Observations. an obvious method of carrying out research in psychology
Advantages of Observational Methods:
The results obtained through any other scientific methods need to be in conformity with the outcomes of skilled observation. In case of any departure, the processes adopted in the 'other' methods have to be carefully scrutinized and evaluated.
The experimental and other laboratory-based methods study behaviors under artificially controlled conditions. But through observational method, the investigator gets a real picture of the behaviors and the events as they manifest in natural settings. Systematic and unbiased observation can yield a true picture of individual's natural set of behaviors.
Certain phenomena can be accessed and properly understood only through observation. Crowd behavior, social behaviors of the animals, and mother-child interaction at home are some exemplary situations, which can be meaningfully assessed, and understood only through observation.
Disadvantages of Observational Method:
The investigator has little control over the situation he is interested to observe. In the natural setting, too many extraneous factors influence the phenomenon. As a result, it is difficult to assess what causes or determines the behaviors of researcher's interest.
In many cases the observer has to wait until the appropriate event takes place, so some types of observations are time-consuming, and labor-intensive.
Observer-bias is one of the important problems in observational research. The observer observational report may in part reflect his biases in describing and interpreting the event. Thus, the description may not reflect the true features of an event.
The observer himself, during the course of observation, may be affected by the process itself. His initial neutral disposition may be affected and distorted.
14. What is a weakness of experiment in Psychology
The experiment - one of the most respected methods of scientific research, but it has its pluses and minuses. It is reliable, but is cumbersome, it makes an impression, but not necessarily ethical.
· Subject-subject relations research violates rules
· Mind has the property of spontaneity
· Mind too unstable
· Mind too is unique
· Psyche - too complicated object of study
It is very difficult to arrange the experiment so that the subject did not know that he is the subject. If this fails, then more than likely stiffness test, conscious or unconscious anxiety, fear of evaluation and so on. To ensure the secrecy of the process of natural experiment, it can not be carried out repeatedly, and restricts the use of the equipment, which is also a negative side of this method.
The main advantages:
The ability to choose the time of start of the event
Repeatability studied events
The variability of the results by the conscious manipulation of independent variables
15. Analyze verbal communication
Verbal communication - cooperation built on lexical selected units (words): oral (verbal) and writing (text).
Using as a sign system of human speech, verbal communication can be directed at the individual, group, or not have a particular destination, but in any case it has an interactive character. it is called verbal communication, speech understanding (ability to speak) as a system of phonetic symbols. It is a means of emotional impact that stimulates or inhibits the action of one or both partners, because without the effect of approval or disapproval is impossible to coordinate joint communicative action.
In the process of information transmission implemented speech function: the origin and perception of messages, the regulation of communicative action interlocutors control over the results of communication, and others.
One of the most important components of verbal communication speaking, that is, the ability to speak, to say the information to design proposals. Feature speaking also contains the individual characteristics of a person (manner of speaking), which delivers information.
Speaking - psychological component of verbal communication; method embodiments of the system marks a sense, encoding information; mechanism of speech, constructing sentences.
The culture of speaking explores a special science - Rhetoric (the theory of eloquence). Possession means of rhetoric means the ability to speak clearly, clearly, concisely, correctly, figuratively and polite. He is dependent on usage of vocabulary, knowledge of grammar, wealth of association, expression, attitude to the communication partner.
The effectiveness of verbal communication depends on the ability to listen, which is a prerequisite for proper understanding of the interlocutor.
Listening - psychological component of verbal communication, decoding method, and the perception of information.
16. Analyze Gender stereotypes
Definition: Gender Stereotypes are fixed ideas about men’s and women’s traits and capabilities and how people should behave, based on their gender.
Males: controlling and manipulating the environment; independent, assertive, dominant, competitive.
Females: relatively passive, , loving, sensitive, and supportive in social relationships, especially in their family roles as wife and mother. Warmth in personal relationships, the display of anxiety under pressure, and the suppression of overt aggression and sexuality as more appropriate for women than men.
These stereotypes are true cross-culturally as well. This implies that the origins of these stereotypes does not lie in local cultures. But there are some variations. For example, African-American families encourage girls to be aggressive and assertive. On the other hand, the sex stereotypes that men are more aggressive than women and women more interpersonally sensitive than men are very robust, even among more educated people, both sexes, all social classes. (Probably because they are true!)
Age differences: Young children are especially rigid in gender stereotyping; children between ages 3-6 are more gender stereotypes than adults. This reflects a general tendency for young children to have rigid, absolutist sense of rules. (This is also the case in moral reasoning where young children allow no exceptions to rules like "stealing is bad.")
Education differences: In the US, females and college-educated women age 18-35 are more likely than older or less educated women to perceive female role as more assertive, independent, and achievement-striving.
Sex differences: Men are more likely to have traditional gender stereotypes than women, especially if they are the sole wage earner in the family. Fathers are more concerned that their children maintain behaviors appropriate to their gender; fathers play a more important role than mothers in children's gender stereotyping.
17. Analyze of human needs
Maslow proposed that human beings are driven by different factors at different times. These driving forces are hierarchical, in the sense that we generally start at the bottom layer and work our way up. It represents the idea that human beings are propelled into action by different motivating factors at different times – biological drives, psychological needs, higher goals. It simply means that higher needs don’t appear unless and until unsatisfied lower needs are satisfied.
ST = Self-Transcendence
The first level, at the bottom of the pyramid, consists of our short-term basic needs, also known as physiological needs: food, water, warmth, sex.
The second level consists of longer-term safety needs: security, order, stability.
The third level represents the social need for affiliation, also known as “love and belonging”. We want to be accepted by others around us. We want to have stable relationships.
The fourth level represents the need for esteem. Within our social groups we want to be recognized and admired as individuals who accomplish things. We want prestige and power.
Almost at the top of the pyramid, self-actualizationis the desire to experience ever deeper fulfilment by realising (actualising) more and more of our human potential.
At the very top of the pyramid is the desire for self-transcendence — to experience, unite with and serve that which is beyond the individual self: the unity of all being.
18. Analyze of human motives
The basis of Maslow's motivation theory is that human beings are motivated by unsatisfied needs, and that certain lower factors need to be satisfied before higher needs can be satisfied.
Self-actualization is the summit of Maslow's motivation theory. It is about the quest of reaching one's full potential as a person. Unlike lower level needs, this need is never fully satisfied; as one grows psychologically there are always new opportunities to continue to grow.
Self-actualized people tend to have motivators such as:
After a person feels that they "belong", the urge to attain a degree of importance emerges. Esteem needs can be categorized as external motivators and internal motivators.
Some examples of esteem needs are:
· Recognition (external motivator)
· Attention (external motivator)
· Social Status (external motivator)
· Accomplishment (internal motivator)
· Self-respect (internal motivator)
Once a person has met the lower level physiological and safety needs, higher level motivators awaken. The first level of higher level needs are social needs. Social needs are those related to interaction with others and may include:
· Belonging to a group
· Giving and receiving love
Once physiological needs are met, one's attention turns to safety and security in order to be free from the threat of physical and emotional harm. Such needs might be fulfilled by:
· Living in a safe area
· Medical insurance
· Job security
· Financial reserves
Physiological needs are those required to sustain life, such as:
19. Compare basic 4 types of temperament
Sanguine. The sanguine temperament is fundamentally impulsive and pleasure-seeking; sanguine people are sociable and charismatic. They are usually quite creative and often daydream. However, some alone time is crucial for those of this temperament. Sanguine can also mean sensitive, compassionate and thoughtful. Sanguine personalities generally struggle with following tasks all the way through, are chronically late, and tend to be forgetful and sometimes a little sarcastic. Often, when they pursue a new hobby, they lose interest as soon as it ceases to be engaging or fun. They are very much people persons. They are talkative and not shy. Sanguines generally have an almost shameless nature, certain that what they are doing is right. They have no lack of confidence. Choleric. The choleric temperament is fundamentally ambitious and leader-like. They have a lot of aggression, energy, and/or passion, and try to instill it in others. They can dominate people of other temperaments, especially phlegmatic types. Many great charismatic military and political figures were choleric. They like to be in charge of everything. However, cholerics also tend to be either highly disorganized or highly organized. They do not have in-between setups, only one extreme to another. As well as being leader-like and assertive, cholerics also fall into deep and sudden depression. Essentially, they are very much prone to mood swings. Melancholic. The melancholic temperament is fundamentally introverted and thoughtful. Melancholic people often were perceived as very (or overly) pondering and considerate, getting rather worried when they could not be on time for events. Melancholics can be highly creative in activities such as poetry and art - and can become preoccupied with the tragedy and cruelty in the world. Often they are perfectionists. They are self-reliant and independent; one negative part of being a melancholic is that they can get so involved in what they are doing they forget to think of others. Phlegmatic. The phlegmatic temperament is fundamentally relaxed and quiet, ranging from warmly attentive to lazily sluggish. Phlegmatics tend to be content with themselves and are kind. They are accepting and affectionate. They may be receptive and shy and often prefer stability to uncertainty and change. They are consistent, relaxed, calm, rational, curious, and observant, qualities that make them good administrators. They can also be passive-aggressive.
20. Analyze Hippocrates classification of temperament
A fundamental classification of temperament is considered to be the work of the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates. He explained the predominance of temperament in the body of one of the "vital juices":
- Yellow bile (al-Greek. Hall - bile poison) - makes one impulsive, quick-tempered - choleric (fire)
- Blood (Sangua - blood) - makes moving and fun - Sanguine (air)
- Black bile (melena lobby - black bile) - makes careful, thoughtful and sad - melancholic (land)
- Lymph (phlegm - mucus) - makes the calm and slow - phlegmatic (water) Sanguine. The sanguine temperament is fundamentally impulsive and pleasure-seeking; sanguine people are sociable and charismatic. They tend to enjoy social gatherings, making new friends and tend to be boisterous. They are usually quite creative and often daydream. However, some alone time is crucial for those of this temperament. Sanguine can also mean sensitive, compassionate and thoughtful.. They are very much people persons. They are talkative and not shy. Sanguines generally have an almost shameless nature, certain that what they are doing is right. They have no lack of confidence.
Choleric. The choleric temperament is fundamentally ambitious and leader-like. They have a lot of aggression, energy, and/or passion, and try to instill it in others. They can dominate people of other temperaments, especially phlegmatic types. Many great charismatic military and political figures were choleric. They like to be in charge of everything. However, cholerics also tend to be either highly disorganized or highly organized. cholerics also fall into deep and sudden depression. Essentially, they are very much prone to mood swings.
Melancholic. The melancholic temperament is fundamentally introverted and thoughtful. Melancholic people often were perceived as very (or overly) pondering and considerate, getting rather worried when they could not be on time for events. Melancholics can be highly creative in activities such as poetry and art - and can become preoccupied with the tragedy and cruelty in the world. Often they are perfectionists. They are self-reliant and independent
Phlegmatic. The phlegmatic temperament is fundamentally relaxed and quiet, ranging from warmly attentive to lazily sluggish. Phlegmatics tend to be content with themselves and are kind. They are accepting and affectionate. They may be receptive and shy and often prefer stability to uncertainty and change. They are consistent, relaxed, calm, rational, curious, and observant, qualities that make them good administrators. They can also be passive-aggressive.
21. Give an example of research Method of Temperament
Many researchers, particularly those engaged in the study of temperament
children spend for the diagnosis of temperament natural experiment
that is, having the basic features of the experimental method, while
very close to the method of observation. This method makes it possible to
detailed control and running conditions of the experiment, as well as their management;
At the same time it allows us to measure the behavior of interest in natural
conditions close to the child's daily life. The child does not know that he
It is subject to monitoring his reactions and behaviors detail
recorded and sent in advance of the planned experimental
Examples of a natural experiment to study the temperament of children may
serve a variety of outdoor games, organized by the researcher. Clear,
that they can meet the conditions of this experiment only if
if the game itself, its rules will be imposed by the experimenter, strictly
monitored and recorded them.
22. Explain types of Character
The four kinds of character that emerge are as follows:
The Continent Character is one who has selfish, amoral, or immoral desires, but exhibits control over them in the service of acting morally. For example, a man in a committed relationship who lusts after another woman but inhibits acting on those feelings because the betrayal of his wife goes against the good would be acting as a continent character. Interestingly, Kant believed that the moral and the personal inclinations were inevitably in conflict and the times when an individual suppressed his desires and acted morally were examples of the highest good.
2. The Incontinent Character knows what the right or virtuous thing is to do, but does not have the self-control to live by his morals. Continuing with the example above, this would be an individual who would know that it was wrong to betray his wife and have a casual affair, but would give into his desires, perhaps feeling guilty afterwards.
3. The Vicious Character, in contrast, feels no conflict between inclinations and moral duty because he has no moral sense of the good. Such individuals simply act on their own selfish inclinations, as these are seen as what is valuable. Continuing with the above example, a vicious character would cheat on his wife with no guilt and simply work to solve the problem of her finding out about it so that it would not inconvenience him.
The Virtuous Character also feels no conflict between emotional inclinations and moral duty. Why? Because the virtuous character has trained his emotional system to be aligned with his moral inclinations. In short, at a deep emotional level, the virtuous character wants to do the good. While such a character might indeed have sexual feelings for another, he would feel pride and connection in acting in a loyal, trustworthy manner and the very thought of cheating or acting immorally is deeply aversive for the virtuous character. In contrast to Kant, Aristotle believed that the virtuous character represented the highest ideal.
It is important to note here that individuals will certainly not always be one or another character. I
23. Classification of character accentuations according to K.Leongard: give an example of famous people
K.Leongard based on a relation between people when he made a classification of character accentuations. This typology has been allocated ten pure types and number of intermediate. In its origin marked types have different localization.
By temperament like natural formations, Leonhard was assigned types such as:
· hyperthymic (desire activity, the pursuit of experiences, optimism, focus on good luck);
· dysthymic (retardation, emphasizing the ethical side, experiences and fears focus on failure);
· affectively labile (mutual compensation features focus on different standards);
· alarming (timidity, shyness, submissiveness);
· affective and exalted (inspiring, lofty sentiments, the erection of emotion in the cult);
· emotive (kindness, timidity, compassion).
By the nature of how socially conditioned education, were assigned types such as:
· demonstrative (arrogance, vanity, boastfulness, lies, flattery, I focus on its own as a reference);
· pedantic (indecision, conscientiousness, hypochondria, fear of non-compliance to the ideals I);
· getting stuck (suspicion, resentment, vanity, the transition from recovery to despair); - Analogue Iksotima, viscous nature of Kretschmer.
· excitability (short temper, ponderous, pedantic, focus on the instincts).
Finally, to the personal level it was classified types:
24. Analyze types of interpersonal communication
Interpersonal communication is the process by which people exchange information, feelings, and meaning through verbal and non-verbal messages: it is face-to-face communication.
Interpersonal communication is not just about what is actually said - the language used - but how it is said and the non-verbal messages sent through tone of voice, facial expressions, gestures and body language.
Uses of Interpersonal Communication
Most of us engage in some form of interpersonal communication on a regular basis, how well we communicate with others is a measure of our interpersonal skills. Interpersonal communication is a key life skill and can be used to:
· Give and collect information.
· Influence the attitudes and behaviour of others.
· Form contacts and maintain relationships.
· Make sense of the world and our experiences in it.
· Express personal needs and understand the needs of others.
· Give and receive emotional support.
· Make decisions and solve problems.
· Anticipate and predict behaviour.
· Regulate power.
Effective verbal or spoken communication is dependant on a number of factors and cannot be fully isolated from other important interpersonal skills such as non-verbal communication, listening skills and clarification.
Clarity of speech, remaining calm and focused, being polite and following some basic rules of etiquette will all aid the process of verbal communication.
Interpersonal communication is much more than the explicit meaning of words, the information or message conveyed. It also includes implicit messages, whether intentional or not, which are expressed through non-verbal behaviours.
Non-verbal communications include facial expressions, the tone and pitch of the voice, gestures displayed through body language (kinesics) and the physical distance between the communicators (proxemics).
These non-verbal signals can give clues and additional information and meaning over and above spoken (verbal) communication.
Non-verbal Messages Allow People To:
· Reinforce or modify what is said in words. For example, people may nod their heads vigorously when saying "Yes" to emphasise that they agree with the other person, but a shrug of the shoulders and a sad expression when saying "I'm fine thanks,” may imply that things are not really fine at all!
· Convey information about their emotional state.
· Define or reinforce the relationship between people.
· Provide feedback to the other person.
· Regulate the flow of communication, for example by signalling to others that they have finished speaking or wish to say something
25. Describe the role of emotions in communication process
Emotions in the communication play a large role in how an entire organization communicates within itself and to the outside world. “Events at work have real emotional impact on participants. The consequences of emotional states in the workplace, both behavioral and attitudinal, have substantial significance for individuals, groups, and society”. “Positive emotions in the workplace help employees obtain favorable outcomes including achievement, job enrichment and higher quality social context”. “Negative emotions, such asfear, anger, stress, hostility, sadness, and guilt, however increase the predictability of workplace deviance,”, and how the outside world views the organization. “Emotions normally are associated with specific events or occurrences and are intense enough to disrupt thought processes.”. Moods on the other hand, are more “generalized feelings or states that are not typically identified with a particular stimulus and not sufficiently intense to interrupt ongoing thought processes”. There can be many consequences for allowing negative emotions to affect your general attitude or mood at work. “Emotions and emotion management are a prominent feature of organizational life. It is crucial “to create a publicly observable and desirable emotional display as a part of a job role.” Being able to not only control your emotions, but gauge the motions of those around you and effective influence them is imperative to success in the workplace. “Toxicity in the workplace is a regular occurrence and an occupational hazard. That is why the success of many projects, and the organization itself, depends on the success of “handlers,” the people (usually managers) whose interventions either assuage individuals’ pain from toxicity or eliminate it completely
26. Explain basic causes of conflicts
Many people try to avoid conflict at all costs. Others tend to blame someone or something else for causing it. These responses do not resolve conflict and may make the situation worse.
Conflict is a normal part of life and there are many issues that could cause conflicts to arise within community organisations. Conflict can occur between employees, committee members, ordinary members, volunteers, clients or the community.
If not resolved, conflict can be highly destructive. However, committees can take steps to minimise potential situations of conflict before they arise or to resolve conflict constructively. The following sections discuss five of the most common factors that lead to conflict situations within organisations.
Conflict can arise from misunderstandings about:
· The nature, aims and objectives of a job
· Differing expectations about how things should be done
· Work conditions and wages
· The different responsibilities of management and employees
· Differences in values, beliefs, needs, or priorities
Universal source of conflict is the incompatibility of the parties' claims because of limited opportunities to meet them.
The lack of livelihood is a central element of all economic conflicts. Of course, all the while meeting the needs of the people there were no conflicts. But then it would stop the development of society itself. Life is woven of contradictions that lie at the heart of any conflict.
Traced some regularity in the causes of the conflict: the poorer the society and scarce commodities, the more it conflicts arise.
However, there is and such a causal relationship: the poor in society, but with a totalitarian regime, conflict - a very rare phenomenon.
27. Give recommendations of dispute resolution
Exit strategy from the conflict or dispute is a major strategy decisions opponent during the conflict.
There are five key strategies (K.Tomas): competition, compromise, cooperation, caring, adaptation.
Cooperation is considered to be the most effective strategy of behavior in the conflict. It involves the desire for a constructive discussion of opponents problems, review the other hand, not as the enemy but as an ally in the search for solutions. The most effective is a strong interdependence in situations of opponents; propensity to ignore the differences both in power; the importance of the decision to both parties; impartiality participants.
Selecting the exit strategy depends on various factors. They usually indicate the personal characteristics of the opponent, the level of damage caused to him and his own prejudice, availability of resources, the status of the opponent, the possible consequences, the seriousness of the problem being addressed, the duration of the conflict.
The most likely is the use of a compromise, because the steps towards making at least one of the parties can achieve asymmetric (one side gives more than the other - less) or symmetric (hand made approximately equal mutual concessions) agreement. In real life, a compromise is used frequently. For his achievements can be recommend an open conversation, which is to: the closure of the conflict; admit their mistakes already made in the conflict, they were probably there for you to recognize them almost worthless; to make concessions to the opponent, where possible, that the conflict is not the principal. In any conflict, you can find a few small things in which it is easy to give up. You can give way to serious, but not fundamental things, make suggestions regarding the concessions required by the opponent, they usually relate to the basic interests of the conflict; quietly, without negative emotions discuss mutual concessions, if necessary and possible to correct them; If you can agree, somehow fix the conflict is settled.
28. Describe the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument
The Thomas–Kilmann Conflict Mode instrument consists of thirty pairs of statements. For each pair, the respondent must choose either the A or B item (for example, one item depicts collaborating while the other item describes avoiding). Each pair of statements was specifically designed, through a multi-stage research process, to be equal in social desirability.
The TKI uses two axes (influenced by the Mouton and Blake axes) called "assertiveness" and "cooperativeness." The TKI identifies five different styles of conflict: Competing (assertive, uncooperative), Avoiding (unassertive, uncooperative), Accommodating (unassertive, cooperative), Collaborating (assertive, cooperative), and Compromising (intermediate assertiveness and cooperativeness). There are some seemingly obvious, but difficult to support, similarities between anger resolution-management style ideas with other tools and theories, such as DISC assessment, Social styles, and even the theory of Five Temperaments, which is based in the theories of ancient Greece.
The TKI can be quickly administered and interpreted, requiring about 15 minutes to answer the questions and about an hour for interpretation by a trainer. Interpretation materials help respondents identify the appropriate use of the styles and help them become more comfortable with styles they are less familiar with. The TKI is widely known and is available in English, French, Danish, Spanish, Chinese, Japanese, and Portuguese versions.
Compared to some other conflict instruments, the TKI has shown that it reduces the social desirability bias from over 90% to less than 20%. Also, other instruments that do not use a forced-choice format may inadvertently confuse the frequency of using each mode with the amount of conflict in the situation.
Some respondents can find the forced choice style of questionnaire to be frustrating, but this could be a result of minimized social desirability bias (making it difficult to choose the answer that "looks" better).
Analyze basic human emotions
Emotion, in everyday speech, is any relatively brief conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a high degree of pleasure or displeasure.
For more than 40 years, Paul Ekman has supported the view that emotions are discrete, measurable, and physiologically distinct. Ekman's most influential work revolved around the finding that certain emotions appeared to be universally recognized, even in cultures that were preliterate and could not have learned associations for facial expressions through media. Another classic study found that when participants contorted their facial muscles into distinct facial expressions (e.g. disgust), they reported subjective and physiological experiences that matched the distinct facial expressions. His research findings led him to classify six emotions as basic: anger, disgust,fear, happiness, sadness and surprise. Robert Plutchik agreed with Ekman's biologically driven perspective but developed the "wheel of emotions", suggesting eight primary emotions grouped on a positive or negative basis: joy versus sadness; anger versus fear; trust versus disgust; and surprise versus anticipation. Some basic emotions can be modified to form complex emotions. The complex emotions could arise from cultural conditioning or association combined with the basic emotions. Alternatively, similar to the way primary colors combine, primary emotions could blend to form the full spectrum of human emotional experience. For example, interpersonal anger and disgust could blend to form contempt. Relationships exist between basic emotions, resulting in positive or negative influences.
Analyze forms of coping
In psychology, coping is expending conscious effort to solve personal and interpersonal problems, and seeking to master, minimize or tolerate stress or conflict. The effectiveness of the coping efforts depend on the type of stress and/or conflict, the particular individual, and the circumstances.
Psychological coping mechanisms are commonly termed coping strategies or coping skills. Subconscious or non conscious strategies (e.g. defense mechanisms) are generally excluded. The term coping generally refers to adaptive or constructive coping strategies, i.e. the strategies reduce stress levels. However, some coping strategies can be considered maladaptive, i.e. stress levels increase. Maladaptive coping can thus be described, in effect, as non-coping. Furthermore, the term coping generally refers to reactive coping, i.e. the coping response follows the stressor. This contrasts with proactive coping, in which a coping response aims to head off a future -stressor.
Main coping forms or strategies:
· appraisal-focused: Directed towards challenging one's own assumptions, adaptive cognitive
· problem-focused: Directed towards reducing or eliminating a stressor, adaptive behavioral
· emotion-focused: Directed towards changing one's own emotional reaction
Here are coping mechanisms by type:
· Adaptive Mechanisms: That offer positive help.
· Attack Mechanisms: That push discomfort onto others.
· Avoidance Mechanisms: That avoid the issue.
· Behavioral Mechanisms: That change what we do.
· Cognitive Mechanisms: That change what we think.
· Conversion Mechanisms: That change one thing into another.
· Defense Mechanisms: Freud's original set.
· Self-harm Mechanisms: That hurt ourselves.
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