The competitive nature of sports and the feelings of rivalry involved            (Where have all the fans gone, The sporting spirit)



Nearly all sports nowadays are competitive. Winning has become the most important thing. People play to win, and the game has little meaning unless you do your utmost to win.

You will play simply for the fun and exercise until the question of prestige arises and you feel that you and some larger until will be disguised if you lose. And significant thing here is that many spectators and funs believe that nation which is defeated in the contest will lose face. They seriously think that those competitions are tests of national virtue. That’s why there is so much violence during sporting events. As soon as feeling of rivalry involved there are no rules anymore. People try to humiliate the opposing team by all possible means. They use foul language, make fights and the media plays here an important role. It gives too much publicity to trouble-makers, and sometimes instead of banning the violence it encourages it.

Serious sport generally has nothing to do with fair play. It’s bound up with hatred, jealousy, boastfulness, disregard of all rules. The feeling of competition and rivalry excelles everything.

12. What do you know about pubs as a typically English institution? (Tape-reading "Down the pub")

Well, to begin with, the pub is an important part of British life. It’s the centre of community and everybody uses them. Many pubs are hundreds years old. People often go to a pub just to meet their friends and talk over a drink. In many pubs you can also have a simple meal at lunch time. The British are traditionally regarded as a nation of beer-drinkers. But now all this is changing and this image is becoming out-of-date. The British now are drinking wine at increasing rate at the expense of beer and other hard spirits. This change is commonly attributed to the fact that British people are becoming more cosmopolitan and sophisticated. There’s a school of thought that a lot of the interest in wine is in parallel with the interest in cooking. But still pubs are very popular and the British public, apart from a few youngsters, stick to that old-fashioned kind of pub. Because there’s more masculinity in pubs and pubs have a strong neighborhood. And one more factor is that in pubs you can eat and drink totally casually. So it’s a really good place to relax and have a chat to your friends.

13.Talk about the problem of keeping discipline at school (tape-reading "problem children")

Well, it must be pointed out that nowadays here is a sharp problem of keeping discipline in class. Some teachers in secondary school are worried because they can no longer teach their classes effectively as some teenage pupils deliberately disrupt lessons. Some within the teachers unions consider that it is permissive nature of modern society that is responsible for it. On the one hand, the society tries to encourage small children to express their individuality without any restriction but when these children grow older, they are naturally reluctant to accept school discipline. Besides, modern teaching techniques appeal to stress personal enjoyment at the expense of serious academic work, which can help the child to put his selfish interest before his duties to the community (in the class). So, all-round education is impossible due to modern techniques only. Anyway because we have, in fact, group-education, we have to take all this into mind and we shouldn’t avoid fighting against disrupting discipline. I personally think that discipline in class can be restored firstly - by improving facilities for psychological guardiance of the children who disrupt lessons; secondly – by better operation between school and parents; thirdly – there ought to be a return to more old-fashioned methods of teaching; And may be even caning should be re-introduced. As for personal qualities of a teacher he should be adaptable, enthusiastic and he should never put up with the disruption of discipline.

Speak of the fall of man and its consequences for mankind as treated in the Bible (The fall of man)

Well, as far as I can understand the fall of man started when Adam and Eve disobeyed God and ate the forbidden fruit; quite from this moment they started to know good and evil and this expressed itself in their realization that they were naked – they understood that there was some relation between a man and a woman. It’s evident that Lord God didn’t like this disobedience, so he punished Adam and Eve. Well, one of the consequences is that God says that he will greatly multiply Eve’s sorrow in her conception; He’ll increase her trouble in pregnancy and her pain in giving birth; secondly, God entitled the man the master of the woman; Thirdly, God said that in toil man shall eat of the ground all the days of his life. The forth consequence is that since that moment the man would no longer live forever: in the sweat of his face the man shall eat bread till he returns to the ground, for out of it he was taken. As God said: “for dust you are, and to dust you shall return”.  Thus, Adam was the gate by which sin came into the world, destroying its harmony. And this sin came into our genes bringing disease and death.


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