Look through the following words and revise their meanings. Pay attention to the pronunciation of the following words.


State whether the following statements are T (True) or F (False)

1. There are two types of dating.

2. Dating is important for geologists to construct time lines.

3. Relative dating is more significant than absolute dating.

4. There is no difference between relative dating and absolute dating.

5.    Relative dating puts events in sequential order.

6. Absolute dating does not pinpoint the more exact dates.

Choose the correct variant to the following questions.

1. What is the age of Earth’s history?

       (A) 4.6 million       (B) 4.6 billion        (C) 4,600

2. Humans are compared to

       (A) mere pups        (B) puppies                        (C) baby puppies

3. How long have humans been around on the Earth?

       (A) 0.1%                            (B) 10%                             (C) 1%

4. What do geologists construct when studying the rocks on Earth?

       (A) data                             (B) record                          (C)outline

5. How many types of dating are there?

       (A) 3                                  (B) 2                                  (C) 1

6. Dating is used to construct

       (A) time lines         (B) time intervals               (C) time periods

7. What events come first?

       (A) the youngest                (B) the middle ones (C) the oldest

8. What is relative dating?

(A) it puts events in sequential order

(B) it puts dates to rocks

(C) it pinpoints dates more exactly

9. Which of the dating is more important?

       (A) neither                         (B) both                             (C) only one

10. What do geologists study?

       (A) Earth                (B) other planets                (C) geology


Insert prepositions where necessary.

Geologists study (1) ______ the Earth. (2)_____ doctors the geologists have specialties. (3)____ example, some (4)_____ focus the oceans, others on the interior (6)____ the Earth. Some even study other planets. Geology has many separated (7) ____ two broad categories: historical geology and physical geology.

Historical geologists look (8) ______ the formation and evolution of the Earth and life (9) _________ earth.

 Physical geologists study what materials the Earth’s is made (10) ________ and what’s happening (11) ______ and (12) ______ the Earth’s surface.

Most introductory geology classes focus (13) __________ physical geology. So, we’ll do that too. Now, when we talk (14) ________the time on Earth before humans (B.H.) were (15) ______, we’re talking about a long, long, long time. I mean long, really long. You wouldn’t even believe how long. Anyway, here is one way to think (16) _____ geologic time.

Use the following words to define the terms:

Relative dating-


Absolute dating-


chronological                                 geological                                      the

arrangement                                              years                                              of

ages                                                           expressed                                                                                                                                                                    without

scale                                                          formation                                      to

rocks                                                         units                                              in

absolute                                                     time                                               their

fossils                                            rock

events                                            usually

reference                                                   fossil

geological                                                  age

with respect


3. Answer the following questions:

1. What type of geologists studies the formation and evolution of the Earth and life on earth?

2. What is the Earth’s age compared to?

3. How old are humans according to the video?

4. How is it necessary to memorize the scale of geological time?

5. What did geologists construct by studying the rocks on Earth?

6. What is the purpose of relative dating?

7. What is the absolute dating?


Video- Deep Time-an Overview


5.2.1  Before-watching

Pay attention to the pronunciation of the following geological periods.

[Ages are given in million of years before present (MA) ]


Precambrian [pri:’kǽmbri] Докембрийский / докембрий (период)
Cambrian [kæmbriәn] кембрийсдкий
Ordovician [ :dә’vi∫әin] Ордовикская (система)
Silurian [sәI’lju(ә)riәn] Силурийский (период)
Devonian [de’vәvnjәn] Девонский (период)
Carboniferous [ka:bәnif(ә)rәs] Каменноугольный (период)
Palaezoic [pæliә’zәvik] Палеозойская (эра)
Permian [pз:miәn] Пермская (система)
Mesozoic [mezә(u)’zәvik] Мезозойская (эра)
Triassic [trai’æsik] Триасовая (система)
Jurassic [dзv‘ræsik] Юрский (период)
Cretaceous [kri’tei∫әs] Меловой (период)
Cenozoic [ si:nә(v)’zә ik] Кайнозойская (эра)
Tertiary [tз:∫(ә)ri] Третичная (система)
Palaeocene [pæliәvsi:n] Палеоцен
Eocene [‘I: әvsi:n] Эоценовая (эпоха)
Oligocene [ ligәvsi:n] Олигоцен / верхний отдел палеогена
Miocene [maiәsi:n] Миоцен (эпоха)
Pliocene [plaiәsi:n] Плиоценовая (эпоха)
Quaternary [kwә’tз:nәri] Четвертичный (период)


By modern scientific calculations, the earth is many millions of years old. Using a process called «Isotopic Dating», in which the decay rates of certain radioactive materials are established and measured, then used as «clocks» to calculate the ages of various rocks, has developed the ABSOLUTE GEOLOGIC TIME SCALE.

The Geological Column

The geological column is the full record of the Earth’s crust rocks laid down in sequence. This column is based on rock units, each comprising rock layers created in one geological period of time. In ascending order several of the time rock units called zones make up one stage; several stages form a series; several series build a system; several systems make an era (them).


Four Eons

A- Hadean Eon (4600-4000) million years ago

B- Archean Eon (4000-2500)

C- Proterozoic Eon (2500-540)

D- Phanererozoic Eon ( 540 to today)










Quaternary (2-present) Holocene (0.01-Present) Pleistocene (2-0.01)
Neogene (24.6-2) Pliocene (5-2) Miocene (24.6-5)
Paleogene (65-24.6) Oligocene (38-24.6) Eocene (55-38) Paleocene (65-55)




Cretaceous (144-65)


Jurassic (213-144)
Triassic (248-213)







Permian (286-248)
Carboniferous (360-286)
Devonian (408-360)
Silurian (440-408)
Ordovician (505-440)
Cambrian (540-505)


5.2.2.While watching

1. Put the terms in the right order of sequence.

  • Eras
  • Epochs
  • Eons
  • Periods
  • Bleams

2. Put the eons in the proper succession

Major event Eon Its number in succession


5.2.3 After watching

1. Pronounce the bold words

1. The eon called the PRE-ARCEAN began 4.6 billion years ago.

2. The PRE-ARCHEAN eon was followed by the ARCHEAN eon which lasted from 3800 million years ago to 2500 million years ago.

3. Then came the PROTEROZOIC eon which lasted from 2500 million years ago to 570 million years ago when the PHANEROZOIC eon began.

2. Using the pattern below name the ages of each period:

EXAMPLE: The name CARBONIFEROUS refers to the period between 360-286 million years.



Paleozoic Permian 286
  Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian \ Mississippi)   320 360
  Devonian 408
  Silurian 438
  Ordovician 505
  Cambrian 570


3.Insert the correct grammatical form of the word in brackets:

Keep in mind that ___________ (1. geology) distinguish each geologic period by its unique system of rocks and rock _________ (2. form). The periods are ____________ (3. general) named for geographic ______________ (4. locate) where the rocks of the period were first ___________ (5. study) or where the characteristics of that period’s rocks are _____________ (6. good) displayed. The periods that _______ (7. be) not named for ____________ (8. geography) location are named for some special ___________ (9. characterize) of the rock formations.


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