SPEECH AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Speech habits are not instinctive; they are acquired. One evidence of the truth of this principle is the fact that children develop the particular language used in their home environment, irrespective of nationality background. Thus, if a child born of parents who speak French is brought up in an English-speaking home, he will speak English. Another evidence is the fact that children who are totally deaf from birth do not learn to speak because they do not hear. The so-called "deaf and dumb" are only deaf. This principle is significant for the teacher. Frequently, a child lisps because his mother, an older brother, or a sister does. Children learn that standard of speech which is spoken at home.
This does not mean, of course, that speech habits cannot be modified in school. Speech develops more slowly in boys than in girls. Boys begin to speak about the fifteenth month, girls about the fourteenth, because it takes a boy some months longer than a girl to acquire the sounds of speech. Similarly, speech defects are more prevalent in boys than in girls.
In society today, ability to verbalize is considered to be an index of intellectual ability. Studies show a relationship between intelligence and vocabulary. The bright child uses and recognizes more words than does the average child. In general, the amount and kind of a child's vocabulary are indexes at any age level of intelligence.
A bright child surpasses the average or subnormal child in the amount of speech and length of sentences. .
Language is developed first as an oral then as a written means of expression.
Speech and language come slowly to the deaf child because of his hearing handicap.
The slow process of acquiring language means a great retardation in education. The child's dependent upon his teacher for the very thinking-language process. Deafness imposes a barrier to comprehension. Emotional development of the deaf and h.o.h. child will be effected by this barrier to comprehension,
Children with severe or profound hearing losses depend not only on the remnants of their hearing to gain knowledge of language and speech, but on their visual, tactile end kinesthetic senses.
The use of powerful hearing aids has initiated a new era in their education. There are two aspects to learn language:
1) achieving facility in the use of words which make up the language;
2) gaining control of its grammar.
T E R M S
environment среда, окружение
totallydeaf абсолютно глухой /человек с тотальной глухотой/
“the deaf and dumb” глухонемые
to lisp шепелявить
brightchild способный ребенок
averagechild ребенок средних способностей
hearinghandicap дефект, недостаток слуха
severeorprofoundhearinglosses большая или глубокая потеря слуха
tactile sense чувствоосязания
hearing aids слуховаяаппаратура
THE LANGUAGE РROBLEM
The language problem remains the paramount problem in a school for the deaf.
Language is the foundation of all academic progress. The language progress may be attained if language teaching is graded.
The language foundations are laid in the primary grades and developed in the intermediate grades and are learned through usage.
The language limitations of the average deaf child and consequently the problem of communication whether orally or by writing continues to be the biggest stumbling block in his school progress compared with that of his hearing playmates.
Language is developed first as an oral then as a written means of expression. Life emphasizes speaking and listening.
The hearing child learns a large part of his language through imitation, through hearing the conversation of others, of those with whom he associates, and those he hears on the radio.
It is said that a normal child has from 35 to 50 exposures to a word or an expression before it registers in his brain. The acoustically handicapped child lacks these advantages.
The deaf child cannot acquire a speech vocabulary in a short time. Ignorance of "his mother's tongue" deprives the child of the most efficient means of developing his mind as he has no auditory experience which comes to the hearing child without any effort on his part.
Every teacher, vocational and academic, regardless of the subject taught, should be a language teacher.
Grammatical drills should be based on errors actually made by the class or individual and should be effectively motivated, brief and interesting.
They should form the basis for his progress in the elimination of his errors. If we are to attain variety of expressions and ability to comprehend the language of others, the vocabulary building will need to go hand in hand with language development.
There are three kinds of vocabulary: reading (sight), writing and speaking. In addition to the words encountered in reading and in other subjects and in dally experiences, we need a basic vocabulary for each grade compiled from the various vocabulary lists and revised to fit the needs of the deaf and hard of hearing. The important thing is to make the children realize the value of words to choose them thoughtfully and carefully.
If the child is sure of what he knows and can classify his vocabulary it means that he has a good language foundation.
It is necessary to develop the deaf child's feeling for language as much as possible. Reading is one of the means we can make use of for developing the deaf child's feeling for the language. A child's success in the advanced grades, his continued success in high school and in higher education depends to remarkable extent upon his reading ability.
Reading must be integrated with the entire school program.
The children are recommended to have free reading or leisure reading for their amusement. The children must read stories for the development of their imagination. The school library must be in possession of a great number of such books.
There are two kinds of reading: intensive reading which covers reading good selections in class under the guidance of the teacher. The selections are generally read twice.
The vocabulary expressions which may hinder the understanding of the text are taught in advance by means of simple pictures.
A series of guide questions based on the contents of the reading material should be prepared and discussed before the second reading.
Extensive reading stresses the techniques of reading a relatively long text suitable for the deaf and hard of hearing.
There is a definite positive relationship between oral language development, reading ability and hearing loss.
T E R M S
to remain оставаться
paramount problem важнаяпроблема
to attain достигать
language teaching is graded используетсяпостепенное oбучениеязыку
the average deaf child обычныйглухойребенок
thebiggeststumblingblock самый большой камень преткновения
from 35 to 50 exposurestoawordимеетот 35 до 50 контактовсословом
the acoustically handicapped child lacks these advantages углухогоребенкаотсутствуют
to deprive лишать
efficient means эффективныесредства
auditory experience слуховойопыт
without any effort безособоготруда
vocational teacher учительпопрофобучению
regardless of the subject taught независимоотизучаемогопредмета
grammatical drills грамматическиеупражнения
the elimination of errors исключениеошибок
to comprehend понимать
vocabulary building накоплениесловарногозапаса
will need to go hand in hand with должноидтинаравнес...
to encounter встречать
basic vocabulary основнойсловарь
to compile составлять
value of words значениеслов
feeling for language чувствоязыка
free or leisure reading дополнительноедомашнеечтение
development of imagination развитиевоображения
tobeinpossession иметь в своем распоряжении, обладать
intensive reading объяснительноечтение
to hinder мешатъ
in advance заранее
by means of припомощи
guidequestions контрольные вопросы
extensivereading самостоятельное чтение
to stress подчеркивать, выделять
a definite relationship определенноеотношение
selection for its main thought выборпоосновноймысли
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