Правила чтения гласных букв в английском языке.



Гласная буква

I II III IV
открытый или условно открытый слог закрытый  слог гласная + r гласная + re
a [ei] name say same nature day make play place lady safe race frankly   [ ᴂ ] Sam/Dan am and/as black that can Math campus handsome Spanish Language exactly have family [ a:] barbecue part car start card charge hardly [ ԑ ә ] parents Mary care prepare  
e [i:] we me she he these     [e] sense French intend penfriend whether well freshman success friend clever [ ɜ :] her learn nervous person personal certainly [i ә ] sphere here mere
o [ ә ʊ ] no phone sociable [ ɒ ] stocky responsible confident [ ↄ :] born cork morning [ ↄ :] bored more moreover
u [ju:] humour student [ ʌ ] but Dunsford summer smug plunge [ ɜ :] surfing curly further [ju: ә ] pure curious cure
i/y [ai] my sometimes describe profile shy reliable stipend [i] interested History slim equipped differ system visit [ ɜ :] first firm sir [ai ә ] tired fire inspire

П Р И М Е Ч А Н И Е:

В безударном положении гласные a , e , o , y , I , u читаются как [ ә ] [ i ]. Например, common, system, difficult, woman, direct, history.

После букв r, l, j буква u произносится как [u]. Например, rule, true, June, blue.

 

READING

Упражнение 1. Сравните чтение следующих слов. Почему одни и те же гласные читаются по-разному?

 

[ei]  [ᴂ]   [i:] [e]   [ ә ʊ ] [ ɒ ]       [ju:]   [ ʌ ]    [ai]     [i]

wavy – passion be - plenty going - common    mute – subject time - quick

hate - jazz  complete – the rest promote- possible     super – culture size - think

fail – strange       medium – depend code - stocky      music – smug      shy - risky

 

                            [ↄ:]   [ ɒ ]

                          forward - responsiblу

                            sport - confidenе

                            form - responsible

 

Упражнение 2. Прочтите следующие слова. Обратите внимание на правила чтения гласных букв. Выделенные буквы являются ударными .

Describe, neck, since, order, curtain, button, handsome, curly, confused, occupation, job, introduce, number, ashamed, profile, personal, wavy, sir, frankly, hate, freshmen, wide, mere, hate, include, pulse.

 

Правила чтения сочетаний гласных букв

ea =      [ e ]                         [ i :]       

 

перед d , th  head       в остальных случаях teacher

         bread                           seat

         breath                     people

         death                      speak

 

ee = [i:]           tree

                                street

                                sheep

 

oo = [ ʊ ] soon ,                      но blood                [ʌ]

                       book                            flood

                       took

 

o перед th, m, n, v = [ ʌ ]    mother, some

                                                 brother, other

                                                   come, son, love                                                     

Упражнение 3. Выпишите следующие слова в две группы согласно правилам чтения буквосочетания еа.

Death, spread, bread, heal, dead, breath, fear, head, treat, feather, meat, read, teach, Zealand, breakfast

      [ i :]                     [ e ]       

                                                     

                                                     

                                                     

                                                     

                                                     

                                                      

                                                     

                                                     

                                                     

Упражнение 4. В каком столбике гласные читаются как в алфавите? В каком столбике гласные читаются как сложные звуки? В каком столбике все гласные читаются кратко?

 

a) shy      b) code c) tender         d) pure       e) occupation

 curly       mute  wonder     sphere       Zealand

  button      size   since       parents      street

 

 

Упражнение 5. Подчеркните слова, в которых буква о читается как [ ʌ ]. Объясните , почему .

word, won, horse, soon, sometimes, lovely, forever, otherwise, code, tongue, bored, none, order, brother, vote, morning, stomach, column, come, move, love, old, corner, wonder, tore, occupation, cover, Monday

 

GRAMMAR

Упражнение 6. Завершите предложения, используя am , is , are :

1 ….. Mandy in?

2 Mr and Mrs Taylor ….. in the garden.

3 Jane and Mandy ….. from London.

4 How old ….. you?

5 I ….. sixteen today.

6 We ….. on holiday in Paris.

7 I ….. in the kitchen.

8 He ….. from New York.

9 You ….. my favourite DJ.

10 What ….. your name?

 

Упражнение 7. Заполните пропуски подходящей формой глагола to be (was, were, wasn’t, weren’t) и to have (has, had).

1. Xavier …. 19 years old in 2013. 2. He ….. a part-time job at that time. 3. His job ….. good. 4. Xavier and his friend Paul ….. students then. 5. Their job ….. well paid. 6. But they ….. happy nevertheless.

 

Упражнение 8. Прочтите текст . Найдите предложения, где глаголы to be и to have употреблены в форме настоящего, прошедшего и будущего времен. Причтите вслух и переведите эти предложения. Расскажите, что вы узнали о Гиппократе.

 

Hippocrates was born in 460 B.C. on the island of Cos. He was the son of a doctor. Hippocrates studied medicine and then he practiced the art of medicine. It is known that he drove out the plague from Athens by lighting fires in the streets of the city.

Hippocrates was an excellent doctor and a teacher of medicine. His medicine had a basis of experience. He taught that every disease was a natural process and it had natural causes.

One of Hippocrates theories was that the body had four fluids: blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile. Only two thousand years later, this theory was proved incorrect. Medicine for Hippocrates was an art, a science and a profession.

Hippocrates is the most famous of all Greek doctors. He is often called “the Father of Medicine” and some his ideas are still important. The Hippocratic Oath is a collection of promises, and its basis is the medical code of honour. This Oath has many of his thoughts and principles. All people connected with medicine will be Hippocrates’s followers.

Упражнение 9. Прочтите текст. Найдите предложения, где глаголы to be и to have употреблены в форме настоящего, прошедшего и будущего времен. Причтите вслух и переведите эти предложения. Расскажите, что вы узнали об обучении на факультете медицины.

Good morning and welcome to the Faculty of Medicine. I am the Dean of the Faculty and I have a great pleasure to see so many of you, who will be the Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery. The career as a doctor you will have will be both rewarding and demanding. At the institute, my training also was from exploring the structure of cells to learning about medical codes of conduct.

The word medicine was from Latin – to heal –, which was the core of the medicine. There were not so many branches of medicine at that time, but all had something in common.

The core subjects you will have in your first year are different subjects, and you will have pre-clinical and clinical studies, as other universities have.

The human anatomy is about the structure of the body. It will be helpful to understand physiology – the way the healthy body functions. Pharmacology will be about how drugs interact with living organisms. In biochemistry, you will have analysis of the structure and function of the chemical compounds. Finally, you will learn about specific diseases in Pathology, what causes of those diseases were, and how to cure them. These are the core subjects, that you will study, and there will be others.

When a student I had my special interest, and that was human anatomy. At first, there were no two sub-divisions in human anatomy, as we have them nowadays: gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy. In gross anatomy, you have studies of those structures that you can see with the naked eye. In microscopic anatomy, you will have microscopes to study structures at a much more detailed level. As part of this, you will have an introduction to histology and cytology. You will also have an opportunity to gain an introduction to histopathology that is the study of disease in cells. Pharmacology is another area that may be new to you. This is the study of drugs, what they are, how they work and what they do.

Thus, the purpose of today’s lecture is to look at some major landmarks in the development of your studies at the Faculty of Medicine.

Упражнение 10. Укажите правильный перевод русского предложения:

  1. Анатомия была полезной для того чтобы понять физиологию.

а) Anatomy will be helpful to understand physiology.

b) Anatomy is helpful to understand physiology.

c) Anatomy was helpful to understand physiology.

 

2. На занятиях по микроскопической анатомии у вас будут микроскопы для изучения структур.

       a) At microscopic anatomy classes, you will have microscopes to study structures.

       b) In microscopic anatomy, you had microscopes to study structures.

       c) In microscopic anatomy, you have microscopes to study structures.

 

3. Я декан медицинского факультета, и мне приятно видеть вас.

       а) I will be the Dean of the Faculty and I will have a great pleasure to see so many of you.

       b) I was the Dean of the Faculty and I have a great pleasure to see so many of you.

       c) I am the Dean of the Faculty and I have a great pleasure to see you.

 

Упражнение 11. Прочтите текст и заполните пропуски правильными формами глаголов to be , to have , данными в рамке:

am (6) is (4)  have (1) are (2) were (2) will be (3) was (1) had (1) will have (2)

 

I …… Betty Smith. My full name ……. Elizabeth Louise Smith. I …… twenty-two. I ….. a college graduate. I …. a journalist, just a beginner, you know. I …… a lot of friends. Most of them ….. my former school-mates. My best companions ….. two girl-friends. Unfortunately, they ….. not very academic and good at many subjects at school, but they …… very kind and jolly. Now they both work at a local cafe.

My elder sister Helen …… married to Henry Sanford, so he …… my brother-in-law. He …… a member of our family. Soon Henry …… a doctor. Last year Helen …… a nurse at a hospital, but in three months she …… a mother, they …… a child. I hope my nephew ….. not … naughty.

I …… really fond of writing and making reports, and I …… eager to become a professional specialist in the sphere of journalism. However, my mother says I …… some talent before, I ……… no peace because of my job in future.

 

Упражнение 12. Complete the short profile with the information on the right:

1. I’m a …………………………………. .                                             a. see more of the world.

2. I’m from …………………………… .                                                b. film, music and literature.

3. I speak …………………………….. .                                                 c. India.

4. I’m interested in ……………………………………………….. .          d. Kolkata, in the east of India.

5. I’d like to go to …………………………………… .                          e. in a house with my family.

6. I want to ……………………………………………. .                        f. medical student.

7. I live ………………………………………………….. .                     g. English and Bengali.

8. My home town is ………………………………………………. .      h. Italy, France and Spain.

Упражнение 13. Write a short profile like this for you:

 

      Name: Georgio Belluci Sex: Male Age: 26 Job: a doctor From: Italy Languages: Italian, English, German Interests: music, sports, Internet technologies Visits to: Russia, Japan, Brazil Home town: Rome Live: a room in the hostel, Berlin  

 

 


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