Compare: experiment and observation in Psychology
The method of observation - a method of study, consisting of intentional and purposeful perception of the real world. It requires activation of all psycho. Processes of personality, special attention and thinking. The object of observation can be: individual behavior in a variety of its external manifestations that implement the conscious and unconscious ext. mental states, feelings and aspirations.
Experiment feature is that the researcher himself creates the necessary conditions, as needed, and naturally there is the phenomenon under investigation. Creating conditions, the researcher is able to clearly identify the factors that act at the moment of psychological phenomena, it changes in the course of research that can reveal the reasons which led it.
A laboratory experiment conducted in special laboratories using appropriate instrumentation.
The natural field experiment carried out in normal circumstances so that the subjects did not suspect that they are studying.
|Depending on the nature of questions||The question remains open. The observer does not know the answer or have a vague idea about it|| |
The question becomes a hypothesis, ie It presupposes the existence of any relationship between the facts. The experiment aims to test the hypothesis
|Depending on the control situation||Situations observations determined less strictly than in the experiment|| |
The situation of the experiment clearly defined
|Depending on the accuracy of registration action test||Less stringent than in the experiment|| |
The exact procedure for registering the subject of action
Explain why Psychological Knowledge is important
The role of psychology in the life of every human being relevant at all times. Community - this is one of the most important tools that only a man can have. It should take care of their people skills. Quite a lot of trivial examples that characterize the lack of education of the person.
Educated person is evaluated not only in appearance but also in terms of eloquence.
Psychology plays an important role in everyone's life. Without mental attitude is impossible to achieve any goal. Theoretical and practical approaches of psychology help ensure and achieve incredible results in your life.
Before you start an exercise conceived plan, make sure that the end justifies the means. It is necessary to know their talented and weaknesses, and only then to use psychology to the task.
And with regards to working with people, it implies a deep psychological knowledge. Taking into account the individuality of each person, it is necessary to pick up the keys to the confidential communication very carefully. The ability to get along with people and to negotiate - a talent that should be acquired as a result of hard work on himself and on his skills.
Success means go all the way to the end. Diligence - is a character trait that distinguishes man among the crowd, and the knowledge of psychology will create a solid foundation for effective communication with people. One of the problems of communication - it is internal barriers, which can be broken.
And if you can not work with people who may want to work with technology or nature.
Analyze: Psychology as a science of soul
Psychology as a science has developed over many centuries. First psychological knowledge developed in the depths, as a philosophy, natural sciences and other sciences. This period in the development of psychology covers about 2.5 thousand. Years and continues to VI. BC. until the middle of the XIX century. Later psychology began to develop as an independent science. .
There are three definitions of the subject of psychology: the science of the soul, of consciousness, of the behavior. The soul - the subject, it would seem, is so uncertain that hardly can be a scientific category. However, psychology is a concept of fundamental importance, not least because that the name of science "psychology" is literally translated as "the doctrine of the soul." . His name and the first definition of psychology is obliged to Greek mythology.
The Greek myth of Psyche and Eros and was a classic example of true love, the highest realization of the human soul. Therefore Psyche - death, gained its immortality - has become a symbol of the soul who seeks his ideal.
As for the word "psychology", formed from the Greek word "psyche" (soul) and "logos" (teaching science), it appeared for the first time only in the XVIII century the German philosopher Christian Wolff.
Primitive same ideas about the psyche emerged in primitive religions "and beliefs of people in mythology, in the artistic folk art. The soul was seen as something ethereal, mysterious and unknown. The soul determines the life and activity of the animal and the human, and the death of a dream, or are explained according to its permanent or temporary absence. In the primitive world reigned mythological understanding of life where the body populated souls, but human life is ruled by the gods, who are endowed with certain style of behavior: cunning, wisdom, revenge and envy. With the transition to a higher stage of development of society has come to understand themselves as part of the world, created by the gods.
Antiquity marked a new stage in the history of mankind: Steps have been taken to understand and describe the human psyche.
7. Explain Research Methods in Psychology
Lab experiment.This type of experiment is conducted in a well-controlled environment – not necessarily a laboratory – and therefore accurate and objective measurements are possible. Field Experiment.These are conducted in the everyday (i.e. natural) environment of the participants but the situations are still artificially set up.Case Studyare in-depth investigations of a single person, group, event or community.
Correlation means association - more precisely it is a measure of the extent to which two variables are related. If an increase in one variable tends to be associated with an increase in the other then this is known as a positive correlation. If an increase in one variable tends to be associated with a decrease in the other then this is known as a negative correlation.A zero correlation occurs when there is no relationship between variables.Interviews.Unstructured (informal) interviews are like a casual conversation. There are no set questions and the participant is given the opportunity to raise whatever topics he/she feels are relevant and ask them in their own way. Structured (formal) interviews are like a job interview. There is a fixed, predetermined set of questions that are put to every participant in the same order and in the same way.
Questionnaires can be thought of as a kind of written interview. They can be carried out face to face, by telephone or post.The questions asked can be open ended, allowing flexibility in the respondent's answers, or they can be more tightly structured requiring short answers or a choice of answers from given alternatives.
Observations.Covert observations are when the researcher pretends to be an ordinary member of the group and observes in secret.
Overt observations are when the researcher tells the group he or she is conducting research (i.e. they know they are being observed).
Natural: Here spontaneous behavior is recorded in a natural setting.
Controlled: behavior is observed under controlled laboratory conditions
Participant: Here the observer has direct contact with the group of people they are observing.
Non-participant. The researcher does not have direct contact with the people being observed. Content Analysis is a research tool used to indirectly observe the presence of certain words, images or concepts within the media (e.g. advertisements)
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