A Brief History of the Plough
Утверждено на заседании кафедры английского языка.
Протокол № 2 от 10 октября 2017 г.
По дисциплине «Английский язык»
Студентам заочного отделения инженерного факультета по специальностям
Техническое обеспечение процессов сельскохозяйственного производства» (ТОПСХП)
Техническое обеспечение процессов сельскохозяйственного производства» (ТОПСХП) НИСПО
Для самостоятельной подготовки к сессии в 2015–2016 г.
Теоретическая часть (знание грамматического материала будет проверяться в форме тестовых заданий во время сессии).
Студенты должны повторить следующие разделы грамматики английского языка:
Существительное. Образование форм множественного числа. Притяжательный падеж. Исчисляемые и неисчисляемые существительные. Употребление артикля. Существительное в роли определения и его перевод на русский язык.
Местоимения. Личные местоимения (I, you, he, she, it, we, they). Притяжательные местоимения (my/mine, your/yours, her/hers, his, its, our/ours, their/theirs). Указательные местоимения (this – these, that – those). Вопросительные местоимения. Неопределенные и отрицательные местоимения (some, any, no) и их производные.
Количественные слова и выражения (much/many, little/few, a little/a few)
Прилагательные и наречия. Способы образования сравнительной и превосходной степени. Сравнительные конструкции.
Видовременные формы английского глагола в активном и пассивном залоге. Present Simple; Present Continuous; Past Simple; Future Simple; Present Perfect. Страдательный залог: утвердительные и отрицательные формы, способы образования вопроса, типы вопросов, ключевые слова.
Простые неличные формы глагола.Причастие I и причастие II: образование, перевод на русский язык, функции (определение, обстоятельство, составная часть видовременной формы). Инфинитив.
Модальные глаголы (can, may, must, should) и их эквиваленты (be able to, be allowed to, have to, be to).
Наиболее употребительные предлоги
Практическая часть (тексты для домашнего чтения)
Дома со словарем прочитать пять текстов. Незнакомые слова и выражения из каждого текста выписать в тетрадь по абзацам. Во время сессии при сдаче домашнего чтения тетрадями с новыми словами можно пользоваться, нельзя пользоваться готовым переводом.
Text 1. The Industrial Revolution
Text 2. Tractor
Text 3. A Brief History of the Plough
Text 4. Agricultural Systems
Text 5. Combine
The Industrial Revolution
1. With the coming of the Industrial Revolution and the development of more complicated machines, farming methods took a great leap forward. Instead of harvesting grain by hand, wheeled machines cut a continuous swath. Instead of threshing the grain by beating it with sticks, threshing machines separated the seeds from the heads. The first tractors appeared in the late 19th century.
2. Power for agricultural machinery was originally supplied by horses or other animals. After the invention of steam power the traction engine appeared, a multipurpose, mobile energy source. But the steam-powered machines were low-powered by today's standards. Their slow speed led farmers to comment that tractors had two speeds: "slow, and damn slow."
3. The internal combustion engines such as a petrol engine, and later a diesel engine became the main source of power for the next generation of tractors. These engines also contributed to the development of the thresher and self-propelled combined harvester or just 'combine'. Instead of cutting the grain stalks and transporting them to a stationary threshing machine, these combines cut, threshed, and separated the grain moving continuously through the field.
4. Tractors do the majority of work on a modern farm. They pull tillage implements –machines that till the ground, plant seed, and perform other tasks. Tillage implements prepare the soil by loosening it and killing weeds. The best-known is the plow, the ancient implement that is used to turn over the soil. Then implements such as cultivators and harrows follow. And the operations of planting different agricultural crops take place.
5. After planting, other implements are used to eliminate weeds from between rows, or to spread fertilizer and pesticides. Hay balers can be used to tightly package grass or alfalfa into a storable form for the winter months.
swath – прокос
head – колос
thresher – молотилка
grain stalk – хлебный злак
package – упаковывать
1. A tractor is designed to deliver a high tractive effort at slow speeds, for hauling a trailer, machinery used in agriculture or construction. Agricultural implements may be towed behind or mounted on the tractor, and the tractor may also provide a source of power if the implement is mechanized. Tractors can be classified as two-wheel drive, four-wheel drive and track-type.
2. The classic farm tractor is a simple open vehicle, with two very large driving wheels and the engine in front of the driver, with two steerable wheels below the engine. This basic design has remained unchanged but enclosed cabs are fitted on almost all modern models, for an operator’s safety and comfort. In some localities with heavy or wet soils the track-type of tractor became popular in the 1930s, due to superior traction.
3. Four-wheel drive tractors began to appear in the 1960s. Some four-wheel drive tractors have the standard "two large, two small" configuration typical of smaller tractors, while some have four large, powered wheels. The larger tractors are typically an articulated design steered by hydraulic cylinders.
4. The first tractors grew out of the stationary and portable steam engines operated on farms in the late 19th century and used to haul plows by the 1890s. In 1892 John Froehlich, built the first tractor powered by a gasoline engine.
5. Between 1900 and 1960, gasoline was the predominant fuel, with kerosene and ethanol being common alternatives. Often, a small auxiliary fuel tank was available to hold gasoline for cold starting and warm-up. Dieselization became widespread in the 1960s, and modern farm tractors usually employ diesel engines, which range in power output from 18 to 575 horsepower (15 to 480 kW).
hauling – буксировка, транспортировка
tow – буксировать
mount – навешивать
implement – сельскохозяйственное орудие
powered – с механическим приводом
articulated – с шарнирно-сочленённой рамой
A Brief History of the Plough
1. Farming is the oldest industry in the World. Historians agree that the earliest implement was probably a pointed bent stick which was used to loosen the soil. Through the history man continually strived to become more efficient. And soon hand held hoes developed into simple ploughs, well before the Egyptians over 4000 years ago. These primitive ploughs were eventually pulled by oxen, camels and elephants.
2. The ancient Egyptians made considerable advances in its design. However, the Greeks were not so far behind and later developed Egyptian ploughs fitted with wheels. These were known as a crooked ploughs because the beam curved forwards to the draft animal. The fitment of wheels provided far greater control and maneuverability.
3. There was little attempt to change the design of the plough until the mid 1600's. It should be noted that the Dutch were among the first in improving its shape. The further development was produced in Scotland by Joseph Foljambe from Rotherham who patented a plough described as the perfect implement.
4. The change consisted in that the fittings and coulter were made of iron and the mouldboard and share were covered with an iron plate. This design was considered more efficient and lighter to pull than any other kind. For over 30 years this design proved very popular. It was the first to be factory produced on a large scale.
5. Like our ancestors, we continue to strive for improvement. If we look at plough development over the last 50 years there has been enormous change in the early 1900's. Especially when Harry Fergurson's 3-point linkage appeared, it totally revolutionized implement attachment and machine performance and has now become the universal norm.
loosen – рыхлить
strive – стремиться
well before – задолго до
crooked – изогнутый
beam – грядиль (плуга)
fitment – установка
fitting – крепление
coulter – предплужник
3-point linkage – трехточечная навесная система
1. Mechanized systems of food and fiber production are used in agriculture. These systems include tillage of the soil, planting, cultural practices, protection from pests, harvesting, livestock feeding, and delivery for processing. The use of hydraulic power allowed performing complex operations.
2. Advanced technology is used to increase the precision needed in modern agriculture. For example, lasers are applied for laying out fields for surface irrigation systems, microprocessors for controlling intricate operations such as controlling feed mixtures for dairy cows.
3. Primary and secondary tillage equipment, such as plows, disks, and harrows, are designed to prepare the soil for crop production. Multipurpose machines are used where a high degree of precision and specialization is needed. There are machines that may be used to till the soil, incorporate a herbicide, and plant the seed in one trip across the field.
4. Crop cultivation is accomplished primarily to rid the crop of weeds. Cultivation equipment is normally quite simple and is designed to cut, bury or rip out weeds. Crop chemicals such as fertilizers and pesticides are applied with high- or low-pressure sprayers mounted on tractors, trailers and aircraft. Dry chemicals, such as fertilizers, are applied with either broadcast or band-type applicators.
5. Mechanized agricultural operations vary from little on small farms to nearly complete on large commercial farms. The equipment is powered by electric motors if it is stationary, and by tractor hydraulics or power takeoff shafts if it is portable. Stationary equipment includes conveyors and grinders, and portable equipment includes feed distributors, mixers, and manure spreaders.
cultural practices – агротехнические приемы
livestock – домашний скот
laying out – планировать, разбивать (участок)
intricate – сложный
tillage – обработка почвы
trip – проход
crop cultivation – полеводство
sprayer – опрыскиватель
broadcast – разбросной
band-type – ленточный
applicator – машина для внесения удобрений и ядохимикатов
power takeoff shaft – вал отбора мощности
grinder – мельница
1. Combine harvesters are one of the most important labor saving inventions. The combine harvester is a machine that harvests grain crops. The name derives from its combining three operations: cutting, threshing and winnowing into a single process. Among the crops harvested with a combine are wheat, oats, rye, barley, maize, soybeans and flax. The straw left behind is chopped and spread on the field or baled for feed and bedding for livestock.
2. The combine was invented in the United States by Hiram Moore in 1834, and early versions were pulled by horse or mule teams. By 1860, combine harvesters with a cutting width of several metres were used on American farms. In 1882, the Australian Hugh McKay developed the first commercial combine harvester in 1885, the Sunshine Harvester.
3. Later, steam power was used and George Stockton Berry integrated the combine with a steam engine using straw to heat the boiler. Tractor-drawn combines became common after World War II. Early tractor-drawn combines were powered by a gasoline engine, while later models were PTO-powered. These machines either put the harvested crop into bags that were then loaded onto a wagon or had a small bin that stored the grain until it was transferred to a truck with an auger.
4. In 1923 in Kansas, the Curtis brothers and their Gleaner Manufacturing Company patented a self-propelled harvester. In 1937, the Australian Thomas Carroll, working for Massey-Harris in Canada, perfected a self-propelled model and in 1940 a lighter-weight model began to be marketed by the company. In 1953, the European manufacturer CLAAS developed a self-propelled combine named 'Herkules', it could harvest up to 5 tons of wheat a day. This kind of combine is still in use and is powered by diesel or gasoline engines.
labor saving – трудосберегающий
cutting – скашивание
winnowing – отвеивание
chop – измельчать
bedding – подстилка
team – упряжка
cutting width –
commercial – ширина скашивания
bag – мешок
wagon – фургон, телега
bin – бункер
auger – шнек
perfect – совершенствовать
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