Task 9. You are to make a persuasive speech at a Seliger Youth Forum. Choose a rhetorical strategy and suggest a plan of the body for each of the following topics:
a) Souverenity and territorial integrity are fundamental values.
b) Sanctions cannot help to resolve regional conflicts.
c) De-offshorisation of Russian economy is an inevitable measure.
Task 10. Write a 3-minute persuasive speech on any topic concerning the national security of Russia. Before you read it to your group describe the situation where it could be made and your audience. The other students assess your speech by filling in the following table
|Student’s name||Structure||Reasoning||Simplicity and clarity of the language||Tone of speech||Rhetorical devices||Total|
D) 2 points – excellent
E) 1 point – good
F) 0 - poor
Study the text “Strength of International Space Law to Prevent Militarization of Outer Space, Respond to Other Current Challenges Weighed in Fourth Committee” (Sixty Fifth General Assembly of the UN, 4th Committee, 10th meeting) and answer the questions:
1. What was the reason for weighing the strength of existing international space law by the Delegations in the Fourth Committee?
2. What are the results and contribution of space exploration to humanity?
3. What concerns did the Russia’s, Libya’ and Pakistan’srepresentatives express in regard to outer space activities?
4. Why does the ASEAN have to be active in terms of climate changes and natural disasters?
5. What is the role of Sentinel Asia project in outer space exploration?
6. Can you think of the factors which would make militarization of outer space possible? What measures on both national and international levels would you propose to prevent it?
7. What international mechanisms for cooperation and mutual assistance in the peaceful exploration and use of outer space would you propose if you were a member of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space?
1. United States Says Space Exploration Thrived under Existing Framework; Russian Federation Warns of Gaps in Space Law, Risk of Space Becoming Arena for Arms Race
Delegations in the Fourth Committee (Special Political and Decolonization), before concluding their consideration of the peaceful uses of outer space, weighed the strength of existing international space law to prevent the militarization of outer space and to respond to other current challenges, such as the use of nuclear power sources in outer space and the threat of space debris.
The representative of the United States said that the United Nations Outer Space Committee and its legal subcommittee played a key role in international space law, in establishing the primary outer space treaties. As the only standing body concerned exclusively with the peaceful uses of outer space, the Committee had been very successful in fostering international cooperation, as it offered a forum to celebrate cooperative achievements.
Under the framework of those instruments, he said, space exploration by nations, international organizations, and now private entities, had flourished. As a result, space technology and services contributed to economic growth and quality of life around the world. Due to an increasing number of space actors, spacecrafts and space debris, the international community must come together to measure and reduce the risks to space operation for all.
Notwithstanding the relevance of space law, however, he said that many members had not accepted key treaties. He urged those States that had not yet ratified the four main instruments to do so, while those who had accepted them to look to their nation’s laws to implement them.
Several delegations, however, expressed concern at possible loopholes in the current legal regime governing space activities, which could compromise its ability to effectively address the current challenges to outer space activities.
The representative of the Russian Federation stressed that a number of gaps still remained in space law. He called for the multilateral implementation of the current international legal instruments regulating space activities to actualize those regulations that already existed. The development of new technologies, and the commercialisation and privatization of space activities demonstrated that further elaboration of a legal framework for space activities was needed.
The world faced the risk of turning outer space into an arena for the arms race, which would negatively impact the overall spirit of cooperation and trust amongst countries, he warned.
Libya’s representative said that establishing global legal norms for outer space activities was key, and he called on Member States to complete the legal rules concerning outer space to prevent militarization. He also advocated for a global instrument to control outer space for peaceful purposes, and he encouraged the Outer Space Committee to increase its efforts to that effect.
Outer space must be used in a rational way, he said, in recognition of all relevant treaties. The use of nuclear technology in space should be as limited as possible, and all nuclear-weapon States should provide comprehensive and transparent information on their procedures, in order to guarantee safety. Space debris jeopardized the planet, and the international community should follow the guidelines to reduce that phenomenon, he urged.
Similarly, Pakistan’s representative stressed that as a common heritage of mankind, space should remain free of inclusion in any military doctrine, as any military-related application of space would limit the scope and progress of its peaceful uses and would jeopardize the security of all. In Pakistan, the earthquake of 2005 and recent floods underlined the need for greater and more efficient use of space technologies for peaceful purposes, particularly in the fields of environment, health, and disaster mitigation. The United Nations Space Committee should also ensure that benefits from space-science technology reached developing countries, that representative said.
In that vein, Thailand’s representative, speaking on behalf of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), said that with the growing impact of climate change and natural disasters in the ASEAN region, early warning and protective mechanisms would help limit the scale of calamities. ASEAN had become very active in strengthening disaster management at the regional and subregional levels, especially after cyclone Nargis, and was working with the Committee to make Sentinel Asia more effective and user-friendly.
Sentinel Asia was also used to assist once disasters had already occurred, said Japan’s representative, pointing out that the Sentinel Asia project had already carried out about 80 observations, by taking satellite images and space data of areas affected by natural or manmade disasters. He stressed the continued need to assure peaceful uses of outer space for all Member States, regardless of their level of scientific, technical and economic development.
Concluding the meeting, the Fourth Committee Chairman, Chitsaka Chipaziwa of Zimbabwe said that in order to allow for sufficient time to process the amended draft resolution on outer space in all languages, the Committee would introduce and take action on the revised draft resolution at a date to be announced.
Also speaking today were the representatives of Malaysia, Burkina Faso, Mexico, Philippines, and Sudan.
Choose a country and collect relevant information concerning the topic “Perspectives and Policies on Security Issues” of the chosen country. Make an informative speech. Time: 5 minutes.
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