UNITS FOR DEAF CHILDREN INОRDINARY SCHOOLS
The establishment of classes in ordinary schools for children with defective hearing has become increasingly popular in most countries in recent years. In England, for example, there were twenty-four such classes in 1955 and by January 1965 there were 149. A scheme for educating not only partially hearing children, but also many who are severely and profoundly deaf, in very close association with normally hearing ones, has been given a fairly full trial in New Zealand during the past five years.
To a class of not more than thirty normally hearing children, a group of six or eight deaf children is added, together with a teacher of the deaf. The deaf children spend roughly half the day with the hearing children, andthe two teachers work in the one room. For the developmental period (when children choose their own activities and then talk and read and write about them), reading and number activities, printing, music, rhythmic work, art, physical education, nature study and class visits, the two groups are usually combined, the two teachers working mainly but not exclusively with their own group. At table work, the deaf children sit, as far as possible, between two hearing children though not necessarily performing the same tasks. Subjects for which the deaf children need specialist help - for example speech, language, news sessions, story and, say, the teaching of a new process in arithmetic - are taken in the small room.
There are a number of educational, social and economic advantages in using this method, and some of these are listed below:
More children are able to live in their own homes and attend school daily rather than соmе to the school for the deaf as boarders.
There is a normalizing effect on the deaf children. Socially they become more mature through observing the behaviour of hearing children of their own age.
The deaf children also bесоmе more “oral”. The temptation to use the hands in communication is reduced.
There is also normalizing effect on the teacher of the deaf! She has an excellent opportunity of observing daily the behaviour, the thoughts and the language of normally hearing children.
The teaching of language seems much easier. When the deaf children see the others speaking, and reading and writing, they are stimulated to do the same. The children have an opportunity to adjust to their deafness about twenty times each day. They can learn, for example, that although they cannot write as much as the hearing children, they can run as fast, they can draw perhaps better, they can build more interesting things, they can do mechanical arithmetic just as well, and so on.
T E R M S
a fairly full trial довольнозначительныйопыт
mechanical arithmetic устныйсчет
a new process in arithmetic новоедействиеварифметике
DEAFNESS IH CHILDREN
Research is going on under the Direction of Mr. Stuart Mawson, a member ofthe National Deaf Children's Society's Medical Research Committee into a particular form of deafness that mainly affects children. The children become deaf as a result of a gluey mucoid substance that forms in the middle ear and prevents the normal passage of sound from the eardrum, across the middle ear to the nerves of hearing in the inner ear. No one yet knows where this material comes from - it could be produced in the ear itself, or in the eustachian tube connecting the middle ear with the throat. To study the muscus and remove it so as to restore hearing it is necessary to make a small incision in the drum (this later heals up completely) and draw the "gluey", stuff out with suction. Through understanding of the nature of this substance could lead to a way of stopping its occurrence, or at least indicate where it is coming from and sо get at the root of the trouble.
One of the problems of operating оn the ear is that it is small and difficult to get at - especially in children. Ear operations are routinely carried out through special binocular microscopes that give the surgeon a greatly magnified view of what he is doing. It was with the aid of such a microscope that the reason for this very common type of deafness in children - mucoid substance - was discovered.
T E R M S
to affect поражать
glueymucoid substance клейкоеслизистоевещество
middleear среднее ухо
ear-drum барабанная перепонка
innerear внутреннее ухо
eustachiantube евстахиева труба
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