ПРОШЕДШЕЕ ПРОДОЛЖЕННОЕ ВРЕМЯ – THE PAST CONTINUOUS (PROGRESSIVE) TENSE



Употребляется для выражения длительного действия, совершавшегося в определенный момент или период времени в прошлом. Оно образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола to be (в Past Indefinite) и причастия I смыслового глагола:

I was going home at 5 o’clock yesterday. Вчера в 5 часов я шел домой,

They were having dinner at 5 o'clock yesterday. Вчера в 5 часов они обедали.

В вопросительной формевспомогательный глагол to be ставится перед подлежащим; в отрицательной форме после глагола to be ставится отрицание not: Was he reading a book? – Yes, he was. (No, he was not) He was not reading a book.

БУДУЩЕЕ ПРОДОЛЖЕННОЕ ВРЕМЯ – THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS (PROGRESSIVE) TENSE

Употребляется для выражения длительного действия, которое будет совершаться в будущем, после момента речи. Оно образуется с помощью глагола to be в Future Indefinite и причастия I смыслового глагола. I shall be working at my report at this time tomorrow. Завтра в это время я буду работать над докладом.

Условия употребления этого времени совпадают с условиями употребления Past Continuous Tense.

В вопросительной формевспомогательный глагол will ставится перед подлежащим; в отрицательной форме после глагола will ставится отрицание not: Will he be reading a book? – Yes, he will. (No, he will not) He will not be reading a book.

КОЛИЧЕСТВЕННЫЕ МЕСТОИМЕНИЯ
«МНОГО - МАЛО». ПРАВИЛА УПОТРЕБЛЕНИЯ.

Местоимения much и many употребляются, как правило, в вопросительных и отрицательных предложениях, а так же если они определяют подлежащее или же имеют перед собой определение, выраженное такими словами, как very очень, so так, too слишком и др.

Наряду с местоимениями much и many в значении много употребляются сочетания:

much = a lot of, lots of, a good deal of, a great deal of, a great quantity of, a large quantity of, plenty of.

many = a lot of, lots of, a great number of, a large number of, a great many, a good many, plenty of.

Местоимения few и little в сочетании с неопределенным артиклем приобретают значения: a few несколько, a little немного, несколько.

I have a few friends here. У меня здесь есть несколько друзей.

I have a little bread and milk. У меня есть немного хлеба и молока.

Ср.: I have few friends. У меня мало друзей.

I have little bread and milk. У меня мало хлеба и молока.

Неопределенные местоимения many, few употребляются с исчисляемыми существительными и отвечают на вопрос how many? сколько?

I have few English books. – У меня мало английских книг.

Неопределенные местоимения much, little употребляются с неисчисляемыми существительными и отвечают на вопрос how much?:

I have much good paper. У меня много хорошей бумаги.

 

С исчисляемыми существительными Значение С неисчисляемыми существительными
many few

много мало

much little
many (few) books much (little) milk

A lot of = much, many

КОНТРОЛЬНО- ТРЕНИРОВОЧНЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

 

1.    Напишите следующие предложения в вопросительной (общий и специальный вопросы) и отрицательной формах:

 

He knows French perfectly.

I understand everything he says.

She makes mistakes in spelling.

They enjoy their English lessons.

They live in Kiev.

We use our books in class.

'The plane leaves at ten o'clock.

She always comes to class late.

I always take the same bus to work.

 

2.    Напишите следующие предложения в вопросительной (общий и специальный вопросы) и отрицательной форме:

 

They sat in the first row.(In which row)

The performance lasted two hours. (How long)

He went to Leningrad to see some friends. (Why)

She put the mail on my desk. (Where)

He walked to school with Mary. (Whom with)

They spoke to us in French. (In what language)

He arrived home very late. (When)

 

3.    Напишите следующие предложения в вопросительной (общий и специальный вопросы) и отрицательной форме:

 

They will return in October.

These exercises will be easy for you.

He will be able to meet us later.

Our drama society will present a new play this year.

The lesson will be over at twelve o'clock.

There will be three new students in the class.

She will leave a message on the table for him.

They will write to us on Wednesday.

We shall take the children to the park.

 

4.    Напишите следующие предложения в вопросительной (общий и специальный вопросы) и отрицательной форме:

 

He is looking for the book which he lost.

All the birds are flying south.

The sky is getting very dark.

They are laughing at what you said.

They are travelling in Europe at present.

Helen is taking dancing lessons at the country club.

Mr.) Evans is writing a series of articles on the economic situation.

Ann is doing well in her studies at present.

 

5.    Раскройте скобки. Напишите следующие предложения в вопросительной (общий и специальный вопросы) и отрицательной форме:

 

It (rain) when I left home.

When you telephoned, I (have) dinner.

The baby (sleep) soundly when I went to wake him.

She (talk) with Mr. Smith when I saw her in the hail.

The accident happened while they (travel) in the South.

When I got up this morning, the sun (shine) brightly.

At seven o'clock, when you telephoned, I (read) the newspaper.

Mary (play) the piano when I arrived.

Helen fell just as she (get) off the bus.

The wind (blow) hard when I came to work this morning.

 

6.    Раскройте скобки. Напишите следующие предложения в вопросительной (общий и специальный вопросы) и отрицательной форме:

 

At ten o'clock tomorrow morning she (have) her music lesson.

I (wait) on the corner for you at the usual time tomorrow morning.

It "probably (rain) when you get back.

If you come before six, I (work) in my garden.

At this time tomorrow afternoon I (take) my final English examination.

If we go there now, they (have) dinner. But if we go later, they (wafch) television.

At this time next year he (study) at the university.

 

7.    Употребите глаголы, данные в скобках, в нужной временной форме. Переведите предложения на русский язык:

 

1. If the weather (be) nice next Sunday, we shall go to the seashore.

2. If the telephone (ring) while I am out, please, answer it. 3. When you (see) the light turn red, be sure to stop your car. 4. Don't leave until I (call) you. 5. If the river (rise) much higher, there will be a flood. 6.When the weather (get)warmer, we can go swimming. 7. If it (rain) next Sunday, I may have to cancel my trip. 8. I plan to wait here until the mail (arrive). 9. If you not (arrive) in time, you will not get a seat.

 

8.    Заполните пропуски местоимениями much, many, little, few. Переведите предложения на русский язык:

 

1. Very . . . people know about it. 2. He is a man of ... words. 3. ... was said but . . . done. 4. Say . . . and do .... 5. ... heard about the book but . . . read it. 6. There isn't . . . harm in it. 7. He has very . . . knowledge of the matter. 8. ... is spoken about it, but . . . believe it. 9. We have . . . friends in Leningrad. 10. There were very . . . mistakes in his spelling.

 

 

Тексты на перевод

II СЕМЕСТР

MILKING CYCLE OF COWS

Milk is a source of nutrients and immunological protection for the young cow. The gestation period for the female cow is 9 months. Shortly before calving, milk is secreted into the udder in preparation for the new born. At parturition, fluid from the mammary gland known as colostrum is secreted. This yellowish coloured, salty liquid has very high serum protein content and provides antibodies to help protect the newborn until its own immune system is established. Within 72 hours, the composition of colostrum returns to that of fresh milk, allowing to be used in the food supply.

The period of lactation, or milk production, then continues for an average of 305 days, producing as much as 9000 or more kg of milk. This is quite a large amount considering the calf only needs about 1000 kg for growth.

Within the lactation, the highest yield is 2-3 months post-parturition, yielding 40-50 L/day. Within the milking lifetime, a cow reaches a peak in production about her third lactation, but can be kept in production for 5-6 lactations if the yield is still good.

About 1-2 months after calving, the cow begins to come into heat again. She is usually inseminated about 3 months after calving so as to come into a yearly calving cycle. Heifers are normally first inseminated at 15 months so she's 2 when the first calf is born. About 60 days before the next calving, the cow is dried off. There is no milking during this stage for two reasons: milk has tapered off because of maternal needs of the fetus; udder needs time to prepare for the next milking cycle.

BREEDS OF POULTRY

Breeds had become grouped according to area of origin — American, Asiatic, British, French, and Italian — and they were divided into varieties characterized by a particular color or color pattern or comb type.

The interest in poultry was almost exclusively in achieving perfection of show specimens. Little attention was paid to productivity in eggs or meat.

The breeds which currently dominate world production of eggs and meat were developed during this period. Leghorns arrived in the United States between 1828 and 1831 and many importations followed. They were imported to England at a later date but had become popular by 1876. They represented the indigenous stock of Tuscany and took their name from the port city of Leghorn (Livorno). Coloring was not uniform at first, but fanciers soon had isolated a large number of varieties. Only the Single Comb White Leghorn remains in commercial use as the exclusive layer of white-shelled eggs. Brown - shelled eggs currently are derived from crosses involving several minor breeds, all of which were developed after 1850 as a dual purpose (eggs and meat) stock. Barred Plymouth Rock, Rhode Island Red and New Hampshire were all developed in the United States.

Present-day broilers are based heavily on a cross of Cornish with White Plymouth Rock. The Cornish was developed in England from Asiatic fighting stock; the white variety is unrelated to the original Dark Cornish, White Plymouth Rocks were derived as sports of the original breed in the United States ,

 


Дата добавления: 2018-02-28; просмотров: 206;