STYLISTIC SYNTAX OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
Вінницький державний педагогічний університет
до практичних занять
з стилістики англійської мови
Вінниця – 2007
GENERAL SCIENTIFIC AND GENERAL LINGUISTIC
FUNDAMENTALS OF STYLISTICS. BASIC STYLISTIC NOTIONS.
1. Language and its functions. Basic approaches to the language research.
2. The object and the subject-matter of stylistics. Types of stylistics. Kinds of literary stylistics.
3. General fundamentals of stylistics:
3.1. Stylistics and the information theory. The notion of information. Types of information. Types of additional (connotative) information.
3.2. Basic components of the information transmission model. The notions of message, code, signal, transmission channel. Redundancy and predictability of the signal.
3.3. Chief processes in the information transmission: the message encoding, the signal transmission, the signal decoding. Noises and hindrances. Loss and accumulation of information.
4. Style as a general semiotic notion. Different interpretations of style. Individual style.
1. Арнольд И.В. Стилистика английского языка. – Л.: Просвещение, 1981. – С. 7-34.
2. Стилистика современного английского языка / А.Н.Мороховский, О.П.Воробьёва, Н.И.Лихошерст, З.В.Тимошенко. – К.: Вища школа, 1991. – С. 7-27.
3. Долинин К.А. Стилистика французского языка. – Л.: Просвещение, 1987. – C. 5-21.
4. Galperin I.R. Stylistics. – M.: Higher School Publishing House, 1981. – P. 5-32.
1. Скребнев Ю.М. Основы стилистики английского языка. Учебник для институтов и факультетов иностранных языков. – М.: ООО «Издательство Астрель», 2003. – С. 6-36.
2. Malttzev V.A. Essays on English Stylistics. – Minsk: Vysheishaya Shkola, 1984. – P. 4-46.
3. Kukharenko V.A. A Book of Practice in Stylistics. – Vinnytsia: Nova Knyga, 2000. – P. 7-12.
4. Yefimov L.P., Yasinetskaya E.A. Practical Stylistics of English. – Vinnytsia: Nova Knyga, 2004. – P. 5-17.
Stylisticsis a linguistic discipline which studies nominative and communicative language units and the principles according to which the units of all language levels are selected and used for achieving a certain pragmatic aim in different communicative situations. (O.M. Morokhovsky)
Aimat large is a presupposed result of conscious human activity.
Linguistic aimlies in building an utterance from the structural elements of a language for achieving a certain pragmatic aim.
Pragmatic aimconsists in changing the state of the listener as the result of communication.
Informationin terms of philosophy is the inner content of the reflection process which results in changing the characteristics of some objects due to the influence of other objects they interact with.
Denotative information is the contential nucleus of a language unit which names the subject-matter of communication and is not predetermined by the conditions of communication.
Connotative information is the contential periphery of a language unit which depends upon different aspects of communication act (time, participants etc.).
Stylein its most general sense is a specific symbolically important property of human activity arising as a result of choice, within the accepted norms, of a definite mode or manner of conducting this activity. Style is indicative of the actor’s social role, of the social group to which he belongs or strives to belong, as well as of his individual features and psychological state. (K.A.Dolinin)
GENERAL SCIENTIFIC AND GENERAL LINGUISTIC
FUNDAMENTALS OF STYLISTICS. BASIC STYLISTIC NOTIONS.
1. The notion of norm. Relativity of norm.
2. The notion of context. Types of context.
3. The notion of foregrounding. Types of foregrounding.
4. The theory of image. The structure of image.
5. The notions of:
language – speech activity – speech
variant – invariant
syntagmatics – paradigmatics
opposition – contrast
marked – unmarked members of the opposition
selection – combination
speech synonyms – language synonyms
6. Expressive means and stylistic devices as basic notions of stylistics. Types of syntagmatic relations behind a stylistic device.
1. Арнольд И.В. Стилистика английского языка. – Л.: Просвещение, 1981. – С. 41-82.
2. Стилистика современного английского языка / А.Н.Мороховский, О.П.Воробьёва, Н.И.Лихошерст, З.В.Тимошенко. – К.: Вища школа, 1991. – С. 26-49.
3. Galperin I.R. Stylistics. – M.: Higher School Publishing House, 1981. – P. 24-29, 190-192.
1. Скребнев Ю.М. Основы стилистики английского языка. Учебник для институтов и факультетов иностранных языков. – М.: ООО «Издательство Астрель», 2003. – С. 20-36.
2. Миллер Дж.А. Образы и модели, уподобления и метафоры // Теория метафоры. – М.: Прогресс, 1990. – С. 236-285.
3. Malttzev V.A. Essays on English Stylistics. – Minsk: Vysheishaya Shkola, 1984. – P. 19-23.
4. Kukharenko V.A. A Book of Practice in Stylistics. – Vinnytsia: Nova Knyga, 2000. – P. 11-22.
5. Yefimov L.P., Yasinetskaya E.A. Practical Stylistics of English. – Vinnytsia: Nova Knyga, 2004. – P. 5-17.
The notion of norm– implies pre-established and conventionally accepted parameters of what is evaluated.
Literary norm of a national language – a totality of pre-established rules and habits of language usage in a given society at a given period of time.
Context (in the most general sense) may be defined as a set of formally fixed conditions under which different properties of a language unit manifest themselves (O.M.Morokhovsky).
Situational/ extralinguistic context – the extralinguistic conditions in which the communicative act takes place.
Linguistic context –the combination of a word with its indicator that has a direct or indirect syntactical connection with the actualized word (Amosova).
Indicator – the indicatory minimum that makes it possible to define which of the meanings of a polysemantic word is actualized.
Foregrounding–the means of the formal text organization that focuses the reader's attention on the definite components of the message and determines semantically relevant links between the elements of one or different levels (I.V.Arnold).
Convergency/ce (amplification) – strengthening achieved by several stylistic means combined.
Coupling– the usage of similar elements in similar positions imparting integrity to the text.
Deceived expectation (defeated expectancy) – breaking of the pattern by the elements of low predictability.
Paradigmatics –is a set of non-linear relations between the language units of one class which are based on association (by similarity/ non-similarity).
Syntagmatics –is a set of linear relations between the speech units of one language level within a unit of higher level. They are based on contiguity.
|The expressive means of a language is a marked member of a stylistic or functional stylistic opposition which has an invariant meaning in a language (O.M. Morokhovsky). A stylistic device appears in speech due to the syntagmatic relations that appear in a text or an utterance between stylistically marked and non-marked speech units or between stylistically non-marked speech units (O.M. Morokhovsky).||The expressive means of a language are those phonetic, morphological, word-building, lexical, phraseological and syntactical forms which exist in language-as-a-system for the purpose of logical and/or emotional intensification of an utterance (I.R. Galperin). A stylistic device is a constant and intentional intensification of some typical structural and/or semantic property of a language unit (neutral and expressive) promoted to a generalized status and thus becoming a generative model (I.R. Galperin).|
PHONETIC, GRAPHICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL
MEANS OF STYLISTICS
1.Phonetic means of stylistics.
2.Graphical means of stylistics. Graphon.
3.Morphological means and devices of stylistics.
3.1. Morphemic foregrounding: types and functions.
3.2. SDs based on the use of different parts of speech.
3.2.1.SDs based on the use of nouns.
3.2.2.SDs based on the use of articles.
3.2.3.SDs based on the use of adjectives.
3.2.4.SDs based on the use of pronouns.
3.2.5.SDs based on the use of adverbs.
3.2.6.SDs based on the use of verbs.
1. Арнольд И.В. Стилистика английского языка. – Л.: Просвещение, 1981. – С. 208-212.
2. Стилистика современного английского языка / А.Н.Мороховский, О.П.Воробьёва, Н.И.Лихошерст, З.В.Тимошенко. – К.: Вища школа, 1991. – С. 50-92.
3. Galperin I.R. Stylistics. – M.: Higher School Publishing House, 1981. – P. 118-131.
1. Скребнев Ю.М. Основы стилистики английского языка. Учебник для институтов и факультетов иностранных языков. – М.: ООО «Издательство Астрель», 2003. – С.37-46, 122-133.
2. Maltzev V.A. Essays on English Stylistics. – Minsk: Vysheishaya Shkola, 1984.
3. Kukharenko V.A. A Book of Practice in Stylistics. – Vinnytsia: Nova Knyga, 2000. – P. 13-21.
4. Yefimov L.P., Yasinetskaya E.A. Practical Stylistics of English. – Vinnytsia: Nova Knyga, 2004.
Euphony – a pleasing acoustic effect achieved by the specific arrangement of sounds in an utterance.
Versification –the art of writing poetry in keeping with certain rules based on language regularities and poet’s experience.
Instrumentation –the sum total of sound selection and combination modes which impart to the utterance a certain sound organization as well as emotional and expressive colouring.
The main modes of sound arrangement in instrumentation are: alliteration, assonance and onomatopoeia.
Alliteration –a deliberate use of the same (or acoustically similar) consonants to achieve a specific sound and contential effect.
Assonance –a deliberate reiteration of the same (or acoustically similar) vowels in close succession aimed at creating a specific sound and contential effect.
Onomatopoeia –a deliberate use of sounds and their combinations which, to a certain degree, imitates natural sounds.
Graphon –the intentional violation of the graphical shape of a word (or word combination) used to reflect its authentic pronunciation.
I. Indicate the instances of alliteration, assonance and onomatopoeia in the given examples. Specify the effects they create.
1. Ah, distinctly I remember, it was in the bleak December,
And each separate dying ember wrought its ghost upon the floor
Eagerly I wished the morrow; – vainly I had sought to borrow
From my books surcease of sorrow – sorrow for me lost Lenore –
For the rare and radiant maiden whom the angels name Lenore –
Nameless here for evermore (Edgar Allan Poe. The Raven)
2. He owned a pet shop. <…> There was a constant stir of life in his dusky shop – whispered twitters, rustling, squeals, cheeps, and sudden squawks. Small feet scampered in frantic circles, frightened, bewildered, blindly seeking. Across the shelves pulsed this sudden endless flicker of life. (L.E.Reeve. Caged)
3. Twinkle, twinkle, little star,
How I wonder what you are.
Up above the world so high,
Like a diamond in the sky (Children’s Rhymes)
4. “Luscious, languid and lustful, isn’t he?”
“Those are not the correct epithets. He is – or rather was – surly, lustrous and sadistic” (E. Waugh)
5. Dreadful young creatures – squealing and squawking (D.Carter).
6. He swallowed the hint with a gulp and a gasp and a grin (R.Kipling).
7. You lean, long, lanky lath of a lousy bastard (S.O’Casey).
8. Then with an enormous, shattering rumble, sludge-sludge puff, the train came into the station (Th. Wilder).
9. Tenderly bury the fair young dead (La Costa)
10. I had only one year of working without shhh (D.Cussack).
11. Streaked by a quarter moon, the Mediterranean shushed gently into the beach (I.Shaw).
II. State the functions of graphons and other graphical stylistic devices in the following examples:
1. My daddy’s coming tomorrow on a nairplane (J.Salinger).
2. She mimicked a lisp: “I don’t weally know wever I’m a good girl. The last time he’ll do would to mix up with a howwid woman” (J.Braine).
3. After a hum a beautiful Negress sings, “Without a song, the dahay would nehever end” (J.Updike).
4. He spoke with the flat ugly “a” and withered “r” of Boston Irish, and Levi looked at him and mimicked, “All right, I’ll give the caads a break and staat playing” (N.Mailer).
5. “Whereja get all these pictures?”, he said. “Meetcha at the corner. Wuddaya think she’s doing out there?” (J.Salinger).
6. Come on, I’ll show you summat (St.Barstow).
7. Well, I dunno. I was kinda threatening him (St.Barstow).
8. “Now listen, Ed, stop that, now. I’m desperate. I am desperate, Ed, do you hear?” (Th.Dreiser).
9. “ALL our troubles are over, old girl,” he said fondly. (S.Maugham).
10. Thanx for the purchase (Advertisement).
11. Best jeans for this jeaneration (Advertisement).
12. Follow our advice: Drinka Pinta Milka Day (Advertisement).
III. Comment on the function of morphological grammatical categories and parts of speech that create stylistic effects:
1. His mother made a nunnery out of widowhood, vowed never to marry again and to devote her life to the care and upbringing of the boy in such a way that the accidents of life would leave him uninvolved and for ever safe. Thus the boy was overindulged, overprotected, overfed on highly nourishing and scientifically chosen foods, kept from the hurly-burly of ordinary childhood, forbidden to climb trees, go out for teams, consort with rough children, play with toy guns or bows or arrows and to go to and from the neighbourhood school unescorted (I.Shaw).
2. One night I am standing in front of Mindy’s restaurant on Broadway, thinking of practically nothing whatever, when all of a sudden I feel a very terrible pain in my left foot (Runyon).
3. She‘s the Honourable Mrs. Beste-Chetwynde, you know – sister-in-law of Lord Pastmasser – a very wealthy woman, South American (Waugh).
4. Besides Rain, Nan and Mrs. Prewett, there was a Mrs. Kingsley, the wife of the Governors (Dolgopolova).
5. I walked past Mrs. Shumway, who jerked her head around in a startled woodpeckerish way (Erdrich).
6. That’s the foolest thing I ever heard (Berger).
7. The clamour of waters, snows, winds, rains … (Hemingway).
8. Love’s first snowdrop
Virgin kiss! (Burns).
9. He was the most married man I’ve ever met (Arnold).
10. You are being very absurd, Laura, he said coldly (Mansfield).
Points for Discussion
1. Denotative and connotative meaning of a word. Types of connotations.
2. Criteria for the stylistic differentiation of the English vocabulary.
3. Words which have a lexico-stylistic paradigm. Words which have no lexico-stylistic paradigm.
4. Stylistic functions of literary (high-flown) words and their subdivision.
5. Stylistic functions of colloquial (low–flown) words and their subdivision.
6. Stylistic functions of neutral words.
7. Stylistic usage of phraseology.
1. Стилистика современного английского языка / А.Н.Мороховский, О.П.Воробьёва, Н.И.Лихошерст, З.В.Тимошенко. – К.: Вища школа, 1991. – С. 93-136.
2. Galperin I.R. Stylistics. – M.: Higher School Publishing House, 1981. – P. 70-119.
1. Арнольд И.В. Стилистика английского языка. – Л.: Просвещение, 1981. – С. 102-139.
2. Скребнев Ю.М. Основы стилистики английского языка. – М.: ООО «Издательство Астрель», 2003. – С.52-77.
3. Maltzev V.A. Essays on English Stylistics. – Minsk: Vysheishaya Shkola, 1984.
4. Kukharenko V.A. A Book of Practice in Stylistics. – Vinnytsia: Nova Knyga, 2000. – P. 27-42.
5. Yefimov L.P., Yasinetskaya E.A. Practical Stylistics of English. – Vinnytsia: Nova Knyga, 2004.
The denotative meaning of a word presents the basic information naming the notion itself. This meaning is obligatory and it is not connected with the conditions of communication.
The connotative meaningis optional in a word. It is connected with the conditions and participants of the communicative act and includes emotive, evaluative, expressive and functional-stylistic components.
A word possesses an evaluative component of meaning if it expresses positive or negative (logical) estimation of the object it denotes, i.e. approval/ disapproval.
A word possesses an emotive component of meaning if it expresses any feeling or emotion.
A word possesses an expressive componentif due to transference of meaning or in some other way it emphasizes/ intensifies the thing denoted by it or by other words syntactically connected with it.
A word possesses a functional-stylistic component if it is typically associated with definite speech spheres and functional styles.
Words having a lexico-stylistic paradigmare characterized by:
– indirect reference (i.e. through a neutral word) to the denoted object: foe (poetical) > enemy (neutral) > denotatum;
– subjective connotations;
– non-strict referential borders as these words are of qualifying character and may be used to characterize different referents (e.g.: pussy cat in reference to children);
– presence of synonyms;
– possible antonyms.
To this group belong: archaisms (archaic words), barbarisms and foreign words, stylistic neologisms, slangisms, colloquialisms, jargonisms (social and professional), dialectal words, vulgarisms.
Words having no lexico-stylistic paradigmare characterized by:
– direct reference to the denoted object;
– absence of subjective connotations;
– strict referential borders;
– lack of synonyms or purely denotative synonymy (лінгвістика-мовознавство);
– lack of antonyms.
Here belong: terms, nomenclature words, historical words, lexical neologisms, exotic words.
Breaking up (decomposition) of set expressions may be of two types:
I. Structural transformation – changes in the structure or components of a phraseological unit accompanied by complete or partial change in the meaning of a set expression;
II. Contextual transposition – reconsidering or reinterpreting the meaning of a PhU in a certain context without any changes in structure or components.
Types of structural transformations:
1. Expansion of a PhU – adding/ inserting new elements to a PhU and thus making the phrase more concrete and more vivid.
2. Reduction of a PhU – is the result of the compression of proverbs, sayings, quotations etc. in speech.
3. Change of the components – is replacement of a regular component of a PhU by another element, which can be synonymic or antonymic to the former, either having or not having thematic connections with it. It may be accompanied by the structural change.
4. Inversion of the components implies the change of the PhU structure and partial reinterpretation of the elements while preserving its original components.
Contextual transposition – preserving its integrity and components, a PhU undergoes complete change/ reinterpretation of the meaning, which most frequently is realisation of its literal meaning.
I. State the type and function of high-flown words in the following examples:
1. “I must decline to pursue this painful discussion. It is not pleasant to my feelings; it is repugnant to my feelings.”(Ch. Dickens)
2. Towards the end of the following month, parcels of books began to arrive periodically at Vale View from the London branch of the International Medical Library. … He discovered and was swamped by the therapeutic advance of biochemistry. He discovered renal thresholds, blood ureas, basal metabolism, and the ballibility of the albumen test. As this keystone of his student’s days fell from him he groaned aloud. (A.Cronin)
3. “He of the iron garment,” said Daigety, entering, “is bounden unto you, MacEagh, and this noble lord shall be bounden also.”(W.Scott)
4. Riding back I saw the Greeks lined up in column of march. They were all still there. Also, all armed. On long marches when no action threatened, they had always piled their armour, helmets and weapons in their carts, keeping only their sword; wearing their short tunics (made from all kinds of stuff, they had been so long from home) and the wide straw hats Greek travel in, their skins being tender to sun. Now they had on corselets or cuirasses, helmets, even grades if they owed them, and their round shields hung at their backs.(M.Renault)
5. I showed them the papers, which were written in a very beautiful language and full of fratellanza and abnegazione, but which really said, with the adjectives removed, that I had been given the medals because I was an American (E.Hemingway).
6. She had been charmed. It was so chic (J.Galsworthy).
7. Wee modest crimson tipped flow’r,
Thou’s met me in an evil hour;
For I maun crush amang the stoure
Thy slender stem:
To spare thee now is past my pow’r
Thou bonnie gem.(R.Burns)
II. Comment on the usage of the following colloquial words:
1. “She’s engaged. Nice guy, too. Though there’s a slight difference in height. I’d say a foot, her favor.”(T.Capote)
2. I didn’t really do anything this time. Just pulled the dago out of the river. Like all dagos, he couldn’t swim. Well, the fellow was sort of grateful about it. Hung around like a dog. (A.Christie)
3. “What’s the dif,” he wanted to know. (Th. Smith)
4. “There we were … in the hell of a country – pardon me – a country of raw metal”.(J.Galsworthy)
5. “All those medical bastards should go through the ops they put other people through. Then they wouldn’t talk so much bloody nonsense or be so damnably unutterably smug.”(D.Cussack)
6. “Nix on that,” said Roy. “I don’t need a shyster quack to shoot me full of confidence juice. I want to go through on my own steam.”(B.Malamud)
7. “Father, said one of the children at breakfast. – I want some more ‘am please”. – You mustn’t say ‘am, my child, the correct form is ‘am, – retorted his father, passing the plate with sliced ham on it. “But I did say ‘am, pleaded the boy”. “No, you didn’t: you said ‘am instead of ‘am”. The mother turned to the guest smiling: “Oh, don’t mind them, sir, pray. They are both trying to say ‘am and both think it is ‘am they are saying”.
III. Comment on the usage of phraseology:
1. I can just remember her. She’s (Irene) a skeleton in the family cupboard, isn’t she? And they’re such fun.”
“She wasn’t much of a skeleton as I remember her”, murmured Euphemia, “extremely well covered”(J.Galsworthy).
2. “Oh, it’s you, Mr.Wormold. I was just thinking of you. Talk of the devil – “ he said, making a joke of it (G.Greene).
3. The Graefin’s two elder sons had made deplorable marriages. <…> The youngest boy, Wratislav, who was the black sheep of a rather greyish family, had as yet made no marriage at all (Saki).
4. “You are really indecently vain of your appearance. A good life is infinitely preferable to good looks”.
“You agree with me that the two are incompatible. I always say beauty is sin deep” (Saki).
5. Nonsense, my dear! Such shame is not even skin deep (R.Aldington).
6. “Good morning,” said Bilbo, and he meant it. The sun was shining and the grass was very green. (A.Tolkien)
7. After sounding him, the fellow pulled a long face as long as your arm, and ordered him to stay in bed and give up smoking (J.Galsworthy)
STYLISTIC SYNTAX OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
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