Task 2. Scan the speech made by President Vladimir Putin again and answer



a) the questions concerning its language:

1) What political or military terms are used in the speech? Give examples and their Russian equivalents.

2) Are there any cultural-specific references (for example, references to history, important places or persons) in the speech? Comment on them.

3) Politicians use words and sentences in an emotive manner, it is part of their aim to create a feeling of solidarity, to arouse various emotions. What stylistic devices (metaphors, similes, rhetorical questions, parallel constructions, etc.) are used in this speech? Give examples.

4) Why does the speaker use a quotation at the beginning of his speech?

5) Does the speaker unite himself with the audience or, on the contrary, does he oppose himself to it? Analyze the use of personal pronouns. 

6) Vladimir Putin is famous for his expressive language and ironic tone of voice. What lexical means make his speech emotional in this case? Does the speaker use expressive words, colloquial language, idioms?

7) Are there any passages which can be considered ironical?

b) the questions concerning its rhetoric and style:

1) What can you say about President Putin’s audience? What kind and number of people did it consist of?

2) What was the event where President Putin made this speech? Was he a participant of the event or was he a guest there?

3) What passage performs the function of introduction? What is its structure?

4) How does the speaker establish a contact with the audience?

5) What is the tone of the introduction: formal – informal, neutral – ironical, positive – negative, calm – aggressive, other? Give your reasons.

6) What, in your opinion, is the speaker’s objective?

7) What, in your opinion, is the key idea of the speech?

8) What arguments are used by the speaker? Classify them into rational (facts, statistics, experts’ opinion, precedents, etc.) and psychological (appeal to the audience, emotions of the audience, common sense, etc.).

9) What rhetorical strategy (deduction, induction, 4P’s) is chosen by the speaker? Why?

10) What passage performs the function of conclusion?

11) What linguistic means make the audience think that the speaker is going to conclude?

12) Is it, in your opinion, a strong conclusion, that is, a tying together of everything that was discussed in the introduction and body of the speech?

13) Does Vladimir Putin’s manner of public speaking appeal to you? Why? Why not?

Task 3. You are to make a speech on security issues at one of the following events. What will be the objective in each case? What are the audience’s expectations in terms of technical detail, expertise, etc.? What is the audience’s probable level of special knowledge? What will your tone and point of view be? What kind of information will you select? How long will your talk be?

a) Global Security Forum (international conference of leading American politicians);

b) Asian Geo-economics and Strategy conference (an international conference on global balance of military spending);

c) meeting of the Security Council of the RF;

d) Seliger Youth Forum;

e) press-conference (opening statement on the performance of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of RF).

Task 4. Some common ways to start a persuasive speech include 1) asking a rhetorical question, 2) boldly announcing a strong thought or position, 3) quoting a well-known person or 4) creating an image in listeners’ minds by telling a story. Below find the beginning of a speech on struggle against proliferation of weapons. Think of different ways to start this speech.

The proliferation of small arms and light weapons is one of the biggest security challenges currently facing Kenya and the East African sub-region (Uganda, Tanzania and Kenya). The trafficking and wide availability of these weapons fuel instability, conflict and pose a threat, not only to security, but also to sustainable development. The widespread proliferation of small arms is contributing to alarming levels of armed crime, in both rural and urban areas, which exacerbates armed cattle rustling and conflicts in pastoralist areas.

Task 5. Demonstrate the use of different ways to start a speech on the following topics:

a) Re-equipment of Russian armed forces is a guarantee of national security.

b) The end of the unipolar world.

c) The development of the Far East and East Siberia as one of the priorities of the Russian Federation.

Task 6. Think of a possible conclusion of a speech on national security which has the following plan:

A strategy to secure national interests in an increasingly complex world

Challenges of the 21st century

Nuclear dangers and the prevention of the proliferation of nuclear weapons

Counterterrorism

Cyber threats

Task 7. Demonstrate different ways to conclude a speech on the following topics:

a) Re-equipment of Russian armed forces is a guarantee of national security.

b) The end of the unipolar world.

c) The development of the Far East and East Siberia as one of the priorities of the Russian Federation.

Task 8.  You are to make an informative speech at an International Conference of representatives of youth political organisations “Cooperation of Russia and Latin America”. Choose a rhetorical strategy and suggest a plan of the body for each of the following topics: 

a) Cooperation of Russia with the countries of Latin America at the political level is quickly developing.

b) Countries of Latin America are priority partners of Russia in the economic sphere.

c) Cooperation of Russia with the countries of Latin America in the cultural sphere has achieved a new level.

 


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