hearing cases appealed from lower courts
7 Breach of Contract g one that is incorporated in a foreign country
8 Business Law h a body of persons elected by the stockholders to define and establish corporate policy
9 Common Law i those rules of conduct prescribed by a government and its agencies, regulating business transactions
10 Complaint (petition)    j power to act for someone else



Grammar exercises

Exercise 1.Complete these sentences with the correct preposition.

1. I am working _____ a very interesting merger project at the moment.

2. A landlord is a person who receives rent _____ someone.

3. I’m afraid that this firm does not deal _____ criminal law.

4. I am based _____ Stockholm at the moment.

5. In your claim form you have made some very serious allegations _____ my client.

6. She imports goods _____ Germany from China.

7. Which judge is presiding _____ this case?

8. We will lend you the money subject _____ confirmation of the amount of your salary.

9. Please send a cheque _____ £20 to this address.

10. Have you heard the news? Jennifer and Steven have gone _____ partnership.


Exercise 2.Fill in the preposition in / on / at where it is necessary.

1. Lucy is arriving _____ February the 13th _____ eight o'clock _____ the morning.

2. The weather is often terrible in London _____ January.

3.It's better to get taxi if you are out alone _____ night.

4. She got married ____ September.

5. They usually go to the south of France _____ the summer.

6. Columbus sailed to the Americas _____ the 16th century.

7. The Beatles were popular _____ the 1960s.

8. I graduated from university _____ 2001.

9. His birthday is _____ June.

10. I usually go to my parents' house _____ Christmas. We eat turkey together _____ Christmas Day.


Exercise 3.Fill the gaps with the correct prepositions.

1. We live ____ London.

2.Would you like to go _____ the cinema tonight?

3. No, thanks. I was _____ the cinema yesterday.

4. We are going _____ holiday next week.

5. There is a bridge _____ the river.

6. The flight from Leipzig to London was _____ Frankfurt.

7. _____ my wall, there are many picture postcards.

8. Who is the person _____ this picture?

9. Come _____ the sitting room, we want to watch TV.

10. Munich lies 530 meters _____ sea level.


Exerise 4.Choose the correct variant.

1. …Smiths have a dog and a cat.

a) … b) The c) A

2. He knows how to work on … computer.

a) a b) an c) …

3. She was the first woman to swim across … English Channel.

a) a b) … c) the

4. Go down … Kingston Street and turn left into Oxford Street.

a) the b) a c) …

5. I don’t like milk in … tea.

a) … b) the с) а

6. At the end of… busy day, sleep is the best way to restore your energy.

a) the b) a c) …

7. We’ll go for a walk if … weather is fine.

a) a b) … c) the

8. Could you give me … information I asked for in my letter?

a) the b) … c) a

9. …war is a terrible thing.

a) The b) … с) А

10. I spent … very interesting holiday in England.

a) the b) a c) …


Exercise 5.Fill in the correct article.

1. “Is this your _____ friend?” — “No, it isn’t my _____ friend, it is my sister”.

2. I have _____ sister. My _____ sister is _____ teacher. My sister’s _____ husband is _____ pilot.

3. I have no _____ car.

4. She has got _____ terrible _____ headache.

5. They have _____ dog and two _____ cats.

6. My _____ cousin says he is going to be _____ manager one _____ day.

7. Would you like _____ apple?

8. This is _____ tree. _____tree is green.

9. I can see three _____ children. _____children are playing in _____ yard.

10. I have _____ car. _____car is white. My _____ friend has no _____ car.


Exercise 6. Fill in the articles in the proverbs if necessary.

1. _____ apple _____ day keeps _____ doctor away.

2. _____ appetite comes with eating.

3. _____ good beginning makes _____ good ending.

4. _____bird in _____ hand is worth two in _____ bush.

5. Among _____ blind _____ one-eyed man is king.

6. _____ brevity is _____ soul of wit.

7. _____ cat has nine lives.

8. _____ charity begins at _____ home.

9. _____ clothes make _____ man.

10. _____ curiosity killed _____ cat.

Test yourself

See how much legalvocabulary you have learned. Use the clues to complete the crossword puzzle.








3                 4       5     6    









9                         10            
    11     12   13         14              
    17                 18                


              22                     23  
        24     25     26                  


3. The pay and benefits from your employer in return for the work you do

5. Shareholders’ capital

7. If you act in accordance with a contract, then you ... with it.

8. You ... a provision in a contract if you wish to base your case on it.

10. To take legal action against another party

12. A type of firm without a separate legal identity to which two or more people belong

17. A document explaining the constitution of a company and its internal decision-making procedures

18. A provision or an entire contract that places an obligation on a party can be described as ... .

19. If you no longer wish to make use of a right, you can ... it.

20 A patent holder

22. A violation of an intellectual property right

24. The clause containing factors that prevent performance in a contract and that are beyond control

27. A change to a legal document

28. A liquidator is said to ... an asset if he or she sells it in order to be able to pay creditors.


1. Another word for earlier or before

2. A decision or intention agreed by shareholders ata formal meeting

4. A company that is no longer able to meet its financial obligations is ... .

5.To create new shares and offer them for sale

9. In the case of insolvency this is a type of creditor, e.g. an employee

11. If a sum of money is paid in regular smaller amounts, each of these amounts is an ... .

13. Payments made to authors or composers based on the sales of their work

14. Detailed information about the features and properties of a product

15. Describing acontract, this means invalid from the beginning or not effective.

16. Having the right to something

21. Any form of collateral for a loan

23. A company which others are aiming to take over is a ... company.

25. Another word for agree or agreement

26. Things that belong to a company or a person


Lesson 9

Setting up a business

Exercise 1.Read and learn the following words and expressions.

Words and Phrases

agreement - договор, соглашение

cash – деньги, наличные деньги

debts – долги, задолженность

onyourown – по своему усмотрению, самостоятельно

personallyliable - несущий персональную ответственность

profits – доход, прибыль

publicly - публично; открыто

separate - отдельный; обособленный; разрозненный, разъединённый

shareholding - владение акциями

self-employed - индивидуальный предприниматель

soletrader - физическое лицо-предприниматель, индивидуальный предприниматель

manage - руководить, управлять

taxauthority - налоговый орган

liability - обязательство, ответственность

partnership – сотрудничество

private - частный, личный, персональный, приватный

equity - справедливость; беспристрастность, объективность

limitedliabilitypartnership (LLP) - партнёрство с ограниченной ответственностью

limitedcompanies - товарищество, общество, компания с ограниченной ответственностью

Register of Companies – книга для регистрации акционерных компаний, регистр акционерных компаний

tangibleassets - материальные средства

articlesofassociation - устав юридического лица , устав акционерного общества; устав корпорации

Ltd (privatelimitedcompany) - компания с ограниченной ответственностью, закрытая акционерная компания

Plc (PublicLimitedCompany) - открытое акционерное общество

Setting up a business

Exercise 1.Deborah Evans, a solicitor in the law firm Garfield Brown, is writing a brochure for the firm's clients about the different business structures in the United Kingdom. Translate the text and fill the gaps with the words supplied below.

Working for yourself

lf you work for yourself, you are self-employed and are described as a sole trader. You do not have to register your business in order to set it up: you simply start trading and manage the business ____________ . However, once your business makes a certain amount of money every year, you must register with the tax authority. As a sole trader, there is no limit to the amount of capital you can take out of the business, but on the other hand, you have unlimited liability for your____________ .


There are two main types of partnership in the U.K. The oldest is the general partnership. This business vehicle does not have a separate legal identity from the people who form it. This means that the partners are____________ without limit for the debts of the firm. A written partnership ____________ is recommended but is not required by law. A generaI partnership can keep its partnership agreement and its financial information private. Partners do not have to provide a minimum amount of equity by law but they usually agree to pay capital into the firm when they join the partnership. The second type of partnership the U.K. is the limited liability partnership (LLP). Unlike a general partnership, the partners are called members. They are still the ____________ of the business, but their liability for the debts of the firm is limited. However, every LLP must publish regular financial information about itself.

Limited companies

These business structures must be registered on the Register of Companies and have a____________ legal identity. This means the members are only liable to pay for their ____________in the company. lt is the company that is liable to its creditors. When a company is formed, its owners will normally put capitaI into it. However, this company capital does not have to consist entirely of ____________- tangible assets e.g. machinery can also be contributed. Limited companies must also have a written agreement - called the articles of association. The two main types of limited company are the private company (which has Limited or Ltd in its name) and the public company, or plc. A plc is often - but not always -a company whose shares are traded____________ i.e. anyone is allowed to buy them. For these companies there is a minimum amount of capital and there are different requirements regarding directors and accounting procedures.


Exercise 3.Translate the following terms and word combinations, write down unknown words. 

self-employed; sole trader; on your own; to register your business; working for yourself; shareholding; personally liable; tax authority; unlimited liability; partnership; tangible assets; articles of association; Ltd (private limited company); Register of Companies



Exercise 4.Find the equivalents of the following word combinations in the text.

Работать на себя; вам не надо регистрировать свой бизнес, что бы открыть свое дело; зарегистрироваться в налоговом органе; индивидуальный предприниматель; сотрудничество; материальные средства; устав корпорации; открытое акционерное общество; компания с ограниченной ответственностью; регистр акционерных компаний; письменное соглашение; существуют разные требования

Exercise 5.Translate the following sentences. 

1) If you work for yourself, you are self-employed and are described as a sole trader.

2) However, once your business makes a certain amount of money every year, you must register with the tax authority.

3) There are two main types of partnership in the U.K. The oldest is the general partnership.

4) It is the company that is liable to its creditors.

5) For these companies there is a minimum amount of capital and there are different requirements regarding directors and accounting procedures.

Exercise 6.Which of the following statements are true and which are false?

1) lf you work for yourself, you are self-employed and are described as a sole trader.

2) Limited companies must also have a written agreement - called the articles of association.

3) Unlike a general partnership, the partners are called mates.

4) For these companies there is a maximum amount of capital and there are different requirements regarding directors and accounting procedures.


Grammar Exercise

Exercise 1. Make the sentences by your own using the modal verbs from this table.


Must должен, нужно, следует (необходимость совершения действия), должно быть

Need нужно, необходимо

Can  мочь, уметь (физическая возможность)

May можно (разрешение на совершение действия)

Will  упорное желание или нежелание совершить действие, относящееся к настоящему времени


Exercise 2. Translate the sentences into Russian.

1. You must learn all these new words.

2. I can't translate the text myself. I need your help.

3. You needn't translate the sentences.

4. May I ask you to wait a little? I am not ready yet.

5. You needn't go there today.

6. Can you speak English well? – No, I am afraid, I can't. I must work hard at it.

7. May I smoke here? – Excuse me, but you mustn't.

8. I cannot translate this text without dictionary. Can you help me?

9. We can stay after classes and work in the lab together.

10. We can't investigate criminal cases now.

10. The car won't start.

11. The prisoner wouldn't eat and speak.


Exercise 4. Fill in the gaps using can/can’t, could or must.

1. I'm really hungry. I _____ eat a horse.

2. You've been traveling all day. You _____ be very tired.

3. If you're very hungry, we ______ have dinner now.

4. Congratulations on passing your exam. You ______ be very pleased.

5. The restaurant _______ be very good. It's always empty.

6. The weather is nice now but it _______ change later.

7. Bill and Sue go away on holiday very often, so they _______be short of money.

8. When I was young, I ______ stand on my head.

9. You ______ listen to your teacher.

10. When I entered the house, I ______ smell fresh bread baking.

11. You ______ study hard to pass the exams.

12. Tony is clever. He ______ speak three languages.

13. I ______ afford to by that bag. It's too expensive.

14. I ______ remember to buy Sally a present.

15. I haven't got any money now, but I _______ pay you tomorrow.


Exercise 5. Read the following and try to remember the difference between must and have to/has to.


Must and have to both express obligation and so are often used in the same way, but there is a slight difference in meaning.



Example: My car's dirty. I must clean it.


Must is used for personal obligation:

I must clean it (I think it is necessary to clean it). Have /has to

Example: She has to type correspondence for both managers.


Has/Have to is more impersonal:

She has to type (this is one of the obligations of her work contract).

? Must

Example: Must you leave so soon? Do/Does ... have to ... ?

Example: Do you have to go?


Must ... ? and do/does ... have to ... ? can be used in the same way, but do/does ... have to ... ? is more common than must ... ?


- Mustn't

Example: They mustn't smoke at work. It's forbidden.


Mustn't expresses prohibition. Don't/doesn't have to

Example: They don't have to wear a tie at work.


Don't/doesn't have to means that there is no obligation (They can wear a tie if they like, of course!).


Exercise 6. Fill in the gaps with must or have to/has to according to the rules.

1. Everyone _____ pay their tax by the Pay As You Earn (PAYE) scheme.

2. She _____ carry such heavy books. She has a very bad back problem.

3. We _____ give a presentation to the Board this afternoon.

4. _____ you write the reports yourself?

5. He _____ speak German with our clients in Hamburg. They all speak excellent English.

6. I _____ meet my boss every Monday morning to discuss the sales figures.

7. You _____ leave your car there. That's the Managing Director's parking bay.

8. I _____ send my mother some flowers. It's her birthday tomorrow.

9. How often … he take the car in for a service?


Exercise 7. Complete the following sentences using the most appropriate forms of the verbs.

1. Jack has got a headache. He … sleep well recently.

a) can’t

b) couldn’t have

c) hasn’t been able to

2. I … sleep for hours when I was a little girls.

a) could

b) am able to

c) can

3. Tom … play tennis well but he … play a game yesterday because he was ill.

a) couldn’t, could

b) can, was able

c) can, couldn’t

4. I didn’t want to be late for the meeting. We … meet at 5 sharp.

a) were to

b) had to

c) could

5. Where are my gloves? — I … put them on because it’s cold today.

a) can’t

b) have to

c) needn’t

6. You … take an umbrella today. The Sun is shining.

a) needn’t

b) mustn’t

c) can’t

7. I’m sorry, you didn’t invite me to your birthday party. You … invite me next time.

a) must

b) should

c) need to

8. Well, it’s 10 o’clock. I … go now.

a) can

b) has to

c) must

9. You … smoke so much.

a) would

b) can’t

c) shouldn’t

10. We have got plenty of time. We … hurry.

a) must

b) needn’t

c) should


Exercise 8. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Вы должны бросить курить.

2. Вечеринка была замечательная. Вам следовало прийти.

3. Ты можешь решить эту проблему.

4. Тебе следует навестить своего больного друга.

5. Тебе следовало навестить своего больного друга, но ты не навестил.

7. Я вынужден был сделать это.

8. Я не знаю, почему мы спешили. Нам не нужно было спешить.

10. Ты можешь делать все, что хочешь.

12. Я не уверен, но возможно он неправ.

13. Ему разрешили взять машину своего отца в прошлую пятницу.


Exercise 9. There is a mistake in each sentence. Correct the mistakes.

1. Actors may learn a lot of dialogues by heart.

2. Your glass is empty. Must I refill it?

3. Would I introduce Mr. Brown to you?

4. My sister can to play a few musical instruments.

5. Some years ago I didn’t can speak English.


Lesson 10

New business proposals

Exercise 1.Read and learn the following words and expressions.

proposals – предложение, план

guarantee - гарантия; обязательство, поручительство

loan - заём, ссуда

default - невыполнение (обязательств); несоблюдение (правил)

repay - отдавать, возвращать (долг и т. п.); погашать (заём и т. п.)

hesitate - колебаться; сомневаться, не решаться

summarize - суммировать, резюмировать, подводить итог

debt - долг, обязательство

equity - . право справедливости; правосудие на основе права справедливости

initially - в начальной стадии, в начале; в исходном положении

obtain - получать; добывать; приобретать

assets - актив (баланса)

obligations - гарантия, обязательство

relateto – относиться к чему то

behalf - помощь; защита; поддержка, интерес, выгода, польза

enclose - вкладывать (в конверт, письмо); прилагать

externalinvestor – иностранный инвестор

transfer - переносить, перемещать

issue - иметь результатом, кончаться (чем-л.)

Exercise 2.A day later Deborah Flynn sends Miya Osborne the following letter. Put the six paragraphs into the correct order.

Dear Mrs Osborne

New business proposals

a) Accordingly, I must stress that a bank will usually ask you to guarantee the loan personally, which it might make to your company and take your house as security. This would mean that, if the company defaulted on the loan, the bank would require you to repay it. If you could not afford to do so, the bank would take legal proceedings to sell your house and recover its money.

b) I look forward to meeting you again next week as arranged. Meanwhile if you have any questions about the matters I have raised in this letter, please do not hesitate to contact me on my direct line, which is set out at the top of the page.

c) Following our meeting this morning, I write to summarize my advice and set out the steps, which you should take now.

d) As you explained, your business has now reached a point where it needs to expand and requires external funding to do this. Your choices are between debt (that is, a bank loan) and equity (that is, financing through shares bought by an investor). Bank loans are available to you as a sole trader and would also be available if you were to form a company. You explained initially that you were interested in obtaining a bank loan to pay for some of the expansion, but that you were worried about the effect that this might have on your personal assets, particularly your house.

e) If you decide to incorporate the business as just described, then you will be under more legal obligations than you were as a sole trader. These obligations relate to the ways in which you can take money out of the company, and the ways in which you make valid decisions on behalf of the company. I enclose a copy of our firm's booklet Running your new company which gives some examples of these obligations and explains a little about the constitution of the company.

f) Turning to financing through shares, this option is not available to sole traders or partnerships and is only possible if you form a company. Since an external investor is already interested in investing in your business, I would advise the formation of a private company as the most practical option. The assets of the business would be transferred from you as their owner to the company and shares would be issued to you and the other shareholders.

Yours sincerely

Deborah Flynn


Answers: 1__ 2__ 3__ 4__ 5__ 6__

Exercise 2.Translate the following terms and word combinations, write down unknown words. 

guarantee the loan personally; legal proceedings; direct line; bank loan; equity; investor; sole trader; to form a company; expansion; personal assets; to incorporate the business; legal obligations; valid decisions; enclose a copy; external investor


Exercise 3.Find the equivalents of the following word combinations in the text.

предложение; иностранный инвестор; вкладывать; обязательство; возвращать; невыполнение (обязательств); относиться к чему то; вкладывать в бизнес; правовые процедуры; устав; практическая возможность; актив (баланса)

Exercise 4.Translate the following sentences. 

1) ) Accordingly, I must stress that a bank will usually ask you to guarantee the loan personally, which it might make to your company and take your house as security.

2) If you could not afford to do so, the bank would take legal proceedings to sell your house and recover its money.

3) I look forward to meeting you again next week as arranged.

4) As you explained, your business has now reached a point where it needs to expand and requires external funding to do this.

5) Turning to financing through shares, this option is not available to sole traders or partnerships and is only possible if you form a company.

Exercise 5.Which of the following statements are true and which are false?

1) The assets of the business would not be transferred from you as their owner to the company and shares would not be issued to you and the other shareholders.

2) I enclose a copy of our firm's booklet Running your new company which gives some examples of these obligations and explains a little about the constitution of the company.

3) Since an external investor is not already interested in investing in your business, I would not advise the formation of a private company as the most practical option.

4) Bank loans are available to you as a sole trader and would also be available if you were to form a company.






I She He It was


I She He It wasn’t (was not)


You We They were You We They (were not)



Short answers

Was   I She He It





I She He It was. wasn’t  
Were You We They You We They were weren’t


Grammar exercises:

Exercise 6.Put the verb in brackets in the correct form to make different form of the Present Continuous Tense.

1. John _________(read) a book now.

2. What_________(you do) tonight?

3. Jack and Peter_______ (work) late today.

4. Silvia__________(not listen) to music.

5. Maria_________(sit) next to Paul.

6. How many other students _________ (you study) with?

7. The phone _________ (notring).

Exercise 7. Put the words in the correct order to make different sentences in the Present Continuous Tense - positive; negative; yes/no and information questions.

1. looking / for / I'm / my / glasses.


2. What/ reading? / are / kind / you / book / of


3. crying? / is / Pamela / Why


4. at University. / Kharkov / studying / economics / National / Paul / is


5. everyone / laughing? / is / Why


6. Are / me? / for / you / waiting


7. are / When / you / leaving?


8. working / Arabia / moment. / the / at / John / is / in / Saudi


9. for / as / you? / company / Jennifer / the / same / Is / working


10. do / you / come? / want / - / Saturday / I'm / party / having / next / a / to



Lesson 11

Why businesses should be wary of going after eBay fakes

Exercise 1.Read and learn the following words and expressions.

lawless - беззаконный, попирающий законы; противозаконный, преступный

infringement - нарушение (закона, клятвы)

intellectualproperty – интеллектуальная собственность

unprecedented scale - беспрецедентныймасштаб

intermediaries - посредник

middleman - комиссионер; агент, маклер, посредник

immune - пользующийся неприкосновенностью, иммунитетом

prosecution - судебное преследование, предъявление иска

infringingmaterial - контрафактный материал

burdensome - обременительный, тягостный, тяжёлый, тяжкий

copycat -подражатель

liability - обязательство, ответственность

allegations - заявление (обычно перед судом)

merit - заслуга, достоинство, добродетель

injunction - судебный запрет, запретительная норма

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