II Сhoose the answer A, B, C or D which you think fits best according to the text.
11In the 18th century, mechanical figures
A were operated by engines.
B amused wealthy people.
C were difficult to make.
D could be used to tell the time.
12People expected computers to be able to talk because
A they were very expensive.
B they were impressed by computers.
C they wanted mechanical servants.
D they believed computers would take over the world.
13Fifty years ago, computers were
A thousand of times better at using human language,
B two or three times slower at processing information.
C thousand of times slower at processing information.
D two or three times worse at using human language.
14We need tech support staff because
A today’s computers have windows and mice.
B so many people these days use computers.
C computers and people do not work in the same way.
D we have so many call centers these days.
15Computers cannot think like human beings because
A scientists can’t program them to do so.
B we do not know enough about the human brain.
C computers can’t copy human thought processes.
D computers do not have robot mechanisms.
16Computers cannot use human language because
A they do not understand the grammar.
B human language does not have any rules.
C they cannot work out what sentences mean.
D humans don’t want to chat with computers.
Read the advertisements. Match questions (1-5) to (A-F). There is one advertisement you do not need.
Where would you choose to go on holiday if...
1 you just got married?
2 you had young children?
3 you want a physically active vacation?
4 you love winter sports?
5 you want to bask in the sun?
A. ‘Chalet Josef’, Savoie, French Alps, France.
Keen skiers will greatly appreciate the fabulous location of this chalet, which is directly on the slopes. The warm atmosphere will certainly be very welcome after a busy day on the mountain. There is always plenty to do even if you don’t ski, such as: tobogganing, curling, sleigh rides and ice-skating.
B. ‘Deborah’s Hideaway’, Byron Bay, England.
Spoil yourself in this luxurious, romantic retreat with its comfortable king size beds, teak furniture, large screen TVs and quiet location. It’s a magnificent elevated hideaway with spectacular panoramic coastal and mountain views, stylish elegance and romantic seclusion. Relax and enjoy casual luxury and warm welcoming hospitality. Take advantage of the memorable honeymoon package.
C. ‘Walt Disney World Resort’, Orlando, Florida.
Welcome to the magic at Walt Disney World Resort in Florida – where your dream holiday can come true! As a guest in our resort you will have unlimited access to all of the theme parks in Disney World. You can meet Mickey, be carried away m the wild tea cups of Alice in Wonderland or fly away on Aladdin’s magical carpet. Whatever you decide to do you are guaranteed to have the time of your life.
D. ‘Elite Hotel’, Paris, France.
Experience the ‘elite’ lifestyle in our 18th century palace hotel. Enjoy ballroom dancing every evening in our lavishly decorated ‘Grandiose’ Hall. All our suites have king size four-poster beds and overlook the beautiful river Seine. Join the ‘Parisian Culture Tour’ offered by the-hotel every morning, to visit the Louvre, Musee D’Orsay, and the Opera House Gamier.
E. ‘Jardin de Playa’, Pollensa, Spain.
Oardin de Playa hotel is a great base for your summer holiday and is ideally located at the northeastern end of the Bay of Pollensa. It’s a popular choice, with its friendly atmosphere, spacious, well-kept rooms, indoor and outdoor pools and fabulous views over the attractive bay and out to sea. Best of all it’s within walking distance of the beach.
F. ‘South Thailand Adventure’, Thailand.
Rock climbing, jungle walks, boat trips, snorkeling, sea kayaking, and some well-earned relaxation in the tropical paradise of Southern Thailand. An exciting, active itinerary ideal for the reasonably fit individual. Transport is by private vehicle, train and boat.
II Find the correct explanation:
6A chalet is
a) a house which is not joined to any other house.
b) a wooden house, built in a mountain area.
c) a house that is all on one level, without stairs.
d) a house which has a roof made of straw.
7 “Romantic seclusion” means
a) romantic luxury.
b) romantic solitude.
c) romantic atmosphere.
d) romantic evenings.
8 The synonym to the word lavishly is
9 The antonym to the word fabulous is
10 The word “snorkeling” means
a) swimming underwater.
b) sleeping lightly for a short time.
c) noisy breathing while you are asleep.
d) moving slowly on water or in the air.
Catherine now ran the inn, and the work there had helped her cope with her husband’s death.
Yet, in the nine months since the bridge tragedy, she still believed that some day the door would open and Ed would cheerfully call, “Where are my girls?” Sometimes she found herself listening for the sound of her husband’s voice.
Now, in addition to all the shock and grief, her finances had become an urgent problem. Two years earlier, Catherine had closed the inn for six months, mortgaged it and completed a massive renovation and redecoration project.
One Friday afternoon Catherine was in the house, getting ready to go to the inn for the dinner hour. The insurance people were expected soon. But, when the two gloomy looking executives arrived, it was not to begin the process of payment. “Mrs. Collins”, the older of the two said, “I hope you will understand our position. We sympathize with you and understand the situation you are in. The problem is that we cannot authorize payment on your husband’s policies without a death certificate and that is not going to be issued”.
Catherine stared at him. “You mean it’s not going to be issued until they have absolute proof of his death? But suppose his body was carried down the river clear into the Atlantic?”
Both men looked uneasy. “All the other bodies have been recovered. There isn’t so much as wheel or engine part of a Cadillac in the riverbed below the accident site”.
“Then you’re saying…” Catherine was finding it hard to form words.
“We are saying that the executive report on the accident categorically states that Edwin Collins could not have perished in the bridge tragedy that night. The experts feel that even though he may have been in the vicinity of the bridge, no one believes Edwin Collins was a victim. We believe he was in none of the cars involved in the accident and took advantage of that favourable happening to make the disappearance he was planning. We think he reasoned he could take care of you and your daughter through the insurance and go on to whatever life he had already planned to begin in South America or somewhere else.”
1 Catherine ran the inn but the work there didn’t help her to forget about her husband’s death.
2 The bridge tragedy happened nine months ago.
3 Sometimes Catherine was hearing things.
4 The woman mortgaged the inn to get money for living.
5 It was Friday evening when the insurance people came to Catherine’s house.
6 The insurance people couldn’t authorize payment on her husband’s policies without a death certificate.
7 There were two more people who had perished in the bridge tragedy.
8 Everyone believed Edwin Collins was a victim.
9 The insurance men accused Mr. Collins of having planned his disappearance.
10 Mr. Collins was sure his wife would get the insurance.
II Choose the answer A, B, C or D which you think fits best according to the text:
11 Catherine was so much depressed after her husband’s death that she
A. couldn’t work.
B. started hearing Ed’s voice.
C. believed he would return.
D. talked to Ed through the door.
12 Catherine needed money because she
A. had to run the inn.
B. wanted to renovate the inn.
C. wanted to forget her grief.
D. had wasted her money.
13 The insurance people came to see Catherine to tell her that
A. the company couldn’t pay the money without a document.
B. the insurance company refused to issue a death certificate.
C. Edwin Collins’ body had been found in the Atlantic.
D. Edwin Collins’ car had been found in the river.
14 The executive report stated that Edwin
A. was caught in one of the cars.
B. was seen in the vicinity of the bridge.
C. could have died in the accident.
D. could not have been a victim.
15 The insurance people thought that Edwin Collins
A. lived in South America.
B. had organized his disappearance.
C. did not care for his wife.
D. had planned to return home.
Text # 19 Mentoring Programs
A mentoris someone who teaches or advises a younger person with less experience. January is National Mentoring Month in the United States.
Some mentoringprograms connect adults with children who need help. Researchers say mentoring can reducedrug and alcohol use, and violenceamong young people.
In Southern California, a nonprofit group called School on Wheels has volunteerswho tutorchildren from homeless families. Experts estimate that one in every 50 children in the country is homeless at some time during the year. They might live in sheltersor weekly hotels or abandonedbuildings. They might live on the streets. They might live anywhere but a permanenthome.
Sinead Chilton is a marketing consultantfor School on Wheels. She moved from London to the United States. She says she was surprised to learn how big the problem was.
“When I first moved here ten years ago and I heard about School on Wheels, I didn’t even consider the fact that there were homeless children in America. And then when I realized that there were 1.6 million homeless children in America, it just flooredme.”
Ms. Chilton has worked with School on Wheels for more than six years. She still remembers the first student she tutored. She met with her every week at a local church. The church gave shelterto people on winter nights. The girl slept on the floor.
“It just struck me as just so devastatingand just how can you focus on school and how can you even think about homework when those are the circumstances that you’re living in?”
A retired teacher named Agnes Stevens started School on Wheels eight years ago. She wanted to help homeless children stay in school. The group now has more than 1000 volunteers.
Each year they tutor as many as 2000 students. The group also gives services to other children, including backpacks and school supplies.
Sinead Chilton says School on Wheels also helps parents to put their children in school and helps parents with the educational system.
“A lot of times, homeless children’s families are in chaosand homework is the last thing that parents want to be worrying about.”
The Harvard School of Public Health and the National Mentoring Project started National Mentoring Month in 2002. Ms. Chilton says she hopes more people will volunteer to help children.
“I think it’s so important for people that want to make a difference in their community to look at where the needs are. And the most vulnerablemembers of our community are homeless children.”
I Answer the questions:
1 What does a mentor do?
2 What can mentoring do according to researchers’ point of view?
3 Enumerate the places, mentioned in the text, where the homeless might live.
4What surprised Sinead Chilton when she moved to the USA?
5 Why is it difficult for homeless children to focus on school?
6When was School on Wheels started?
7 How many students do the volunteers of School on Wheels tutor?
8 In what way do they help parents?
9 What is the last thing homeless children’s parents want to be worrying about?
10Why homeless children are the most vulnerable members of our community?
Text # 20
Large amounts of snow fell in some American cities last month. One storm hit the East Coast, causing flight cancellations and temporarily stopping traffic in some areas.
Snow is a subject of great interest to weather experts. They sometimes have difficulty estimating where, when or how much snow will fall. One reason is that heavy amounts of snow fall in surprisingly small areas. Another reason is that a small change in temperature can mean the difference between snow and rain.
Just what is snow, anyway? Snow is a form of frozen water. It contains groups of ice particles called snow crystals. These crystals grow from water droplets in cold clouds. They usually grow around dust particles.
All snow crystals have six sides, but they grow in different shapes. The shape depends mainly on the temperature and water levels in the air.
Snow crystals grow in one of two designs – plate-like and columnar. Plate-like crystals are flat. They form when the air temperature is about fifteen degrees below zero Celsius. Columnar snow crystals look like sticks of ice. They form when the temperature is about five degrees below zero.
The shape of a snow crystal may change from one form to another as the crystal passes through levels of air with different temperatures. When melting snow-crystals or raindrops fall through very cold air, they freeze to form small particles of ice, called sleet. Groups of frozen water-droplets are called snow pellets. Under some conditions, these particles may grow larger and form solid pieces of ice, or hail. Hail can be dangerous to people, animals and property.
When snow crystals stick together, they produce snowflakes. Snowflakes come in different sizes. As many as one hundred crystals may join to form a snowflake larger than two and one-half centimeters. Under some conditions, snowflakes can form that are five centimeters long. Usually, this requires near-freezing temperatures, light winds and changing conditions in Earth’s atmosphere.
Snow contains much less water than rain. About two and one-half centimeters of rain has as much water as fifteen centimeters of wet snow. About seventy-six centimeters of dry snow equals the water in two and one-half centimeters of rain.
Much of the water the world uses comes from snow.
Snowfall helps to protect plants and some wild animals from winter weather. Fresh snow is made largely of air trapped among the snow crystals. Because the air has trouble moving, the movement of heat is limited.
Generally, snow and ice appear white. This is because the light we see from the sun is white. Most natural materials take in some sunlight. This gives them their color. However, when light travels from air to snow, some light is sent back, or reflected. Snow crystals have many surfaces to reflect sunlight. Yet the snow does take in a little sunlight. It is this light that gives snow its white appearance.
Each year, the continental United States has an average of one hundred five snowstorms. An average storm produces snow for two to five days.
Snow may be beautiful, but it can be deadly. It is responsible for the deaths of hundreds of people in the United States every year. Many people die in traffic accidents on roads that are covered with snow or ice. Others die from being out in the cold, or from heart attacks caused by too much physical activity.
I Answer the questions:
1 Why is it difficult to estimate where, when or how much snow will fall?
2 What is snow?
3 What does snow contain?
4 How many sides do all snow crystals have?
5 What does their shape depend on?
6 How many designs do snow crystals grow in?
7 What air temperature do plate-like crystals form at?
8 How do columnar snow crystals look like?
9 What air temperature do they form at?
10What is sleet?
11 What is produced when snow crystals stick together?
12 Are snowflakes the same in size?
13 Does snow contain more water than rain?
14Where does much of the water the world uses come from?
15 Why do snow and ice appear white?
Text #21 ION SPORTS CAMPS
Action Sports Camps provide activity holidays for children aged over five and adults. We offer training in over twenty sports at ten different centres throughout the UK. All the centres are open from April until October and some open during the winter for weekend courses. The sports offered differ from one centre to another so if you want to do something in particular you should check our colour brochure.
The camps are not just limited to outdoor sports - we cover a wide range of indoor activities as well. So if the rain comes, the camps continue although you may have to take off your football boots and pick up a squash racket instead. With the experience we've gained over the years, we put together the right mix of sport and activities providing sport for all, not just for those who are brilliant at athletics. It is unnecessary to bring any equipment because it is all provided.
We work in small groups, children working with others of their own age, but we do all come together for social activities and meals. So, different members of a family can make their own individual choices but they get a chance to exchange their experiences later on.
Our centres offer first-class accommodation, food and facilities - and the staff are first-class too. Qualified teachers or professionals receive training from us and many work with us year after year. We always employ qualified staff for activities such as swimming, trampolining and gymnastics but some of the assistants organising the children's games are students, many of whom came to the camp themselves when they were younger.
At most of our centres, accommodation is in a hostel or tents. It is not possible for us to arrange other accommodation but we can send you a list of what is available in the area. Most of the places are recommended to us, but not all, so we are not responsible for the quality of the accommodation on this list. Luxury accommodation is not available near our camps.
To book a place at a sports camp, complete the form and send it with a cheque for the deposit to the address below. The rest of the fee can be paid at any time but we must receive it at least one month before your camp. Please note, to keep costs down, you are charged 2.5% extra by us if you pay with your credit card. You will receive a letter of confirmation within ten days of sending your form. Cancellations made up to a month before the camp are refunded in full apart from a 5% administration fee. Fifty per cent of the fee is refunded if a cancellation is made up to two weeks before the date of the camp. After that no refunds can be given.
Look at the statements 1-10 about advice for new students at a university. Decide if each statement is true or false. If it is true, mark T. If it is false, write the correct variant.
1. Some centres are open all winter.
2. The activities available depend on the weather.
3. Action Sports Camps courses are unsuitable for people who are excellent at sport.
4. You need to have your own sports equipment.
5. Children and adults spend some time together each day.
6. Some of the staff are unqualified.
7. Action Sports Camps only recommend accommodation of a high quality.
8. You have to pay the total fee one month after you book.
9. Action Sports Camps charge you more if you pay with your credit card.
10. If you cancel three weeks before your camp, you will get half your money back.
Text #22 Eurorailing
Thanks to their extended summer vacations, students are in the enviable position of being able to travel round Europe by rail and see the sights on the cheap. This article points out some of the pros and cons of travelling by train.
The sense of freedom offered by rail travel is unrivalled by any other, except perhaps the less safe option of hitchhiking. Trains are also a great way to meet local people and, compared with other long-distance modes of transport, the Greenest you can get. Rail travel allows you to explore the hidden corners of the continent, especially areas where rural lines are still open and trains are still the most common form of public transport. It's also a relaxing way to travel, whether you're using it as a cheap bed for the night, or as a ring-side seat for a series of stunning views.
The first step before you go is to choose one of the Eurorail schemes available. After that, there are a few tips to bear in mind before you leave. Budgeting always causes headaches and it's worth finding out which are the 'expensive’ and the 'cheap' countries. It's sensible to take some cash, but you should take most of your money in traveller's cheques. Choose a well-known brand and buy small denominations.
Your most important piece of equipment is your backpack, and it's worth choosing one that's comfortable and light, sits just above your hips, is 'high' rather than ‘wide’ when full. A day-pack is useful for sightseeing, and a pair of comfortable walking shoes is vital, along with dark, hard-wearing clothes. As a general rule, put out everything you want to take - then halve it. Some things, however, should not be left behind. An alarm clock (so you don't miss those early trains); a scarf to cover your shoulders or legs for visits to churches or mosques; photocopies of all your important documents - best packed separately or given to a travelling companion; toilet paper, soap and a universal plug; a Swiss army penknife; numerous plastic bags; a water bottle and a small first aid kit.
The fun really starts once you're out there, of course - hunting for a hostel at 10 p.m., being ripped off by a taxi driver who claims there are no buses to your campsite or being turned away from a famous tourist attraction for wearing shorts. There are compensations for these frustrations (which make the best stories afterwards, anyway!), but many problems can be avoided if you're aware of the potential pitfalls before you leave.
The golden rule is not to try to cram too much into the time available. Trying to see the whole of Europe in a month, by spending every night on a train and an afternoon in each capital city will result in an unsatisfactory blur of shallow impressions. It is also a recipe for disaster, as you will be tired, grumpy and unreceptive for most of your trip. Instead, try to vary your route, mixing visits to cities with relaxing spells on the beach or in the countryside.
These ideas are really just common sense, but it's amazing how often they're overlooked. But the most important tip of ail is - have fun!
1 The sense of freedom offered by rail travel is unrivalled by any other.
2 Travelling by rail allows to see the hidden places of the continent.
3 Saving money always causes headaches.
4 The most important piece of equipment is trainers.
5 A backpack should be rather “wide” than “high” when full.
6 Dark, hard-wearing clothes are vital for travelling.
7 You could be turned away from a famous tourist attraction for wearing shorts.
8 It is better to stay at home to avoid problems while travelling.
9 The golden rule is to see as much as possible in the time you have.
10 To have fun is the most important tip of all.
II Сhoose the answer A, B, C or D which you think fits best according to the text:
11 The main purpose of this text is to
A highlight the problems associated with rail travel.
B emphasize the many advantages of rail travel.
C give advice to students about rail travel.
D promote and advertise rail travel.
12 The writer advises students to take
A no cash.
B money in more than one form.
C only traveller's cheques.
D a credit card.
13 When they are packing for a rail holiday, the writer advises students to
A include only small objects.
B take more than they think they'll really need.
C take less than they really want to.
D leave behind nothing they think they may need.
14 One of the examples of bad experiences on holiday mentioned in the text is:
A being ripped off by a taxi driver.
B being ripped off by a bus driver.
C being lost.
D being robbed.
15 According to the writer, the best thing about bad experiences on holiday is that you
A forget about them later.
B may receive compensation afterwards.
C can learn something useful for the future.
D can tell people about them later.
16 When planning a route, the writer advises students to
A see as much as possible in the time they have.
B see everything in a month.
C go sightseeing in the afternoons and travel by night.
D visit places but also rest from time to time.
Text # 23 A dog-detective.
'Track!' said my master.
Like any obedient tracker-dog who has received the command he most loves, I gave a bark of excitement, put my nose down to the pavement and sniffed. The pavement was rich with smells. Even in the high-class residential area where we were working, the stones held traces of subtle and complex fragrances. As I searched for the scent that would give me a clue to the trail of the guilty man, my tail wagged slowly, thoughtfully, delightedly. Work was like play to me; I enjoyed it.
A small group of people gathered behind us. Among these onlookers was the old caretaker of the building next door to ours. He spoke in a scornful voice: 'You actually think your dog might catch a thief three days after the event?' My master said nothing, but I'm sure he must have smiled. I did not turn to look. I knew he would not speak unless it was to give me a new command.
I needed to concentrate. My task was difficult. I had to pick out one scent among the many that lay about and then track it to its source.
'You're wasting your time,' said the caretaker. I looked at him without raising my head. He was running his hand over his fat stomach. His rough palm and smooth shirt combined to make a slight noise. It was part of my training to be aware - often it is only a little whisper of a noise that alerts you to the drawing of a weapon. But of course the ageing caretaker was going to do no such thing. There was no smell of fear or nervousness about him. He was merely being clever and talkative. He handled his stomach as though it was a badge of authority.
'I've seen many tracker-dogs in my time,' said the caretaker to the onlookers. 'I served with the police years ago. We would never have thought of using a tracker-dog to find a car thief. Impossible. Everyone knows that dogs are useless in such matters. He's got his car back, so what's the use of parking it again in the same place and trying to pick up one scent among the hundreds on this pavement? It's like asking the dog to do a crossword puzzle!'
In a sense he was right. I'm sure there's no need to tell you that, just as a dog's hearing is much better than a human being's, so his sense of smell distinguishes one thing from another far better than the most powerful magnifying glass in the world. If Sherlock Holmes could work out that a man had had an egg for breakfast by seeing the yellow stain on his mouth, a trained dog could tell you whether the hen that laid the egg was healthy or not.
I know it sounds funny and I mean it to be. But I'm not exaggerating. A dog can tell you - provided you understand a dog's way of communicating - all this and more without even setting eyes on the man he is investigating.
But here the ground was criss-crossed in a complex knot of different smells and scents and tracks. To untie it and follow one of them, seemed like asking for a miracle.
I Сhoose the answer A, B, C or D which you think fits best according to the text:
1 How did the dog-narrator react to the command to track?
A It did what was asked because it was obedient.
B It was happy, even though it wasn't trained for the task.
C It was frustrated because there were so many smells.
D It was excited because it enjoyed tracking.
2 What do we learn about the place where the story was set?
A It was a complicated area and rather smelly.
B It was full of rich people's houses.
C The buildings were made of stone.
D The pavements were in very good condition.
3 How many days passed after the car was stolen?
A Two days.
B Three days.
C Four days.
D One day.
4 What does many in the sentence “I had to pick out one scent among the many that lay about and then track it to its source” refer to?
A new commands
B difficult tasks
C scents on the ground
5 What did the dog-narrator notice about the caretaker?
A By the sound he made he might have been pulling out a gun.
B His clothes were of varying quality.
C He spoke in a whispering tone.
D By his gestures it seemed that he was not feeling very well.
6 Why was the dog-narrator sure that the caretaker was not dangerous?
A It thought he was too intelligent to use violence.
B It had seen he was wearing a badge to show he was a kind of policeman.
C It did not sense that he was afraid.
D It realized that he was too old to be dangerous.
7 What did the caretaker think about using a dog to catch a car thief?
A He was hopeful and encouraging towards the dog's owner.
B He was sure it would not work.
C He wished the police had come up with the idea.
D He thought it was just a game for the dog.
8 What did the caretaker compare the dog’s attempt to pick up one scent among the others to?
A Doing a crossword puzzle.
B Doing sums.
C Playing a game.
D Solving a problem.
9 What does the dog-narrator tell us about its sense of smell?
A It is not as good as its sense of hearing.
B It can achieve what a human's sight can and much more.
C It can only give us more details about what a human has already discovered.
D When there are many scents together, it cannot distinguish one from another.
10 According to the passage, a dog can
A give you a lot of information if you can communicate with it.
B tell you many things without seeing you.
C provide you with a way of communicating with it.
D do more than just investigate people it can't see.
Text # 24
In her way, she lived and breathed politics from the very start. Her father, Alfred Roberts, was a shopkeeper and a local politician. 'Mr. Roberts, said the report her school sent to Oxford University in 1943, 'who is a local tradesman and a governor of this school, has a family of two girls for whom he has done his utmost in preparing them for careers. I have every confidence in recommending her as I feel quite sure her family will make every effort to ensure her future success.'
So this is not a rags-to-riches story but one which seems to have begun as it meant to go on. Dreda Chomacki, who still lives where she was born, was brought up fifty yards away from the Roberts' corner shop, and has known her since primary school days. Was Margaret Roberts a serious person even then?
Chomacki: 'Quite a serious girl, yes. Not so serious that she didn't play with other children, because I remember games like hide and seek, but I think she was more serious than most children of that age. At the secondary school, I always remember her bulging satchel; it would never close, and mine never seemed to have anything in it. But I wouldn't think she had a deprived childhood. I remember parties that I went to at the shop.'
Margaret Wickstead, another contemporary, also recalls a serious girl.
Wickstead: 'I think I can first remember her at a lecture we had, when she must have been in her fourth year. The well-known author and lecturer Bernard Newman came to talk about spies, and gave a very amusing lecture. At the end he asked for questions in the usual way and instead of a sixth-former standing up, this young, bright-eyed, fair-haired girl from the fourth year stood up and asked him a question. But the thing that rather annoyed her contemporaries was that she asked him these questions in almost parliamentary language: "Does the speaker think so and so?"'
Looking back with the benefit of hindsight, Dreda Chomacki found little early evidence of Margaret Roberts' potential.
Chomacki: 'Strangely enough, looking in old school magazines, rarely can I find any reference to Margaret. She obviously must have been quite prominent, but it's hard to find any records of her work, really. I've often looked back and thought, surely I would find Margaret's name, but not very often.'
1Alfred Roberts, Margaret’s dad, was a politician.
2There were two children in the family.
3 Dreda Chomacki was Margaret’s friend.
4 Margaret was the most serious child in her neighbourhood.
5 Margaret’s satchel was always full of books.
6 Bernard Newman, the well-known lecturer, came to talk about contagious diseases.
7Margaret, who was a sixth-former student, asked the lecturer questions.
8 The questions were in almost parliamentary language.
9Dreda Chomacki found a lot of early evidence of Margaret Robert’s potential.
II For questions 10-16, choose the answer A, B, C or D which you think fits best according to the text.
10 What part did Alfred Roberts play in his daughter's early life?
A He worked as hard as he could to help her.
B He was too busy in his shop and in local politics to be able to do much.
C He recommended her for university.
D He brought her up to work as a shopkeeper.
11 What do we find out about Dreda Chomacki?
A She was brought up away from Margaret but knew her at school.
B She grew up in the same place as Margaret.
C She lives in the exact place where Margaret was born.
D She moved to a house only fifty yards away from Margaret's.
12 Dreda Chomacki thought that Margaret was a serious girl at school because
A she didn't play with other children.
B she was determined to become rich.
C she always took so many things to school with her.
D she had an exceptional memory for facts.
13 Why was Bernard Newman invited to Margaret's school?
A He had been a spy and had written a book about them.
B He helped the pupils with their reading in a very amusing way.
C He tested the pupils on their reading and writing.
D He had written books and was a celebrity guest speaker.
14 What annoyed the other girls at school after the lecture?
A Margaret spoke herself instead of letting an older girl speak.
B Margaret did not speak how the other girls would have spoken.
C Margaret didn't seem to appreciate how amusing the lecture was.
D Margaret was discourteous towards the lecturer.
15 In looking back over her school days, Dreda finds that
A not much was written down about Margaret.
B Margaret was not referred to much at school.
C the evidence of what Margaret did at school has been hidden.
D Margaret's name has been taken off old school records.
16 Which statement best describes the young Margaret Roberts?
A She was a very different girl from all the others.
B She was slightly different in character from the other girls.
C She was a poor girl who had little potential.
D She was a serious girl who could be very amusing.
Text #25 Manya
Marie Curie's school-days.
Manya's school was an odd place and she learned odd things: how, for instance, to do what you are forbidden to do; how to hide your disobedience quickly; how to seem to be doing what you are not; how to fool government inspectors.
One day her class of twenty-five were having a delicious history lesson - a much more delicious history lesson than other children have ever had because it was a forbidden lesson. All the twenty-five and their teacher knew it was forbidden.
There they sat, the twelve-year-olds. Their ears were all stretched, left ear listening hard for every word of history, right ear quick to catch the first tinkle of a certain door bell. Teacher and pupils were waiting, working, waiting to be caught!
Manya was in the middle of answering a question. On this occasion she was telling what she had learned of the Polish king, Stanislas Auguste.
'He was a clever and highly educated king, a friend of poets and artists. He understood the causes of Poland's weakness and tried to make her strong, but alas, he had no courage ...' Even Manya knew that a king should have courage and her voice was full of fierce regret, the fierce regret of a twelve-year-old who understood quite a lot. Tang—, tang—, ting, ting. Everybody shivered once. Everybody moved quickly. Their teacher piled up her Polish books, every child piled up her exercise books and her Polish history books. The five whose duty it was gathered all the books into their aprons and carried them quickly to the boarders' bedrooms. The rest got their needlework and were making exquisite buttonholes in cotton squares as if they had never done anything else.
The inspector came in accompanied by the unhappy headteacher, who had not been able to prevent his walking fast, and was in a panic for fear that the warning bell, with its two long rings and two short, had not given the children time to hide their disobedience. But there was no sign of anything but needlework.
The inspector sat down heavily. In silence, he looked at the children through his glasses and glanced swiftly at the book the teacher had laid open on the desk with a bored air.
'You were reading aloud while they worked?' he asked. 'What's the book?'
'Krylov's Fairy Tales. We have just begun it today.'
The inspector knew that Russian book well and sincerely approved of it. He was very well satisfied with what he saw and felt that he was making a real success of his department.
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