Выражаю благодарность Энрико Бенасси (https://vk.com/enrico.benassi) в предоставлении  полных текстов некоторых исследований для составления данного обзора.


Источники информации.

1 - Influence of L-carnitine administration on maximal physical exercise.

2 - The effect of L-carnitine supplementation on 1500 m running performance.

3 - Effect of L-carnitine supplementation on muscle and blood carnitine content and lactate accumulation during high-intensity sprint cycling.

4 - Influence of carnitine supplementation on muscle substrate and carnitine metabolism durin exercise.
5 - The effect of acute l-carnitine supplementation on endurance perfomance of athletes.
6 - Effects of L-carnitine supplementation on physical performance and energy metabolism of endurance-trained athletes: a double-blind crossover field study.
7 - Carnitine supplementation: effect on muscle carnitine and glycogen content during exercise.
8 - Carnitine in muscle, serum, and urine of nonprofessional athletes: effects of physical exercise, training, and L-carnitine administration.
9 - Effects of L-carnitine on the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and carnitine
palmitoyl transferase activities in muscle of endurance athletes.
10 - The effects of L-carnitine supplementation on performance during interval swimming.
11- Effect of L-carnitine on submaximal exercise metabolism after depletion of muscle glycogen.
12 - Effects of L-carnitine administration on VO2max and the aerobic-anaerobic threshold in normoxia and acute hypoxia.
13 - Decrease in respiratory quotient during exercise following L-carnitine supplementation.
14 - The effect of oral supplementation with L-carnitine on maximum and submaximum exercise capasity.
15 - Effect of l-carnitine loading on the aerobic and anaerobic perfomance of endurance athlets
16 - Prolonge submaximal exercise and l-carnitine in humans.
17 - Respiratory chain enzymes in muscle of endurance athletes: Effect of L-carnitine.
18 - L-Carnitine L-tartrate supplementation favorably affects markers of recovery from exercise stress.
19 - Glycine propionyl-L-carnitine produces enhanced anaerobic work capacity with reduced lactate accumulation in resistance trained males.
20 - Long-term glycine propionyl-l-carnitine supplemention and paradoxical effects on repeated anaerobic sprint performance.
21 - l-Carnitine l-tartrate supplementation favorably affects biochemical markers of recovery from physical exertion in middle-aged men and women.

22 - Effect of glycine propionyl-L-carnitine on aerobic and anaerobic exercise performance.
23 - L -Carnitine and the recovery from exhaustive endurance exercise: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

24 - Effects of four weeks L-carnitine L-tartrate ingestion on substrate utilization during prolonged exercise.
25 - The effect of chronic l- carnitine l-tartarate supplementation on glucose and lactate. concentration and aerobic capacity.
26 - Long-term administration of L-carnitine to humans: effect on skeletal muscle carnitine content and physical performance.
27 - Effects of carnitine coingested caffeine on carnitine metabolism and endurance capacity in athletes.
28 - Insulin stimulates L-carnitine accumulation in human skeletal muscle.
29 - An Acute Increase in Skeletal Muscle Carnitine Content Alters Fuel Metabolism in Resting Human Skeletal Muscle.
30 - A threshold exists for the stimulatory effect of insulin on plasma l-carnitine clearance in humans.
31 - Carbohydrate ingestion augments l-carnitine retention in humans.
32 - Chronic oral ingestion of l-carnitine and carbohydrate increases muscle carnitine content and alters muscle fuel metabolism during exercise in humans.
33 - Skeletal muscle carnitine loading increases energy expenditure, modulates fuel metabolism gene networks and prevents body fat accumulation in humans.
34 - Use of carnitine in exercise physiology.
35 - Effects of L-carnitine in highly trained male cyclists.
36 - The effect of (L-)Carnitine on weight loss in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
37 - L-Carnitine supplementation combined with aerobic training does not promote weight loss in moderately obese women.
38 - The supplementation of L-carnitine does not promote alterations in the resting metabolic rate and in the use of energetic substrates in physically active individuals.
39 - The Effect of Two-Week L-Carnitine Supplementation on Exercise -Induced Oxidative Stress and Muscle Damage.
40 - Single dose administration of L-carnitine improves antioxidant activities in healthy subjects.
41 - Effects of prolonged L-carnitine administration on delayed muscle pain and CK release after eccentric effort.
42 - The Effects of L-Carnitine L-Tartrate Supplementation on Hormonal Responses to Resistance Exercise and Recovery.
43 - Androgenic Responses to Resistance Exercise: Effects of Feeding and L-Carnitine.
44 - Increasing skeletal muscle carnitine availability does not alter the adaptations to high-intensity interval training.
45 - Carnitine Metabolism And Human Nutrition.
46 - Age-dependent decrease of carnitine content in muscle of mice and humans.
47 - Relationships between muscle carnitine, age and oxidative status.
48 - Age and Sex Dependency of Carnitine Concentration in Human Serum and Skeletal Muscle.
49 - L-Carnitine treatment reduces severity of physical and mental fatigue and increases cognitive functions in centenarians: a randomized and controlled clinical trial.
50 - Levocarnitine administration in elderly subjects with rapid muscle fatigue: effect on body composition, lipid profile and fatigue.
51 - Acetyl L-carnitine (ALC) treatment in elderly patients with fatigue.
52 - Efficacy of L-carnitine supplementation on frailty status and its biomarkers, nutritional status, and physical and cognitive function among prefrail older adults: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
53 - Acetyl-L-carnitine physical-chemical, metabolic, and therapeutic properties: relevance for its mode of action in Alzheimer's disease and geriatric depression.
54 - Синдром старческой Астении. Клинические рекомендации.
55 - L-Acetylcarnitine in dysthymic disorder in elderly patients: a double-blind, multicenter, controlled randomized study vs. Fluoxetine.
56 - Mechanisms of Insulin Resistance in Aging.
57 - Mitochondrial Dysfunction in the Elderly: Possible Role in Insulin Resistance.
58 - Supplementation of L-carnitine improves mitochondrial enzymes in heart and skeletal muscle of aged rats.
59 - L-carnitine supplementation and physical exercise restore age-associated decline in some mitochondrial functions in the rat.
60 - Acetyl-l-carnitine fed to old rats partially restores mitochondrial function and ambulatory activity.
61 - Muscle-specific Deletion of Carnitine Acetyltransferase Compromises Glucose Tolerance and Metabolic Flexibility.
62 - Effect of L-Carnitine Supplementation on Metabolic Status in Obese Diabetic Women With Hypocaloric Diet.

63 - L-Carnitine supplementation reduces oxidized LDL cholesterol in patients with diabetes

64 - Insulin resistance is a cellular antioxidant defense mechanism.

65 - Role of carnitine in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity: evidence from in vivo and in vitro studies with carnitine supplementation and carnitine deficiency.
66 - L-carnitine treatment of insulin resistance: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
67 - Vegetarians have a reduced skeletal muscle carnitine transport capacity.

68 - Long–echo time MR spectroscopy for skeletal muscle acetylcarnitine detection.

69 - L-carnitine in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: systematic review and meta-analysis.

70 - Effective dosing of L-carnitine in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

71 - Efficacy and Safety of L-Carnitine Treatment for Chronic Heart Failure: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
72 - Carnitine for the Treatment of Hyperthyroidism and Carnitine and Thyroid Hormone, A Potential Treatment for Obesity.
73 - Intestinal microbiota metabolism of l-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, promotes atherosclerosis
74 - Bullshit Study of the Year: "Carnitine Causes Heart Disease"
75 - Protein ingestion acutely inhibits insulin-stimulated muscle carnitine uptake in healthy young men.



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