The notion of EM and SDs on the syntactical level.

2. Expressive means of English syntax based on:

– the reduction of the sentence structure: ellipsis, aposiopesis, nominative sentences, asyndeton;

– the redundancy of sentence structure: repetition, enumeration, tautology, polysyndeton, emphatic constructions, parenthetical clauses;

– the violation of word order: stylistic inversion, syntactical split, detachment.

3. Stylistic devices of English syntax based on:

– the interaction of syntactical constructions: parallelism, chiasmus, anaphora, epiphora;

–  the transposition of syntactical meaning in context: rhetorical questions;

– the transposition of types and forms of connection: parcellation, coordination instead of subordination, subordination instead of coordination.


Recommended Literature

1. Стилистика английского языка / А.Н.Мороховский, О.П.Воробьева, Н.И.Лихошерст, З.В.Тимошенко. – К.: Вища школа, 1991. – С. 137-162.

2. Galperin I.R. Stylistics. – M.: Higher School, 1981. – P. 202-231, 234-252.

3. Kukharenko V.A. A Book of Practice in Stylistics. – Вінниця.: Нова книга, 2000. – P. 72-90. 


A stylistically neutral sentencemodel in English is a simple two-member sentence, containing subject, predicate and a few possible secondary members with the direct word order: S–P–O–Adv.mod. Deviations from the given sentence pattern are treated as its transforms that may acquire stylistic connotations, in which case they are regarded as EM.

A syntactical EM is represented by a sentence model, bearing additional logical or expressive information promoting the pragmatic effect of the utterance.

Depending on the type of transformation of the neutral syntactical pattern, all EM in English syntax can be subdivided into three groups:

EM based on the reduction of the syntactical pattern results from the omission of some obligatory elements(s) of the sentence structure.

This group includes: ellipsis, aposiopesis, nominative sentences, asyndeton.

EM based on the redundancy of the syntactical pattern results from the addition of some sentence elements or their deliberate repetition.

To this group we refer: repetition, enumeration, syntactic tautology, polysyndeton, emphatic constructions, parenthesis.

EMs based on the violation of the grammatically fixed word order within a sentence or a deliberate isolation of some parts of the sentence.

Here belong: stylistic inversion, syntactical split, detachment.

 Ellipsisis a deliberate omissionof at least one member of the sentence.

Nominative (nominal) sentences – sentences consisting only of a nominal group, which is semantically and communicatively self-sufficient.

Aposiopesis (Greek – ‘silence’) – intentional abstention from completing the utterance. (also: break-in-the-narrative, stop-short, pull-up).

Asyndeton(Greek – ‘disconnected’) is a deliberate avoidance of conjunctions used to connect sentences, clauses or words.

Repetitionis recurrence of the same element (word or phrase) within the sentence. Repetition aims at logical emphasis necessary to fix the attention of the reader (listener) on the key-word of the utterance. Repetition is classified according to the compositional patterns:

1. Ordinary R. has no definite place in the sentence and the repeated unit occurs in various positions without obvious regularity – …a, ….a, a… .

2.Successive a string of closely following each other reiterated units – …a,a,a… This is the most emphatic type of repetition which usually signifies the peak of emotions of the speaker.

3.Framing (ring) R.a repetitionin which the opening word or phrase is repeated at the end of the sentence or a group of sentences, thus forming the ‘frame’ for the non-repeated part of the sentence (utterance) – a…a.

4.Linking R. (catch R. or reduplication or anadiplosis): the last word or phrase of one part of an utterance is repeated at the beginning of the next part, thus hooking the two parts together – …a, a… .

5.If this linking device is used several times in one utterance we get chain R. – …a, a…b, b…c, c… .


Another variety of R. is called synonymical R. which is the reiteration of the same idea by using synonymous words and phrases adding a slightly different nuance of meaning and thus intensifying the impact of the utterance.

In root-repetitionit is not the same words that are repeated but the same root.

Syntactical tautology (pleonasm)– a superfluous repetition of semantically identical words or phrases to lay stress on a certain part of the sentence

Enumerationis the usage of homogeneous parts of the sentence aimed at emphasizing the whole utterance or at giving subjective evaluation of the situation.

Polysyndeton –excessive use (repetition) of connectives – mostly conjunctions and prepositions. The repetition of connectives before each component part makes an utterance more rhythmical; so that prose may sometimes resemble a verse.

Emphatic constructions – are used to intensify or contrast any part of the sentence, giving it an emotional charge.

Parenthesis (parenthetic sentences/ clauses)– are sentences or phrases inserted into a syntactical structure without being grammatically connected with it. In writing they are indicated by commas, brackets or dashes.

Stylistic inversion is change of the word order in the sentence, the first and the last positions being most prominent. The direct word order may be changed either completely so that the predicate (predicative) precedes the subject or partially so that the object (adverbial modifier) precedes the subject-predicate Correspondently, we distinguish complete and partialinversion.

Stylistic inversion aims at attaching logical stress or additional emotional colouring to the utterance.

Separation (syntactical split)(дистантне розташування синтаксично зв’язаних одиниць речення) is the splitting of syntactical unities with the fixed order of components succession. Very often it concerns a noun phrase comprising the attributive prepositional adjunct, which may be removed from the word it modifies. Separation may be of two kinds:

– the split of the components in the structure with the direct word order;

– the split of the components in the structure with inversion.

Detachment – a device based on singling out a secondary member of the sentence with the help of punctuation and intonation. Practically any secondary member of the sentence may be detached but most noticeable are cases with a detached attribute.

A syntactical SD can be understood as:

– means and ways of sentences combination within a larger context (SSU, paragraph or text). A SD in this case is created due to the combination of stylistically neutral and stylistically marked sentence models, as well as due to the combination of stylistically non-marked sentences;

– transposition of the syntactical meaning in context. In this case a sentence acquires an additional meaning which is not typical of it.

According to the character of the relations between syntactical structures, possible transposition of meanings in context, and the means and types of connection within a sentence, we distinguish the following groups of syntactical SDs:

1. SDs based on the peculiar formal and semantic interaction of syntactical constructions in a context: parallelism, chiasmus, anaphora, epiphora.

2. SDs based on the transposition of the syntactical meaning in context: rhetorical questions.

3. SDs based on the transposition of the types and means of connection within or between sentences: parcellation, subordination instead of coordination, coordination instead of subordination.

Syntactical parallelism (parallel constructions) – the usage of. similar syntactical structures in several adjacent sentences.

Complete parallelism (balance) is observed when the syntactical pattern of the sentence that follows is completely similar to the preceding one (the same sentence model, word order, grammatical forms). In incomplete parallel constructions some of the elements in the parallel rows may be missing or intentionally omitted (to avoid unnecessary repetition) which results in ellipsis. Parallelism is considered partial when either the beginning or the end of several neighbouring sentences are structurally similar.

Chiasmusis a special type of parallelism.The second part of a chiasmus is, in fact, inversion of the first construction.

Anaphora– impliesidentity of the initial elements in several adjacent sentences (verse lines, stanzas, paragraphs) and is a kind of lexico-syntactical repetition.

Epiphorais the stylistic figure opposite of anaphora. It is recurrence of some elements concluding several syntactical units (utterances, verse lines, sentences, paragraphs).

Rhetorical questionis an emphatic negation or an affirmation in the form of a question.

Parcellation– a deliberate break of the sentence structure into two or more isolated parts, separated by a pause and a period (full stop).


Find syntactical EMs and SDs used. Explain their stylistic functions in the given context:

1. “We hadn’t read anything private really,” begged Nuala, who was younger and more frightened.

Frightened she had reason to be (M. Binchy).

2. Her thoughts were often on her mother. Her pale delicate mother, who wandered more often through the gardens of the Glen no matter what the weather, with empty eyes, talking softly to herself (M. Binchy)

3. Oh I hate small men and I will write about them no more but in passing I would like to say that’s what my brother Richard is: small. He has small hands, small feet, a small waist, small children, a small wife, and when he comes to our cocktail parties he sits in a small chair. If you pick up a book of his, you will find his name, “Richard Norton,” on the flyleaf in his very small handwriting. He emanates, in my opinion, a disgusting aura of smallness (J.Cheever)

4. I really don’t see anything romantic in proposing. It is very romantic to be in love. But there is nothing romantic about a definite proposal (O.Wilde).

5. I couldn’t figure out one of them boys having all of them things without having to work for them the way I was working for them, selling papers (W.Saroyan)

6. I wanted to knock over the table and hit him until my arm had no more strength in it, then give him the boot, give him the boot, give him the boot – I drew a deep breath (J.Braine).

7. Of her father’s being groundlessly suspected, she felt sure. Sure. Sure (Ch.Dickens).

8. Failure meant poverty, poverty meant squalor, squalor led, in the final stages, to the smells of stagnation of B. Inn Alley (D.du Maurrier).

9. Living is the art of loving.

Loving is the art of caring.

Caring is the art of sharing.

Sharing is the art of living (W.H.Davies)

10. As a child he had suffered from childish timidity, as a boy from unboyish funk, and as a youth he had exchanged unreasoning fears for others which were more formidable from the fact of having a carefully thought-out basis (Saki)

11. I notice that father’s is a large hand, but never a heavy one when it touches me, and that father’s is a rough voice but never an angry one when it speaks to me (Ch.Dickens).   

12. Of all my old associations, of all my old pursuits and hopes, of all the living and the dead world, this one poor soul alone comes natural to me (Ch.Dickens).

13. I have been accused of bad taste. This has disturbed me not so much for my own sake (since I am used to the slights and arrows of outrageous fortune) as for the sake of criticism in general (W.S.Maugham).

14. <…> she could be seen by those who few who cared to look, wearing a long black skirt with a dusty appearance, a T-shirt of a slightly different shade of black – it had been washed fifty times at least – and a waistcoat in dark striped cotton (R. Rendell)

15. I understood him (who wouldn’t?), but I suspected his motives (J.Cheever)

16. He looked at her and suddenly she saw that he did like her (M. Binchy)

17. It was she who decided to lift the hotel on to a higher level (M. Binchy)

18. Still, it was Vera’s decision. It was after all she who had bought the house, and filled it with valuable things. It was Vera who made the day-to-day decisions about how they spent the money which was mainly her money (M. Binchy)

19. There was bread, but what I wanted was cake.

I got it too.

I mean I didn’t gowithout. I went with. If anybody went with I did. If anybody had an inalienable right to go with, it was me. I had the proper appetite for going with, and for not going without (W.Saroyan)

20. Nessa Ryan, eighteen and desired by the most handsome man in Ireland, drew herself up to her full height (M. Binchy)

21. They sat in supportive silence, the four of them, as they watched their schoolfriend Maura, pregnant and happy, marry Gerry O’Sullivan, small, handsome, with one best man but no other friend or family in the church (M. Binchy)

22. Women are not made for attack. Wait they must (J.Conrad).

23. Out came the chase – in went the horses – on sprang the boys – in got the travellers (Ch.Dickens).

24. Michael dropped things sometimes. His mother’s china he never touched (M. Binchy)

25. Malay camp. A row of streets crossing another row of streets. Mostly narrow streets. Mostly dirty streets. Mostly dark streets. (P.Abrahams).

26.A black February day. Clouds hewn of ponderous timber weighing down on the earth: an irresolute dropping of snow specks upon the trampled wastes. Gloom but no veiling of angularity. The second day of Kennicott’s absence (S.Lewis).

27. Gray, grimy, vital Leeds, great industrial city of the north, the seat of Emma’s power and his grandfather’s and David Kallinski’s family (B.T. Bradford)

28. His forehead was narrow, his face wide, his head large, and his nose all on one side (Ch.Dickens).

29. I’m a horse doctor, animal man. Do some farming, too. Near Tulip, Texas (T.Capote).

30. H: The waves, how are the waves?

C: The waves? Lead.

H: And the sun?

C: Zero. (S.Beckett).

31. This is a story how a Baggins had an adventure. He may have lost the neighbours’ respect, but he gained – well, you will see whether he gained anything in the end (A.Tolkien).

32. “Well, they’ll get a chance now to show –” Hastily: “I don’t mean – But let’s forget that.” (O’Neill)

33. ‘She was the one.’

‘The one?’

‘The one that had the … the one who got into … the one’

“Oh yes, I suppose she was.’ Nessa’s heart was leaden. Niall didn’t have to finish any of his sentences. The stories had gone before, the judge’s daughter who was reported to have been pregnant (M. Binchy)

34. By the time he had got all the bottles and dishes and knives and forks and glasses and plates and spoons and things piled up on big trays, he was getting very hot, and red in the face, and annoyed (A.Tolkien)

35. The Duchess called it bribery, and said it might have compromised the candidate she was supporting; he was expected to subscribe to church funds and chapel funds, and football and cricket clubs and regattas, and bazaars and beanfeasts and bell-ringers, and poultry shows and ploughing matches, and reading-rooms, and choir outing, and shooting trophies and testimonials, and anything of that sort; but bribery would not have been tolerated. (Saki)

36. With these hurried words Mr. Bob Sawyer pushed the postboy on one side, jerked his friend into the vehicle, slammed the door, put up the steps, wafered the bill on the street door, locked it, put the key into his pocket, jumped into the dickey, gave the word for starting (Ch.Dickens).

37. This evening the bag contained: a number of crumpled tissues, some pink, some white, a spray bottle of ‘Wild Musk’ cologne, three ballpoint pens, a pair of nail clippers, a London tube pass, a British Telecom phone card, an address book, a mascara wand in a shade called ‘After-midnight’ blue, a cheque book, a notebook, a postcard from a friend on holiday in Brittany, a calculator, a paperback of Vasari’s Lives of the Artists, which Bridget had always meant to read but was getting on very fast with, a container of nasal spray, a bunch of keys, a book of matches, a silver ring with a green stone, probably onyx, a pheasant’s feather picked up while staying for the weekend in someone’s cottage in Somerset, three-quarters of a bar of chocolate, a pair of sunglasses and her wallet which contained the single card she possessed, her bank cheque card, her library card, her never-needed driving licence and seventy pounds, give or take a little, in five- and ten-pound notes. (R. Rendell)

38. That he sings, and he sings, and for ever sings he –

“I love my Love and my Love loves me!” (S.T.Coleridge).

39. She found herself defending her friends in her home and defending her family when she was with her friends (M. Binchy)

40. She was crazy about you. In the beginning (R.P.Warren).

41. “He is a very deliberate, careful guy and we trust each other completely. With a few reservations” (D.Uhnak).





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