Task 7. Fill in the gaps with prepositions and adverbs where necessary



Renewed Emphasis on Grand Strategy and Geopolitics

The resurgence of Russia and the continued rise of China have created a new period ___ great-power rivalry—and a corresponding need ___ a solid grand strategy, U.S. Deputy Defense Secretary Robert Work said Monday at the Defense One Summit in Washington, D.C.

From a U.S. perspective, grand strategy can be understood as strategy considered ___ a global or interregional level, as opposed to strategies ___ specific countries, regions, or issues. Geopolitics refers to the influence ___ international relations and strategy of basic world geographic features such as the size and location ___ continents, oceans, and individual countries.

___ a U.S. perspective on grand strategy and geopolitics, it can be noted that most of the world’s people, resources, and economic activity are located not ___ the Western Hemisphere, but in the other hemisphere, particularly Eurasia. In response ___ this basic feature of world geography, U.S. policymakers ___ the last several decades have chosen to pursue, as a key element of U.S. national strategy, a goal ___ preventing the emergence of a regional hegemon ___one part of Eurasia or another, on the grounds that such a hegemon could represent a concentration ___ power strong enough to threaten core U.S. interests ___, for example, denying the United States access ___ some of the other hemisphere’s resources and economic activity. Although U.S. policymakers have not often stated this key national strategic goal explicitly ___ public, U.S. military (and diplomatic) operations in recent decades—both wartime operations and day-to-day operations—can be viewed as having been carried out ___ no small part in support ___ this key goal.

The U.S. goal ___ preventing the emergence of a regional hegemon ___one part of Eurasia or another is a major reason why the U.S. military is structured ___ force elements that enable it to cross broad expanses of ocean and air space and then conduct sustained, large-scale military operations upon arrival.

 

Task 8. Fill in the gaps with suitable words from the box.

stability, principles, involvement, central role, prevention, stronghold, collision, conflicts, maintaining, military-political, multilateral, by force, preservation, military, dangerous, integration, geopolitical, incentives

 

Russia’s foreign policy in a new world should apparently proceed from the following _____ (1) and goals (complementing and developing the officially proclaimed ones): _____ (2) of another global military _____ (3); all-out support for the country’s technological and economic development; and the _____ (4) and multiplication of its human capital. There is no way of ensuring development without active _____ (5)in international cooperation. It is essential to focus efforts on restoring and _____ (6) the supremacy of international law, above all the United Nations Charter. Russia must regain the status of a leading legitimistic world power.

The position Russia should seek in the future world is that of a _____ (7) of international peace and _____ (8), a safeguard of free development by all countries and peoples, and a firm barrier against the dictating of alien rules and values from outside, let alone attempts to do so _____ (9).

Russia’s ideal foreign policy and economic status in the future is that of a great economically developing Atlantic and Pacific power that plays a _____ (10) in the Big Eurasian community, in the economic, logistic, military and political _____ (11) of Asia and Europe, a safeguard of international peace and a provider of _____ (12) stability for Eurasia. …

In relations with NATO, professional discussions among the _____ (13) over ways to maintain peace and prevent _____ (14) will be useful, but the same can hardly apply to the just-started restoration of the political dialogue within the Russia-NATO Council; such debates proved either useless or often harmful in the past. …

In view of the new realities, above all, China’s movement westward, the stake should be put on replacing Russia’s failed unilateral European _____ (15)integration by Eurasian one, by transition from the aborted Greater Europe project towards Greater Eurasia or, in the long term... The purpose of relations with the United States is to firmly prevent it from taking _____ (16) actions, particularly so during the period of adjustment to the new realities, and to create _____ (17) that might make it give up its revolutionary democratic messianism. The main instrument here must be proactive, including _____ (18), dialogue to prevent shaking international strategic stability loose.

Task 9. Complete the paragraphs by translating the phrases in brackets into English:

1. Today, Europe is exposed to multiple (вызовыбезопасности) that range from instability and (вооруженныйконфликт) to violent extremism and terrorism, (организованнаяпреступность) and trafficking in arms, drugs and human beings. Other global challenges such as climate change, (ухудшение состоянияокружающейсреды), demographic disparities and the impact of economic differences are adding to the complexity of our security environment.

2. The new approach criticizes the traditional conception of security for focusing on (внешниевызовы), most notably, (военныеугрозы) posed by rival states. Critics of the traditional conception argue that rather than originating from rival states, the origin of contemporary security threats is either (негосударственный) - domestic or transnational - or, in a different conception, the state itself (представляетугрозу) to its citizens.

3. Although the UN has become much more visible in the post-Cold War era than previously, notably in sponsoring (миротворческиеоперации) around the globe, key elements of the international system have not changed. The UN, whose role is supposedly to take care of (угрозымеждународнойбезопасности), does not have independent capacity and resources (that is, its own (войска) and independent financial revenues) for carrying out peace enforcement and peacekeeping operations, and thus fully depends on states' cooperation.

4. Polarity refers to the distribution of power in the (мировое сообщество). A (однополярный мир) has one hegemonic (dominating) state that holds a significant amount of power economically, militarily and politically. A (двусторонний мир) occurs when two states hold such dominating power which inevitably (в результате приводит к конфронтации) between the two parties, (например, холодной войне). A (многополярный мир) occurs when there are(несколькоцентровсилыиливлияния) dominating and cooperating on the (международная арена).

 


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