B) How the traffic situation in the Park could be improved



C) Which roads in the Park have the worst delays.

D) How fast it is to travel to the Park by train.


What does Martin Doughty say about the situation in the Park?

A) Most traffic jams inside the Park are caused by lorries.

B) Pollution is reducing the number of visitors to the Park.

C) It would be unfair to stop people using cars in the Park.

D) The Park Authority needs to build more roads through the Park.

 

What does the writer say about traffic in the Park?

A) The number of cars changes very little from month to month.

B) Most of the vehicles are owned by local people.

C) Traffic levels are not expected to get any higher.

D) Traffic jams spoil people's experiences of the Park.

 

 

Which of the following might Martin Doughty say?

A

B

C

D

 

The origins of agriculture
 
In 1910, British botanist Lilian Gibbs walked across North Borneo and climbed Mount Kinabalu in Borneo. She later wrote: ‘The “untrodden jungle” of fiction seems to be non-existent in this country. Everywhere the forest is well worked.’ What Gibbs saw was a seemingly curated tropical forest, regularly set on fire by local tribes. The area immediately surrounding selected wild fruit trees was carefully cleared to give them room to flourish. Generation after generation had gradually shaped the forest. This wasn't agriculture in the way we know it today but a more ancient form of cultivation, stretching back more than 10,000 years. Farming is seen as a pivotal ‘invention’ in the history of humanity. Prior to the advent of farming, our ancestors roamed the landscape gathering edible fruits, seeds and plants, and hunting whatever game they could find. With agriculture, though, there was a steadier food supply and people traded their migratory habits for sedentary settlements which in turn brought about the emergence of complex societies. The enormous impact of farming on human life is widely accepted but in recent decades the story of how it all began has changed. It was originally thought that ‘proto-farming’ began in an area of the Middle East known as The Fertile Crescent. However, archaeologists have now found signs of this proto-farming in at least eleven regions, stretching from Central America to China. This has transformed our picture of the dawn of agriculture. Gone is the simple story of a sudden revolution in a part of the Middle East, with benefits so great that it was rapidly taken up all around the world. It turns out that farming was ‘invented’ many times, in many places, and was rarely an instant success. The early efforts at crop cultivation would not have looked very much like farming today. Evidence suggests that in those early days people were still foraging for wild plants but had also begun to tend small plots on riverbanks. One English archaeologist has said that it is probably better to think of early farming as being more like gardening. These ‘gardens’ may have provided high-value foods such as rice, but the food seems to have been eaten only at events such as weddings or births rather than as everyday fare. During the era that followed the domestic raising of crops in these gardens, there was a lag of thousands of years before people began to trust them to provide most of their calories. It has been suggested that the first farmers were pulled into trying new cultivation techniques out of curiosity rather than necessity. The subsistence system based on wild species remained pretty much unchanged for many generations and, for centuries, communities kept crops as a low-intensity sideline. Only much later would densely populated settlements have forced people into a near-exclusive reliance on farming.

 

What did Lilian Gibbs notice about the trees in the forest?

A) Many had been planted to provide food.

B) Some had empty space around them.


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