Make self-analysis of your ability of public speaking

Speaking to an audience, you must have the knowledge and skills relating to performances, but also the skills of public speaking. And this knowledge, and skills can be grouped as follows: • organizational knowledge; • managerial and operational roles and responsibilities; • knowledge and skills relating to performance; • skills in preparing speeches; • sensitivity and the ability to quickly restore the physical and mental strength; • human qualities; • obligation; • mental alertness and creativity; • self-awareness and self-development; • participation; • confidence; • humor; • self-confidence. Some of these items are inborn human abilities, but most can be purchased and developed for a long time.

As a successful lecturer 1. Looks confident; 2. Clear and accessible reveals the basic provisions of his speech; 3. Formulates logical thoughts; 4.Says interesting;

-Year University studies, participated in numerous conferences, the defense of the thesis, have taught us not to be afraid of public speaking, and feel confident, especially when the topic is represented by the attention I deeply studied. Knowledge of the material gives me the opportunity in simple and accessible language to convey it to the audience, to build up his speech by linking all parts of speech in a logical chain. The explanation in plain language and always attracts the listener becomes interesting, especially if supported by visual materials and examples. This, too, we have learned, making numerous presentations.

5. Performs emotionally, able to infect the emotions of listeners to call the enthusiasm; Again, for the years spent at the university, because day by renting tests, colloquiums, work performed, I was convinced that no emotion cannot be 100% convince listeners of the importance that you give them presents. If you have your theme itself does not cause any emotions, how to create interest in it from the listener and get a good assessment of their work. 6. Maintain eye contact with the audience; 7. Able to quickly restructure and find contact with the audience; Making numerous presentations, I used to tell, without looking at the records, and looking directly at the audience and noticed their relation to my statement that gives me the opportunity, if necessary, readjust. 8. It has a sense of humor; -Of Course not easy to dilute humorous speech at a scientific or technical subject, but it is an important quality of the output of which I have to work.

Strictly adheres to the established regulations (starts and ends on time performance). Because events such as conferences, presentations, time is usually regulated - the ability to keep within the allotted time we have built up. I cannot carry themselves to experienced speakers, but the basic skills already acquired and still to finalize them. In addition, we used to speak in front of their peers and teachers, and to the audience with a high level of professional or scientific training cannot act as if there is no new views and approaches to the problem, so you should advance to think about what to tell the individual, especially an authoritative, important figures if they come.


Analyze the role of stereotypes in cross-cultural communication

In social psychology, a stereotype is a thought that can be adopted about specific types of individuals or certain ways of doing things.

Using stereotypes people endowed by certain traits and qualities, and on this basis it is predicted behavior. Thus, in the communication in general, and in the process of intercultural contacts stereotypes play a very important role. Stereotypes firmly embedded in our value system, are part of it and provide the kind of protection our position in society. For this reason, the use of patterns occurs in each cross-cultural situation. Without the use of these very common, culturally specific schemes assess both their own group, and other cultural groups cannot do.

The relationship between the cultural affiliation of a person and character traits attributed to him usually is not adequate. People belonging to different cultures, have different understanding of the world that makes communication with the common position impossible. Guided by the norms and values ​​of their culture, the man himself determines what facts and how to assess world. This greatly affects the nature of our communication with other cultures. For example, when dealing with a lively gesticulating while speaking Italians, the Germans, who are used to a different style of communication, there can be a stereotype of an extremely unorganized expression and Italians. The Italians, in turn, will become the stereotype of Germans as cold and restrained nation. Depending on the methods and forms of their use of stereotypes can be useful or harmful to communications.

Effective stereotyping helps people to understand the situation and act in accordance with the new circumstances. Therefore, the stereotype may not only be an obstacle to communication, but also bring some benefit. This is possible in the following cases:

• If it consciously adheres. The individual must understand that stereotype reflects the group norms and values, the group features and attributes, rather than the specific qualities of one individual from this group;

• If the stereotype is descriptive rather than evaluative. This suggests stereotypes reflected in the real and objective characteristics and properties of the people in this group, but their assessment of how good or bad;

• If the stereotype is accurate. This means that the stereotype is to adequately express the characteristics and traits of the group to which the person belongs;

• If the stereotype is only conjecture about the group, but not direct information about it. This means that the first impression of a group is not always a reliable knowledge of all individuals of this group;

• If the stereotype is modified, that is, based on further observations and experiences with real people or comes from the experience of the real situation.

• In situations of intercultural contacts stereotypes are effective only when they are used as the first and the positive suspicion about a person or situation and are not regarded as the only true information about them.

Stereotypes become ineffective and difficult to communicate when we mistakenly refer people to the wrong groups correctly describe the group norms, stereotypes when mixed with certain description of the individual and when we fail to modify the stereotypes based on actual observations and experience. The emphasis in the communication on how to use these stereotypes leads to the fact that they can become a serious obstacle in the cross-cultural contacts.

There are a number of reasons, according to which stereotypes can hinder intercultural communication.

• For the stereotypes you cannot identify the individual characteristics of people. Stereotyping assumes that all members have the same characteristics. This approach is applied to the whole group and the single individual for a certain period of time regardless of individual variation.

• Stereotypes repeat and reinforce certain erroneous beliefs and beliefs as long as people do not start to accept them as true.

• Stereotypes are based on half-truths and distortions.

Users retain their stereotypes, even though it contradicts the reality, so in a situation of intercultural contact is important to be able to effectively deal with stereotypes, that is aware of them and be able to give them up to the fact they do not conform reality.


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