Nouns: Countable and Uncountable



Plural and Singular

(Зліченні та незліченні іменники.

Однина і множина)

 

Іменники поділяються на зліченніта незліченні.

Зліченні іменники мають однинута множину, перед ними можуть стояти неозначений a (an) або означений (the) артиклі.

Однина: a flower, one week, the place, this shop.

Множина: some flowers, two weeks, many places, these shops.

Утворення множини іменників, що закінчуються на:

-s/-sh/-ch/-x/-o + es: bus – buses, church – churches, tomato – tomatoes

Але!photos, pianos

y → ies:baby – babies

Але! -ay/-ey/-oy + s: day – days,monkey – monkeys

-f/-fe → ves:shelf – shelves,life – lives,wife – wives , knife – knives

Але! roofs, chiefs, safes

Іменники грецького та латинського походження:

 

basis – bases analysis – analyses axis – axes crisis – crises phasis – phases formula – formulae nucleus – nuclei focus – foci stimulus – stimuli radius – radii phenomenon – phenomena minimum – minima maximum – maxima datum – data

Особливі випадки:

a man – men a woman – women a child – children a fish – fish a sheep – sheep a deer – deer an ox – oxen a person – people a goose – geese a tooth – teeth a foot - feet a mouse – mice a pennypence (сума грошей) It costs 16 pence. Але: pennies (монети) Pennies are made of bronze.

 

Незліченні іменники позначаютьсферидіяльностіта галузі дослідження, матеріали, рідини, їжу,природні явища, абстрактні поняттятощо: education, economics, water, bread, weather, knowledge, politics, luggage, progress, research, money, vacation, evidence, fruit, hair, information, news, advice.

Вони зазвичай не мають форми множини та з артиклем a (an) не вживаються (можливо вживання the, some).

No news is good news. Time is money. He never listens to advice.

Незліченні іменники також можуть виділятися як одиничні: a glass of water, a loaf of bread, a piece of cheese, a cup of tea, a bottle of milk, a can of oil, an interesting item of news, a bit (word) of advice, pieces of luggage, scraps of information.

Деякі іменники не мають однини і вживаються частіше у множині:

1) cattle, police, crew, the British.

The police were called.

In 1581 the Dutch declared their independence from Spain.

2) парні іменники: shorts, scissors, pants, glasses, trousers, jeans.

The pants are in the drawer. A pair of pants is in the drawer.

3) clothes, congratulations, contents, funds (=money), outskirts, savings, thanks, troops.

Congratulations on your new job.

She lives on the outskirts of Cambridge.

Слова, що позначають групу людей, можуть вживатися як в однині, так і у множині: class, club, committee, family, firm, government group, team, army, crowd, jury, majority, minority, public, school, union.

Our team is/are going to win the game.

The family was(were) happy to hear the news.

Іменники, які мають у множині додаткове значення:

Однина Множина
arm – рука colour – колір custom – звичка, звичай good – добро iron – залізо pain – біль scale – масштаб work – робота arms – зброя colours – прапор customs – митниця goods – товар irons – наручники pains – зусилля scales – вага, терези works – завод

Exercise 32 Write the nouns in plural if possible. Find ten uncountable nouns.

Flower, umbrella, family, boat, address, foot, health, woman, knife, holiday, city, sandwich, potato, tie, photo, day, datum, date, life, bus, hair, fun, joke, ice, light, ticket, wallet, credit card, air, lighter, laugh, suitcase, sunshine, happiness, branch, label, oil, advice.

Exercise 33 Offer your guests something to drink or to eat.

Model: Would you like a glass of juice? Would you like some juice?

For ideas: cheese, chocolate, coffee, beer, biscuits, candy, bread, meat, salad, wine, tea, pizza.

 

Exercise 34 Fill ina (an)orsome.

1. I need ... money. I want to buy ... food. 2. We met ... interesting people at the party. 3. I’m going to open ... window to get ... fresh air. 4. She didn’t eat much for lunch. Only ... apple and ... bread. 5. I’m going to make ... table. First I need ... wood. 6. We live in ... big house. There’s ... nice garden with ... beautiful trees. 7. Listen to me carefully. I’mgoing to give you ... advice. 8. I want to write a letter. I need ... paper and ... pen.

 

Exercise 35 Choose the correct noun either in singular or in plural.

1. I’m going to buy some new shoe/shoes. 2. Martin has got brown eye/eyes. 3. Paula has got short black hair/hairs. 4. The tourist guide gave us some information/informations about the town. 5. We’re going to buy some new chair/chairs. 6. We’re going to buy some new furniture/furnitures. 7.It’s difficult to get a work/job at the moment. 8. We had lovely weather/a lovely weather when we were on holiday.


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