Answer the following questions



Министерство Образования и Науки Республики Казахстан

Таразский государственный университет им. М.Х.Дулати

Кафедра «Иностранные языки»

 

 

Учебно-методическое пособие к дисциплине

«Профессионально-ориентированный иностранный язык»

для специальностей: Биотехнология и Химия

 

Составители: Новожилова М.В.

                                                                                      Лошкова И.Г

Наурызбаева А.М.

                                                                               Берденова С.Л

 

Тараз-2018

UNIT-1. The Chemistry of life

Lead in

A. Read short information about sub-branches of biology.

The sub- branches of biology

Today, the field of biology is so broad that it has been divided into many sub-branches. As biologists open up the world of biology through research, it is certain

that new branches will be formed. Some of the sub-branches and their sub­ject of study can be summarized as below.

 

 

B. Match the branches of biology with what it studies

1. Evolutionary biology      a) study of fungi

2. Cytology                          b) the study of animals

3. Ecology                                c) study of animal behavior

4. Genetics                          d) the study of plants

5. Botany                             e) study of life on the level of molecular activity

6. Zoology                           f) study of interactions between organisms and their environment

7. Mycology                        g) study of outward appearance of organisms

8. Anatomy                         h) study of classification, identification and naming of species

9. HiH hHHaAaAAHistology                        i) study of the origin and history of life

10. TaxonomyTt Taxonomy                     j) the study of microscopic life

11.  Ethology                        k) the study of inheritance

12. Microbiology                  l) study of development in embryos

13. Morphology                    m) study of functions of living systems

14. Embryology                    n) study of internal structures of living things

15. Physiology                      o) study of tissues

16.  Molecular biology          p) study of cell structures and functions

 

C. Make a short presentation about any branch of biology. Include in your presentation:

       1. What biology is?

       2. Enlist the sub-branches of biology.

       3. Focus on the sub-branch you have chosen to present.     

 

 

Read the text and  answer the questions.

 

The characteristics of living things

Organisms which have the properties of life are called "living organisms". We can easily recognize that an apple tree, a cat and a penguin are living, whereas iron and rocks are not. So what makes something "alive"? We consider something to be alive if it has certain basic characteristics shared by all living things. Despite their great diversity, living organisms share many com­mon characteristics. Living and non-living things also share some common char­acteristics, such as chemical makeup.

 

 Organisms are made up of similar chemicals

Certainly we know that every substance around us, living or non-living, is made up of atoms. In the same way, the structures of all living organisms are made up of similar chemical elements, such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen etc.

 Organisms are composed of cells

All living organisms are made up of cells. Some organisms, called unicellular organisms, have one cell, such as bacteria and amoeba. Multicellular organisms have many cells, such as animals and plants.

Organisms need food

 All living organisms need energy to survive. Some organisms, called autotrophs, produce their own food, others cannot. They are called heterotrophs. They get their food from other organisms.

 Organisms can move

 Both microscopic and macroscopic organisms have the ability to move. Bacteria use their flagella for movement, animals use their feet to move. Some animals cannot move. They are called sessile. An example is the sponge (but in their larval stage they are mobile). Plants also move, but very slowly. For example, plants orient their leaves to the sun and grow toward light.

 

 

 

 

Organisms reproduce

Reproduction is the process of making a new individual, as when parents pro­duce an offspring. All living organisms must be able to reproduce. Organisms reproduce sexually or asexually. In sexual reproduction two parents together pro­duce young (such as cats), but in asexual reproduction only one parent is involved (such as amoeba).

 

Organisms regulate their metabolic processes

The sum of all biochemical activities of the organism is called metabolism. Organisms producing energy by cellular respiration or regulating their internal bal­ance (homeostasis), such as the glucose level in human blood, are good exam­ples of homeostasis.

Organisms respond to stimuli

Responsiveness is an organism's ability to sense changes taking place inside or outside its body and to react to these changes. Examples include plant leaves turn­ing toward light for photosynthesis and animals running away when in danger. The sensitivity of organisms is controlled by regulatory systems such as the nervous and endocrine systems.

Organisms grow

Growth is an increase in body size. Some organisms, such as trees, continue to grow throughout their lives, but animals have limited growth.

Death

All organisms are born, grow and finally die. Death is the end of life. Each organ­ism has a certain life span. Humans can live up to 120 years, but some insects have only a 2-hour life span

 

Answer the following questions.

1. What organisms are considered alive?

2. What chemical elements are all living organisms made of?

3. How do we call one-cell organisms?

4. How do we call organisms which have many cells?

5. How do we call animals that cannot move?

6. What is responsiveness? What is the difference between autotrophs and heterotrophs?

7. What are two ways of reproduction?

8. What is the difference between sexual and asexual reproduction?

9. How do the organisms regulate their metabolic process?

10.  How is the sensitivity of organisms controlled?

 


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