Ex. 4. Match the Russian terms with their English equivalents

1. начальный капитал a) to become a fully fledged member
2. внедрить в производство b) the European Court of Human Rights
3. валовый национальный продукт c) to combat corruption
4. высокотехнологическая продукция d) a self-sufficient market economy
5. на душу населения e) not to answer the criteria to attract investments
6. стать полноправным членом f) gross domestic product (GDP)
7. Европейский суд по защите прав и свободы человека g) to carry out
8. бороться с коррупцией h) the “seed” capital
9. самостоятельно функционирующая рыночная экономика i) modern products
10. не соответствовать критериям для прилива инвестиций j) per capita


Ex. 5. Translate the sentences into English using the key-terms given in Ex. 4.

1. Всемирная торговая организация считает Украину страной с рыночной экономикой, чей инвестиционный климат ниже за критерии, достаточные для прилива инвестиций.

2. Создание свободной от вмешательства страны, самостоятельно функционирующей рыночной экономики, - лучший способ для борьбы с коррупцией.

3. Эта страна прикладывает усилия, чтобы стать полноправным членом Европейского сообщества.

4. Уже ратифицированы несколько международных и Европейских конвенций, которые позволяют защищать свои права в Европейском суде по защите прав и свобод человека в Страсбурге.

5. Украинские предприниматели без начального капитала могут ворваться на рынок передового оборудования и выпускать высокотехнологическую продукцию.

6. У нас есть несколько разработок, которые мы сами не можем внедрить в производство, но партнёры за границей заинтересованы в их реализации, что можно сделать общими усилиями.

7. Развитые страны владеют 97% мирового количества патентов, и всего в 33 странах валовый национальный продукт на душу населения ежегодно возрастает на 3%.




The forms of the Infinitive

Infinitive Active Passive
Indefinite to write to be written
Continuous to be writing -
Perfect to have written to have been written
Perfect Continuous to have been writing -


Ex. 6. Translate the following quotations into Ukrainian and state the form of the Infinitive.

1. Better to remain silent and to be thought a fool, than to speak out and remove all doubt. (A. Lincoln)

2. It is easy to be brave from a safe distance. (Aesop)

3. It is a sweet and glorious thing to die for one’s country. (Horace)

4. To think is to see (H. de Balzac)

5. Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed and some few to be chewed and digested, that is some books are to be read only in parts others to be read but not curiously, and some few to be read wholly, and with diligence and attention. (F. Bacon)

6. To ask advice is in nine cases out of ten to tout for flattery. (J. Collins)

7. When you have nothing to say, say nothing. (Ch. Cotton)

8. To see what is right and not to do it, is want of courage. (Confucius)

9. All we ask is to be let alone. (D. Jefferson)

10. To tax and to please, no more than to love and to be wise, is not given to men. (E. Burke)

11. It is better to be faithful than famous. (Th. Roosevelt)

12. Necessity knows no law except to conquer. (P. Syrus)

13.  To do two things at once is to do neither. (P. Syrus)

14. It is better to understand a little than to misunderstand a lot. (A. Trance)


Ex. 7. Translate the following sentences into English paying attention to the form of the Infinitive.

1. Вопрос, который будет обсуждаться на конференции, очень важен.

2. Страна, которая нарушила права торговли, должна отвечать за это.

3. Они были очень довольны, что уладили торговые разногласия.

4. Страна, которая потерпела, имеет право наложить штрафные санкции на товары, что доставляются из другой страны.

5. Всемирная торговая организация создаёт правила ведения торговли и улаживает торговые споры между странами.

6. Товары, которые будут производиться на этом предприятии, отвечают мировым стандартам.

7. Члены делегации были довольны тем, что были ознакомлены с работой нашего предприятия.

8. Мы надеялись, что обе стороны примут условия договора вовремя.




    Although the WTO is a relatively new international institution, its creation is firmly tied to the past. The push to create a world trade body gathered force in aftermath of the many restrictive trade rules adopted worldwide during the Great Depression. After the Depression began in 1929, many nations placed large tariffs on imports to protect domestic industries and jobs. Most economists now agree that these tariffs aggravated the economic downturn by crippling trade and hurting companies that depended on overseas markets.

    After World War II (1939-1945) Western diplomats and economists pushed to establish an international organization that would promote freer trade. The United States proposed setting up a body called the International Trade Organization (ITO), which would have extensive powers to enforce world trade rules. This organization was to complement two other institutions established shortly after the war to bolster the world economy: the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. The IMF’s purpose was to help stabilize the currencies and economies of many nations, and the World Bank was empowered to make large, low-interest loans to nations to spur their economic growth.

    The ITO never got off the ground, however. The primary reason was the failure by U.S. president Harry Truman to persuade the Congress of the United States to approve the organization. Many members of Congress were concerned that the ITO would have the power to declare U.S. trade regulations illegal. Without the participation of the United States the world’s largest importer and exporter the organization collapsed.

    In 1947, with the fate of the ITO still unclear, diplomats agreed to set up a far less powerful body called the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). That Geneva-based organization had two roles: to oversee negotiations, to reduce tariffs and other trade barriers and to adjudicate trade disputes. GATT proved highly successful in lowering tariffs. During eight rounds of trade talks, the last of which ended in 1994, tariffs in the industrial world fell from more than 40 percent of the value of all industrial goods traded internationally to less than 4 percent.

    However, GATT was less successful in settling trade disputes because of its limited enforcement powers. To resolve disagreements, it relied largely on achieving a consensus, but a consensus often did not develop. In addition, GATT’s dispute-resolution procedures were slow, sometimes taking three years or more. Many nations became frustrated with GATT’s inability to remove numerous long-standing trade barriers or halt the creation of new ones.

    In decades past, trade barriers erected by one country often triggered retaliatory measures from other countries. These actions sometimes led to spiraling rounds of increasing tariffs and other barriers that cut deeply into international trade. Eager to prevent such trade wars, many nations that were dissatisfied with GATT backed the creation of a powerful new organization to quickly settle trade disputes with as little ill feeling as possible. At a 1994 conference in Marrakesh, Morocco, representatives from 109 nations agreed to replace GATT with the WTO, in the hope that the new trade body would be more powerful and effective than its predecessor. The WTO began operating on January 1, 1995.


    Vocabulary notes

crippling trade –убыточная торговля

to bolster –поддерживать

to be empowered –быть наделённым властью, полномочиями

to spur –дать толчок

to adjudicate –принимать решение на правовых основах

to become frustrated –разочаровываться (в данном случае)

to trigger –дать начало, стимулировать

retaliatory measures –мероприятия, применяемые в ответ

predecessor -предшественник




How can you ensure that trade is as fair as possible, and as free as is practical? By negotiating rules and abiding by them.

    The WTO’s rules – the agreements – are the result of negotiations between the members. The current set were the outcome of the 1986-94 Uruguay Round negotiations which included a major revision of the original General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).

    GATT is now the WTO’s principal rule-book for trade in goods. The Uruguay Round also created new rules for dealing with trade in services, relevant aspects of intellectual property, dispute settlement, and trade policy reviews. The complete set runs to some 30,000 pages consisting of About 30 agreements and separate commitments (called schedules) made by individual members in specific areas such as lower customs duty rates and services market – opening.

    Through these agreements, WTO members operate a non-discriminatory trading system that spells out their obligations. Each country receives guarantees that its export will be treated fairly and consistently in other countries’ markets. Each promises to do the same for imports into its own market. The system also gives developing countries some flexibility in implementing their commitments.


        It all began with trade in goods. From 1947 to 1994, GATT was the forum for negotiating lower customs duty rates and other trade barriers; the text of the General Agreements spelt out important rules, particularly non-discrimination.

    Since 1995, the updated GATT has become the WTO’s umbrella agreements for trade in goods. It has annexes dealing with specific sectors such as agriculture and textiles, and with specific issues such as state trading, product standards, subsidies and actions taken against dumping.


    Banks, insurance firms, telecommunications companies, tour operators, hotel chains and transport companies looking to do business abroad can now enjoy the same principles of freer and fairer trade that originally only applied to trade in goods.

    These principles appear in the new General Agreements on Trade in Services (CATT’S). WTO members have also made individual commitments under GATT’S stating which of their services sectors are willing to open to foreign competition, and how open those markets are.

    Intellectual property.

    The WTO’s intellectual property agreement amounts to rules for trade and investment in ideas and creativity. The rules state how copyrights, patents, trademarks, geographical names used to identify products, industrial designs, integrated circuit layout-designs and undisclosed information such as trade secrets – “intellectual property” – should be protected when trade is involved.

    Dispute settlement.

    The WTO’s procedure for resolving trade quarrels under the Dispute Settlement Understanding is vital for enforcing the rules and therefore for ensuring that trade flows smoothly. Countries bring dispute to the WTO if they think their rights under the agreements are being infringed. Judgements by specially – appointed independent experts are based on interpretations of the agreements and individual countries’ commitments.

    The system encourages countries to settle their differences through consultation. Failing that, they can follow a carefully mapped out, stage-by-stage procedure that includes the possibility of a ruling by a panel of experts, and the chance to appeal the ruling on legal grounds. Confidence in the system is born out by the number of cases brought to the WTO-almost 250 cases in seven years compared to some 300 disputes dealt with during the entire life of GATT (194u-1994).

Policy review.

The Trade Policy Review Mechanism’s purpose is to improve transparency, to create a greater understanding of the policies that countries are adopting, and to assess their impact. Many members also see the review as constructive feedback on their policies.

All WTO members must undergo periodic scrutiny, each review containing reports by the country concerned and the WTO Secretariat.


Vocabulary notes

to abide –придерживаться (правил)

commitment –обязательства

to infringe –нарушать (права)

to undergo scrutiny – подлежать отчётности

dumping –демпинг

to map out –прикинуть

layout-designs –проектные замыслы



Ukraine and the WTO

Background Information

The WTO began operating on January 1, 1995. It is the only global International organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations. The main goal of the WTO is to help producers of goods and services, exporters and importers conduct their business.


Ukraine first knocked on the door of the WTO in July 1994 and is waiting in line with other countries for membership. The WTO officials said “It’s a long process because Ukraine has to incorporate all WTO regulations into its domestic legislation and convince all the members that all its laws in the field of agriculture, products, services and intellectual property are compliant”. Ukraine joined in the WTO in 2009.

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