How to attract a person’s attention



MY FAMILY AND MYSELF

Let me introduce myself to you. My name is Kate. I am 18. And I live in Kirov. I was born on the third of October 1991 in a family of a teacher and a doctor.

My family is not very large. There are only four of us: my mother, my father, my brother and me.

I’d like to begin with my mother. She is a teacher at school. My mum is very pretty and looks young for her age. She is always smart and elegant. She always has a lot of work to do both at school and about the house. The most striking feature about her is that she is a wonderful listener. And this trait of hers makes people confide in her. What is more, she is always ready to help or to give some good advice. No wonder she is well-respected by her colleagues and highly spoken of for her proficiency at work. And for me she is the best mother one can imagine.

The next one to speak about is my father. He is a middle-aged man, tall and rather handsome. He is few years older than my mother but he looks young, strong and full of energy. He is not an easy person to deal with. He likes having things his own way. What is good about him is that whatever he does he does it properly. He demands the same on our part. My father is a well-read, educated person, whom we can always turn to in case of necessity. And you are sure to be given either some help or a good piece of advice. My father is a doctor and he works in the hospital. He works very hard in his hospital and really puts all his energy in his work.

As I have already mentioned, I am not an only child. I have a brother, he is four years older than me. I am happy to have an elder brother who is my best friend on the one hand and on the other – a person who is much older than myself, so I can always turn to him with my troubles and for a piece of advice.

I should say we have practically no prob­lems with understanding each other in our family. We see our parents as our friends and so do they. They are easy to get on with and we may always come to them first if we have any serious problem to be solved. Surely, we have some arguments sometimes, and from time to time we cannot come to agreement. But I think it is natural. It would be rather odd if everybody in the family always agreed with each other, shared all interests, were satisfied with ev­erything and never quarrelled.

We share some interests with our parents and have practically the same tastes in books. But it takes our parents quite a while to get used to new pop music we listen to and to some ultra-modern clothes my brother and I sometimes put on. But they never forbid us to have our own way, they give us freedom. It doesn't mean that we can do every stupid thing and they only leave it unnoticed. But, on the other hand, we can take some decisions on our own. Surely, before taking the final decision we should consult our parents. In case they disagree with anything we want or decide they try to ex­plain us why this or that is impossible.

I’m sure that my parents and my brother will always love me and support me. So will I. Their love helps me and protects me in our difficult life.

And now I’d like to say some more words about myself. I’m a first year student at Vyatka State University of Humanities at the faculty of Management. I like communicating with people and everybody says that I am easy to get on with. Besides reading and spending time with my friends, I like travelling, especially by car. I'm also interested in sport. I'm a member of a tennis club, which I attend twice a week. So you see I am quite a busy person and this makes my life more interesting. What I dislike is quarrelling with people. I cannot stand rude unbalanced people who loose their temper very easily; those who do not keep their promises; those who are not punctual.

1. What’s the name of the girl who is speaking about her family?

2. When was she born?

3. How many people are there in her family?

4. What is her mother?

5. How does her mother look like?

6. What is the most striking feature about her mother?

7. How does her father look like?

8. What is her father?

9. Is her father an easy person to deal with?

10. How does Kate characterize her father?

11. Is Kate an only child?

12. Is her brother older or younger than she?

13. Why is she happy to have an elder brother?

14. Do Kate’s family have problems with understanding each other?

15. Are her parents easy to get on with?

16. Do they always come to agreement when they have arguments?

17. Do Kate’s parents forbid her and her brother to have their own way?

18. What do Kate’s parents do in case they disagree with their children?

19. What does Kate like?

20. What does Kate dislike?

 

 

THE FAMILY

What is a family? We can say that a family is a group of people related by blood or law, living together or associating with one another for a common purpose. That purpose is usually to provide shelter and food, and to bring up children. It can also be defined as an organizing social unit from which a person usually develops its personal identification.

Sociologists divide families into two general types: the nuclear family and the extended family, which may include three or more generations living together. Nowadays the nuclear family is regarded as normal. Most people think of it as consisting of two parents and two children.

There are many different views on family life. Some people could not do without the support and love of their families. They need a family for comfort and protection. Oth­ers think it is the source of most of our problems and anxieties. Whatever the truth is, the family is definitely a powerful symbol. If you open a magazine or turn on the television you will see ad­vertisements featuring happy, balanced families. Politicians often try to win votes by standing for "family values": respect for par­ental authority, stability in marriage, care for the elderly.

One of the most important problems in the family is that of generation gap. It is the problem of misunderstanding between parents and their children.

Sometimes parents don't understand some problems and things which are very important in their children’s life; for example, the lifestyles of young people, piercing, tattoos, drugs, sex, relationship with friends and teachers. So sometimes teens can't tell them about their private life and don’t admit them in their own young world. Some adults don't want to understand modern views, ideals and system of values forgetting that they also used to be young and used to have their own views and values.

Elderly people usually compare their childhood and youth with the present, and regard old times as better, always talking about "the good old days". The young people, on the other hand, think their times as the best. The youth look at the world with fresh eyes. Everything is new, interesting to them. Sometimes they cannot solve their everyday problems. But they want to cope with them by themselves. So adults shouldn't prevent them from making their own mistakes.

Our parents have their own ideas and views that their children don't share and understand. Sometimes they think that their children won't find their place in life. They may say that now teens are very difficult to socialize with and dumpy. But nevertheless children should remember that their parents love them and that’s why there always exists a possibility to settle all problems peacefully. And if children come to their parents for advice and help, they will do their best and help children to cope with problems and difficulties.

A family is a little world where respect, support, confidence, comprehension are very important. But what is the most important thing in a family? Of course love. If members of the family love each other than all obstacles will be overcome and everything will be OK.

1. What is a family?

2. What types do sociologists divide families into?

3. What is a nuclear family?

4. What is an extended family?

5. What type is regarded as normal nowadays?

6. Do you think a family is the source of support, love and protection or the source of problems and anxieties?

7. Do you think a family is a powerful symbol?

8. How do politicians often try to win votes?

9. What is one of the most important problems in the family?

10. What is generation gap?

11. What don’t parents often understand?

12. Does the problem of generation gap exist in your family?

13. What don’t your parents understand?

14. How do elderly people regard old times?

15. What do the young people think about their times?

16. How do the young people want to cope with their problems?

17. What shouldn’t parents prevent children from?

18. What do adults think about teens?

19. What should children remember?

20. Do you agree that a family is a little world where respect, support, confidence and comprehension are very important?

21. What is the most important thing in a family?

 

 

THE UNIVERSITY I STUDY AT

Vyatka State University of Humanities is one of the oldest higher educational establishments in Russia, and the first in the Kirov Region. Its history goes back to 1914 when the Vyatka Teachers Training Institute was founded. In 1918 it was reorganized into higher educational establishment and became Vyatka Pedagogical Institute. In 1995 it got the status of Vyatka State Pedagogical University. And in 2002 it became Vyatka State University of Humanities.

On the one hand, our university has profound tradition of educational and scientific activities. On the other hand, it is a dynamic modern educational establishment. High quality of teaching is guaranteed by close integration of science and education, constant upgrade of training programs, teaching methodology, development of resource base. The research potential of the staff meets up-to-date standards of higher education.

The University is staffed by highly qualified tutors. There are 600 teachers and scientists including Candidates of Sciences, Doctors of Sciences, professors and corresponding members of Science Academies.

At present the University has 16 faculties, for example, the faculty of Linguistics and Intercultural Communication, the faculty of Economics, the faculty of Management, the faculty of Pedagogics, the faculty of Psychology, the faculty of Physics and Mathematics, the faculty of Physical Education, the faculty of Law and others. Each faculty has several specialities. So, the University trains preschool teachers, elementary school teachers, and high school teachers, accountants, managers, lawyers, designers and many others.

The University has day-time, extramural departments and there is a Post-Graduate Program including 29 specialities in 11 branches of science.

The University has close scientific ties with the Universities of the USA, England, Germany, France, Estonia, Taiwan, China, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Belorussia. There are cultural, educational and scientific exchanges of students and tutors. Every year the tutors of our university win international grants from top foundations – Tempus-Tacis, DAAD, Heinrich Boll Stiftung, IREX, Fulbright.

At present the teaching process runs in six buildings. The first building in 111 Lenin St. is the oldest one. For many years it is considered to be the main one. But in 2003 a new building of the University was built in Krasnoarmeyskaya St. and became the main building of it. There is the administration of the University and some faculties in it. The second building is situated in 198 Lenin St. Many years ago the third building in Svoboda St. was a students’ hostel. After being reconstructed and repaired, it became a building for studying. In the fourth building the faculty of Physical Training is situated, besides you can find a swimming pool there. This building is situated in Orlovskaya St.

The library in our University is excellent. There are several sections of the library in our University: the section of Scientific Literature, the section of Fiction Literature, the section of Literature in Foreign Languages and several Reading Halls. Not long ago a new section of the library was opened. Students can get more extra-information for their studies on the Internet and by using computers.

The course of studies at our university lasts for 4, 5 or 6 years. Those who have a five-year program receive a Specialist Diploma. If you have a four-year program you’ll get a Bachelor’s degree. Then the students can go on with their studies two more years and get a Master’s degree.

The University operates on the semester system. Each academic year is divided into two terms. At the end of a term students take their credit tests (credits) and examinations.

The academic year starts on September 1 and normally ends in June. Students are to attend lectures, seminars and make lab work. The students’ life is interesting and at the same time hard. The important element of education in the University is involving students in research work. The students of our university are regular participants of international, all-Russia and regional competitions of the best research work, olympiads and exhibitions in different subjects. They have their own Students' Scientific Society.

Our students are also engaged in sports and various extra curricular activities. There are some amateur groups and clubs such as choir, dancing groups and a drama club. They arrange concerts and theatre productions. Students can display their talents during different contests such as “Theatrical Autumn”, “Students’ Spring”, “A First-Year Miss” and “A First-Year Mister“. For those students who are fond of sports the University has a swimming pool, some sport-grounds and gymnasiums.

The University has also a Botanic Garden just in the centre of our city; students of different faculties, especially students of the faculty of Natural Sciences have practice or work and even have a rest there, enjoying beautiful flower-beds, bushes and trees.

The University takes care of its students and can offer 4 hostels for those students who come from different settlements and other cities and towns.

As you can see, Vyatka State University of Humanities gives the students every possibility to develop their abilities and talents and become highly qualified specialists.

 

YOUTH LIFE

It is said that the most beautiful period in our life is when we are young. It is the beginning of a new adult life. Youth is the time of decision making that will influence your life. It is necessary not only to fit into the society but also to be sure of your position within a long period of time.

What does youth life consist of? Well, youth life comprises studies, leisure and work.

To become a successful person you should know a lot. So after finishing school most of the young people try to enter universities, institutes and academies. It’s difficult but at the same time it’s interesting to study at a higher educational establishment.

While studying at university you are always busy and don’t have much time to spare. Sometimes it’s only weekend. When we have time for leisure, we usually need something that can amuse and interest us. There are several things to do this. You may listen to the radio or watch TV. Radio and television extend our knowledge about the world in which we live. TV helps us to "visit" different lands, see new plants, animals, unusual birds, fish and insects, mountains and val­leys, lakes, rivers, seas. If we want to go out, there are a lot of cinemas, theatres, museums, Houses of Culture and clubs in our country where we can spend our free time. Those who want to be strong and healthy, play sports. There are many clubs, swimming pools, gyms and sportsgrounds. Sport will make you not only healthier and stronger, but kinder, more sociable, cheerful and wiser. So, the list of ways of spending your free time is enormous.

Many young people nowadays want to be independent from their parents. That’s why they try to find a part-time job. Students can work as waiters, baby-sitters, security guards, DJs, VJs, shop assistants, promoters, drivers if they are 18, street cleaners, etc. Of course, it’s rather difficult to study well and to work at the same time but it is the possibility to gain experience and make some money. Besides, most of the young people understand that you have to work hard to win. To get success in your life you should be hard-working, creative and intelligent. You’ll never get success if you wait for someone to bring it to you. You have to get up and get it yourself.

 

LEISURE TIME

Leisure... such a fascinating word, such a fascinating time that belongs only to you and you are the only master of it. You are free to spend this time the way you like it and to enjoy it. There are various ways of entertaining oneself: you can admire your stamp collection, visit a football or a hockey match, read a book, go to a party... the list and the variety is enormous! But... what to do if you have no hobby whatsoever, you friends are busy, the books of the favourite author have been reread thousand times and are practically learnt by heart?

Sport activities are said to be useful and seem to be in fashion. But, to tell the truth, they don't make one happy and enthusiastic. TV? Well, too many advertisements to enjoy any programme even the favourite film. The ads just make one sick and tired and many watch TV only in case they have nothing more to do. The other extreme - people spend days and nights watching TV, each programme in succession and they are satisfied with their leisure, but that is not a common case. Books? I suppose one shouldn't make reading a hobby. You either enjoy reading, taking a book when you are in the mood or... then it is not a hobby, it becomes an obligation. Theatre? Unfor­tunately, it is not a success with the young nowa­days, I believe.

What's left? That is the question. Yes, you are free to choose, but the choice as it turns out is rather limited. Oh, you can go to a discotheque and spend a couple of hours - or maybe evenings? — there, but the idea is not the best one, if we speak about hobbies. The idea is even rather idi­otic, to tell the truth. Night clubs despite their popularity are not a brilliant idea either — that is my personal opinion — to spend your free time. First, you cannot get in free and not all parents are eager to sponsor it, at least, not too often, I guess. Second, you cannot spend every night — they are really nightclubs — at discotheques as you have to attend school and that is rather diffi­cult after a sleepless night, isn't it? Missing les­sons is not a popular thing either with the parents or with the teacher, I suppose.

Is there a solution to the problem? Why not? Haven't you guessed yet? It is a computer! The ideal hobby! Are you going to argue? If you have got a computer, your problems with your leisure time are solved. You will spend hours at the com­puter not noticing how the time passes. More­over, you will be sure that you lack time. You can play computer games, while your parents believe you are working. Fortunately, parents don't know much about the "monster", and you can easily persuade them you are trying to solve some so­phisticated problem and they would believe you. They wouldn't even guess you are just entertain­ing yourself and you can waste as much time at the computer as you wish trying to find a solu­tion to a game instead of studying. Who would know?

But... well, spending your free time at a com­puter you would never notice the time pass and you would have no time for anything else. You wouldn't get enough sleep and would doze off at the lessons, you would never have time to get well prepared for your classes, as a result you would always — but for some exceptions — get bad marks... so, you would be definitely cut off from the real world. And to live a virtual life - that is impossible and maybe, rather dull...

The main problem is that the young cannot plan their leisure. That is not because they are silly, but due to mere ignorance — they simply don't know how to do it. And if they did, they would find time for everything - at least for ev­erything that interests them. And this shows that there's little ground to worry and to call the younger generation "the lost one": they are not lost, they are only young. It is not a fault; it's just the period when everybody thinks that there's plenty of time ahead that one can waste it hop­ing to catch up with it later on. A great mistake! But who thought differently, being young when the whole world seemed to belong only to you and when the time seemed an eternity that would never come to an end?

 

 

THE CITY OF KIROV

Kirov, the former Vyatka, is one of the oldest cities in the north-eastern European part of Russia. It is situated on the high left bank of the Vyatka river. The city lies 550 miles north-east of Moscow and extends roughly 7 miles along the banks of the Vyatka river.

Kirov is the capital city of the Kirov region. It is as large as Austria and Switzerland put together. It occupies 121000 sq. km and stretches for 570 km from North to South and 440 km from West to East. The greater part of it lies in the Vyatka river basin. The Vyatka is the longest and the deepest river in the region. Its length is 1300 km. It flows into the Kama and then into the Volga. The Vyatka has a lot of tributaries, and in summer it is navigable.

Our city was founded in the 12th century (as Khlynov) by travellers from Novgorod, and was first chronicled in 1374. Khlynov was incorporated into Muscovy in 1489 and became known throughout Russia for its clay statuettes and whistles. In 1781 Catherine the Great renamed Khlynov to Vyatka and made it the centre of a separate guberniya. The town also served as a place of exile, notably for Alexander Herzen, Alexander Vitberg, and Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin. By the end of the 19th century, it was an important station on the Trans-Siberian railway. In December 1934, it was renamed for the Soviet leader Sergey Kirov. He was born in a small town of Urzhum, not far from Vyatka.

The Vyatka land gave birth to many great sons of Russia. Among them are artists Victor and Apollinary Vasnetsov, a famous singer Shalyapin, a well-known writer Alexander Grin, marshal Konev and other outstanding public figures, scientists, writers, actors.

Now the city of Kirov is an industrial, cultural and administrative centre of the region. The population of our city is over 600,000 people.

Kirov is an industrial centre because there is a great number of modern in­dustrial enterprises, in it such as: “Shinny” - tyre plant, the Nonferrous metal processing plant, “Iskozh” - the artificial leather plant, the Biochemical plant, “Vesta” – producing automatic washing machines, ski-factory, etc. Various measuring instruments, tyres, hunting skis, timber, Dymkovo toys are well-known in our country and abroad.

Kirov is one of the largest scientific and educational centres of Russia. The institutions of Russia Academy of Science study fundamental problems. The most important scientific institutions are Kirov Research Institutes of: Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Hunting and Fur-Animal Breeding, Seed Selection of North - Eastern Russia, Microbiology.

There are 4 major higher educational institutions in Kirov. They are: Vyatka State University of Humanities, Vaytka State University, Vaytka State Agricultural Academy, Medical Academy. Besides, there are nearly 60 secondary schools, technical schools, colleges, schools of sports, music and art.

There are several cinemas and three theatres in Kirov: the Drama theatre, the theatre in Spasskaya street and the Puppet theatre. There is also a circus in our city. Kirov can also boast of a number of museums: the Vasnetsovs Brothers’ Fine Arts Museum, the Vyatka Local History Museum, the Kunstcamera, the Diorama, the Aviation and Astronautics Museum, Saltykov-Shchedrin’s House, Grin’s House.

The Fine Arts Museum has a rich collection of masterpieces of old and modern Russian painters. Among them are pictures of Shishkin, Vasnet­sov, Ivanov, Repin, Yaroshenko, Aivasovsky, Petrov-Vodkin and many other fa­mous painters.

Every town is beautiful in its own way. One of the sights of Kirov is a beau­tiful memorial to those Kirovites who perished during the Great Patriotic War. It is in Grin's embankment. In front of the monument there is an eternal fire. From that place you can enjoy the view of the Vyatka river with a bridge across it and a vast green park on the other side of the river. We call it Zarechny Park.

If you walk from here along Moskovskaya street you will find yourself in Theatre Square. It is situated in the very centre of the city. Here we celebrate the city’s birthday in June and other holidays. In the middle of the square there is a small gardenwith a musical fountain. In front of the garden there is a fine building of the Drama Theatre. Here in the square we can also see the building of the State Uni­versity, the Fine Arts Museum and the building of our regional administration.

The Vyatka land is famous for its ancient crafts which still have been existing and flourishing: embroidery, wood-carving, weaving, making clay toys, articles of fur, lace. We can boast of articles of excrescences on the roots of leaf-bearing trees, osier and straw, matryoshkas, articles of birch bark, ceramics.

 

But Dymkovo toys are the most famous folk arts in Vyatka. These toys are indeed unique, having a centuries-old history. We still call them toys, though they have lost their original value, being praised for their decorative qualities. These miniature sculptures are valued now as articles of crafts made by hands, as souvenirs. They are called Dymkovo toys by the name of the settlement where the first clay figures appeared.

Our city is growing year by year. New districts are well-planned and green with wide streets and high modem apartment houses. Kirovites are proud of their city and the people living in it .

 

 

MOSCOW

There is a lot to see in Russia, but first of all foreign tourists visit the capital of our country, Moscow, its political, economic, commercial and cultural centre. Prince Yuri Dolgoruky founded it 8 centuries ago. At that time it was a small fortress. Gradually the city became more and more powerful.

In the 13th century Moscow was the center of the struggle of Russian lands for the liberation from the Tartar yoke.

In the 16th century under Ivan the Terrible Moscow become the capital of the new united state. Though Peter the Great moved the capital to St. Petersburg in 1712, Moscow remained the heart of Russia. That is why it became the main target of Napoleon’s attack. Three-quarters of the city were destroyed by the fire during Napoleon’s occupation; but by the mid-19th century Moscow had been completely restored. After the October revolution Moscow became the capital again.

 Now Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world. Its total area is about nine hundred square kilometers. The population of the city is over 10 million.

Moscow is one of the most beautiful cities in the world. It attracts tourists from all over the world.

The Kremlin is a masterpiece of ancient Russian architecture. It is the oldest part of Moscow. The main Kremlin tower, the Spasskaya Tower, has become the symbol of Russia and Moscow. It has a famous clock; one can hear its chimes on the radio. On the territory of the Kremlin you can see old cathedrals, the Bell Tower of Ivan the Great, the State Kremlin Palace, the Tzar Cannon and the Tzar Bell, the biggest cannon and bell in the world.

If you leave the Kremlin by Trinity Gate, you will come to the Alexandrovsky Gardens. The first thing to do in the Gardens is to stand by the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, still and silent. Not far from the Alexandrovsky Gardens behind the Bolshoi Kamenny Bridge you will see St. Saviour's Cathedral with its huge beautiful gilded dome. The original cathedral was erected by the order of Emperor Alexander as a token of the Russian people's gratitude to God for the deliverance of Russia from Napoleon's invasion in 1812. In 1931 it was demolished. But in 1995, Moscow's Mayor Yuri Luzhkov and the world-famous musician Mstislav Rostropovich laid the first stone in the foundation of the new Cathedral of Christ the Saviour. Today you can admire this Cathedral in the centre of Moscow.

The heart of Moscow is the famous Red Square. It has more historic associations than any other place in Moscow. Tourists can look at the magnificent St. Basil’s Cathedral (Vasily Blazheny), the Lenin Mausoleum and the monument to K. Minin and D. Pozharsky. St.Basil’s Cathedral was built in the mid-16th century in memory of the victory over Kazan. There is legend that Ivan the Terrible blinded the architects Barma and Postnik, because he didn’t want them to create another masterpiece.

Foreigners are usually surprised by the number of churches and cathedrals in and around the city. There are a lot of beautiful palaces, old mansions, cathedrals, churches and monuments in Moscow.

There are more than 80 museums in our capital. The largest museums are the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, whose collections include works of art of the ancient Orient and ancient Egypt, and the State Tretyakov Gallery, which houses a rich collection of Russian painting and Russian icons. Other unique museums in Moscow are the State History-Museum, the All-Russia Museum of Decorative, Applied and Folk Art, Polytechnical Museum and many others. Moscow is famous for its theatres too. The best-known of them is the Bolshoi Opera House. Drama theatres and studios are also very popular.

One more interesting place to visit in Moscow is the All-Russia Exhibition Centre, which occupies an area of 530 acres. The Exhibition Centre is situated in a beautiful park. The most admired feature of the Exhibition Centre is its fountains. The "Friendship of the Nations" and the "Stone Flower" fountains are the most beautiful. The Exhibition Centre is a large cultural and commercial complex where different international exhibitions and fairs are held.

Moscow is famous for its theatres. The best known of them is the Bolshoi Opera House. Drama theatres and studios are also very popular.

One of the most famous sights of the city is the Moscow Metro and the journey by Metro will be unforgettable. In the Metro you do not feel as if you're underground. This is due to the unique architecture and the artistic design of the stations, which are more like palaces.

Moscow is a city of students. There are over 80 higher educational institutions in it, including several universities.

Moscow is the seat of the Russian Parliament (the Duma) and the centre of political life of the country.

 

THE KREMLIN

The Kremlin is the heart of Moscow. It is surrounded by a high wall of 2.5 kilometres long, built by the Russian builders by order of Ivan III (1462-1505), and supervised by the Italian architects. The twenty towers on the Kremlin wall, which give it a unique aspect, were built for decoration and have no military significance. They were constructed in the seventeenth century when Moscow had ceased to be a fortress. Among the ancient buildings in the Kremlin there are the churches and a tall bell tower built in 1600 by Russian architects under Boris Godunov and known as the Bell Tower of Ivan the Great. The largest cathedral, the Assumption, was built in 1475-1479 by Aristotle Fiorovante. There are some very fine old frescoes, some of which were restored in the 20th century. It was there that the Russian tsars and emperors were crowned.

The Archangel Cathedral was built in 1505 by the Italian architect, Aleviso Novy. The tombs of the Moscow grand dukes and tsars are here, among them the graves of Ivan the Terrible, of his son Ivan, and of his second son, Tsar Fyodor. The Annunciation Cathedral was built in 1484 by architects from Pskov. It is noted for the unusual oil paintings done in the fifteenth and the sixteenth centuries by Andrei Rublyov and his pupils, the greatest artists of the time.

Facing the same square is a very beautiful building known as Faceted Hall which was built at the end of the 15th century by Marco Rufto and Pietro Solan. In this palace the Moscow tsars held magnificent receptions in honour of foreign ambassadors. The Granovitaya Palace is connected with the enormous Grand Kremlin Palace.

Among other historical monuments in the Kremlin are the Tsar Cannon (sixteenth century) and the Tsar Bell (eighteenth century), both of enormous size and made by Russian masters. In a large wing of the Palace is the Armoury and a museum of applied art where imperial collections of utensils, furniture, weapon and garments of eastern and western workmanship are on display.

In the north-eastern section of the Kremlin is a beautiful building of classic design built by the most famous Russian architect of the eighteenth century, M. Kazakov. In the square opposite this building is the former Arsenal, along the facade of which are numerous cannons captured by the Russian Army from Napoleon in 1812-1814.


Asking the Way

How to attract a person’s attention

Excuse me, sir (madam, miss)!

I say! Look here! – Послушайте.

2) How to ask and tell the way.

Asking the way Telling the way
– Which is the way to the … ? – What is the shortest way to … ? – Could/ Can/ Will you tell (show) me the (shortest) way to … ? – How can (do) I get to … ? – Where is the nearest bus stop?   – Is it far?   – What bus should I take to get to … ? – Where do I change to the underground?     ­– Will this bus take me to …? – Does this trolleybus go to … ? – Is there a bus from here to … ?   – Is this the right bus for … ?   – Will it take me long to get there?     – Should I take a bus?   – How long does it take you to get there? – How long will it take me to get to … ?   – What’s the fare? = How much is it to …? – Can you tell me where to get off? – Well, let me see … – Walk straight on … – Walk(go) along (down, up) the street. – Pass two blocks … – Pass the building – First right, second left. You can’t miss it – Turn (to the) right … – Take the first turning to the right. – Cross the street … – Walk back as far as the corner. – Walk as far as the corner … … and you will be right there . … and you will see it in front of you. … and you will see it on your right (left) … and you will see it across the square. … and you will find yourself in … .   – No, it’s only a couple of hundred yards. – Not so far. – Yes, far from here. – It’s quite near. – It’s the next stop (but one).   – Take bus number 5 and get off at the third stop. – Take bus number 5 as far as N.Prospect, and then change to the underground (metro).   – This bus won’t take you to … . – Yes, it does. No, it doesn’t. – There is no bus from here to … . – Yes, this bus will take you right to … . – Any bus will take you there.   – No, you’re going the wrong way.   – No, it’s no distance at all. – It won’t take you more than five minutes. – No, it’s only about a five minute walk.   – It takes me 15 minutes. – It will take you 15 minutes (half an hour, an hour) to get there.

 

3) What to answer when a person thanks you.

Don’t mention it.

No thanks at all.

You are welcome.

It was a pleasure.

 

 


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