Text 3.APPLICATION OF COMPUTERS
1.At present a great deal of the work force of most countries is engaged in creating, processing, storing, communicating and just working with information. Computers have become commonplace in homes, offices, stores, schools, research institutes, plants.
The use of computers in business, industry and communication services is widespread today. Computer-controlled robots are able to improve the quality of manufactured products and to increase the productivity of industry. Computers can control the work of power stations, plants and docks. They help in making different decisions and in management of economy.
The work of banks depends upon computer terminals for millions of daily operations. Without these terminals, records of deposits and withdrawals would be difficult to maintain, and it would be impossible to make inquiries about the current status of customer accounts.
Computers form a part of many military systems including communication and fire control. They are applied for automatic piloting and automatic navigation. Space exploration depends on computers for guidance, on-board environment and research.
2. Computers find application in astronomy and upper atmosphere research. Weather forecasting, library information services can benefit from computers too.
It is interesting to note that computers are widely used in medicine. They became valuable medical diagnostic tools. Computers are used for optical scanning and image processing, ranging from pattern recognition to image processing. Technicians can operate computer tomography scanners which combine x-rays with computer technology to give sectional views of the body of patients. The views then can be combined into a single image shown on the screen.
It should be noticed that learning on a computer can be fun. Students spend more time with computer-aided instruction performing the assigned task, as compared with conventional classroom.
At last air traffic control is impossible without computer application. It fully depends upon computer-generated information.
Many other uses of computers that we cannot imagine at present will become commonplace in the transition from an industrial to post industrial, or information society.
to maintain records — вести учет
deposits and withdrawal — вклады и изъятие (выемка)
guidance — наведение (на цель); управление; руководство
on-board environment — бортовое окружение pattern recognition — распознавание образов
1. Выберите вариант, который лучше всего выражает главную идею текста 2.
a) Computers are devices that accept information in the form of instructions.
в) The switches are usualy in one of two states: magnetized or demagnetized.
c) Computers are remarkable devices serving for processing and storage the information and for solving problems.
Вставьте необходимые слова вместо пропусков.
1. Information is given into the computer in the form of________.
a) ideas; b) characters; c) rules
2. The basic function of a computer is_________information.
a) to switch; b) to keep; c) to process
3. The data needed for solving problems are kept in the __________.
a) memory; b) input device; c) output device
4. Inputting information into the computer is realized by means of_________.
a) a printer; b) letters; c) diskettes
5. A computer can carry out arithmetic-logical operations ___________.
a) quickly; b) instantaneously; c) during some minutes
6. Computers have become___________in homes, offices, research institutes.
a) commonwealth; b) commonplace; c) common room
7. Space___________uses computers widely.
a) information; b) production; c) exploration
8. Computers are used for image_____________.
a) processing; b) operating; c) producing
9. Computers help in_________of economy.
a) invironment; b) management; c) government.
10. Air traffic control depends on computer-__________information.
a) generated; b) instructed; c) combined
3. Подберите к терминам, данным в левой колонке, определения, представленные справа.
|| a) a machine by which information is received from the computer;
|| b) a device capable of storing and manipulating numbers, letters and characters;
| Input device
|| c) an electronic machine that processes data under the control of a stored program;
|| d) a disk drive reading the information into the computer;
| Output device
|| e) information given in the form of characters.