TYPES OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES



1. Inrealconditionals theindicative & the imperative moods are used.

a) Type 0 is used for permanentsituations & laws of nature.

If you heat ice, it melts.

b) Type 1 is used for realsituations in the present or future.

If the weather is fine tonight, we will go for a walk.

↑                   ↑

Indicative                Indicative

If the weather is fine tonight, go for a walk.

        ↑                ↑

Indicative       Imperative

2. Inunrealconditionals subjunctive II & the conditional mood are used

a)Type 2 is used for unrealsituations in the present or future

If the weather were fine, we would go for a walk.

b)Type 3 is used for unrealsituations in the past:

If the weather had been fine, we would have gone for a walk.

↑                 ↑

Subjunctive II        Conditional mood

Mixed Types:

1. We talk about a permanent state or a general characteristic in the subordinate clause and a past action resulting from it in the main.

If she liked the outdoors, we would have come for a walk with us.

↑                           ↑

Present Subjunctive II  Past Conditional mood

2. We talk about a past action in the subordinate clause and a result of that action in the main.

If you had spent an hour outdoors, you would feel much better now.

↑                              ↑

Past Subjunctive II    Present Conditional mood

3. We mention a real condition in the subordinate clause and express a polite request, advice or suggestion in the main.

If you are going shopping, could you buy some bread for me?

Implied Conditionals(without an 'if-clause’)

1. Real situations:

Tell him the truth. If not, everything will become still worse.

2. Unreal present-time situations:

In your place I would tell him the truth.

3. Unreal past-time situations: She told him the truth.

Otherwise everything would have becomestill worse.

Modal Verbs in Patterns with Oblique Moods

Could/ might

a)to express a request, a suggestion or possibility.

If we do our best, we might succeed. (possibility)

b)to express unreal ability or opportunity

If I could drive a car I would drive to work. (unreal ability, SII)

If he hadn’t stopped, there could/ might have been an accident. (unreal opportunity, Conditional mood)

2. Shouldin conditionals type I

a)in the main clause to express advice

If you keep forgetting things, you should keep a record of them.

b)In the subordinate clause to express a problematic action

If she should come, give her this book. (Якщо він раптом прийде)

Should he come, give her the book. I’ll stay in case he should come.

Compare:

- If you shouldneed my help, this address will always find me. =  У випадку, якщо знадобиться моя допомога, ти завжди знайдеш мене за цією адресою.

- Write down my address in case you should need my help. = Запиши мою адресу на випадок, якщо знадобиться моя допомога.

c)In ‘that-clauses’ to add emotional colouring to the statement. The perfect infinitive is used for actions which preceded those of the main clause. When we leave out emotional ‘should’, we use the Indicative m-d, not Subjunctive I.

I am concerned that she should think (thinks) I stole the money.

It’s amazing that she should have said (said) nothing about the murder.

3. Were toin conditionals type II to express an unreal, imaginary action.       If he were to come now, I wouldn’t even talk to him.     

              (Якби він зараз раптом прийшов, я б навіть ….)

Would

a)in type 1 & 2 conditionals to express willingness and request

I would be most grateful if you would send me the information.

b)in wish-sentences  to express wish for a future change unlikely to happen or request

I wish people wouldn’t through litter on the beach.

5. Have to –to express imaginary necessity or absence of necessity

I wish I didn’t have to (SII) do so much homework. If I didn’t have to do so much homework, I’d go out more. (If I hadn’t to do ...)         

If I didn’t have a computer, I would have to use the library. (CM)

Ex.1Translate the sentences and analyse them.

1. Oh, if only he were different!

2. It would be nice if we could spend more time together.

3. Her suggestion that we should finish that later was quite sensible.

4. He wished Emily were with him.

5. I wouldn't have told you even if I had known.

6. He seemed unduly anxious that his uncle should make a will.

7. I might never have got to university but for you.

8. The general opinion among police officers was that the law should be tightened.  

9. It's time John told the truth about what he knows.

10. I felt as if I had plunged into something new and quite abnormal.

11. She cried mourning for her son as though he were dead.

12. I'd better go now.

13. I’d rather you stayed in this evening.

14. If he had married Laura, he would be unhappy now.

W O U L D S H O U L D

As an auxiliary verb it’s used:

1.  for future-in-the-past tenses: He said he would be driving to town later. 2. for the conditional mood: If his car weren’t broken he would give me a lift. 3.  _________   1. for future-in-the-past tenses        I said I should be driving to town later. (1st person) 2. for the conditional mood    If he gave me a lift I should go to town. (1st person) 3. for the suppositional mood It’s important that you should come in time. (all persons)

As a modal verb it’s used:

4. In type 1&2 conditionals to express a request or willingness: If you would wait a bit, I would give you a lift. (Якщо ви не проти почекати, я б вас підвіз) 5. In wish-sentences to express a wish for a future change unlikely to happen: I wish you wouldn’t smoke in the room. (Я б хотіла аби ти не курив у кімнаті.) 6.  In set-phrase - “would rather” to talk about preferences: I would rather have a walk. I would rather you had stayed there. (Я б воліла аби ти залишився там.) - “would like” to talk about wants: I would like to relax. I would like to have stayed at home. 4. for a problematic future action unlikely to happen  in adv. cl-s of a) condition:  If Ann should come I’ll be surprised.(Якщо Аня раптом прийде ) b) conces­sion:   Even if Ann should come I won’t talk to her. (Навіть якщо Аня таки прийде) c) purpose:  Stay here in case Ann should come. (на випадок, якщо Аня все ж прийде.) 5. In subject sub. clauses for emotional colouring: It is strange that he should think so. 6. Independently of the pattern for advice and criticism: You should be more careful. You shouldn’t have been driving so fast. (Тобі варто бути обережним. Не слід було їхати так швидко.

Ex.2Fill in ‘should’ or ‘would’ and explain your choice (put the number):

1. If I were you, I ……. ___ not buy this dress. It doesn’t fit you.

2. If he knew anything about it, he …. ___have told me by now.

3. I found it silly that I …. ___be seen as different from the others

4. Both sides were anxious that the agreement … be signed at once

5.  I wish you ……………. ___ turn the radio down.

6. He had his camera ready, just in case he ……………. ___see something that make a good picture.

7. It's strange that you …... __ have said that. I thought of it myself.

8. It's desirable that the issue …. ___be settled as soon as possible.  

9. You ……... __ have told me who the man was, I had no idea of it.  

10. If you ...… __ wait a bit, I would find all the information for you.

11. If you ……. ___ require anything more, please ring the bell for the attendant.

12. I wish you ……………. ___ stop treating me like a child!

13. At breakfast I told Mary that I …… ___be absent at least four days

14. I never ……………. ___ have met him but for the chance of his getting drunk one evening in my college.

15. It's curious that she …. ___ have left without saying goodbye.

16. In my reply to Miss Evans I suggested that she ……………. ___ arrive at my office.

17. She said she ……………. ___ rather die than live in the city.

18. Even if he ……………. ___ get accepted to Harvard, he won't be able to afford the tuition.

19. If you ……………. ___  phone me later I could give you all the details of the meeting.

20. Children ……………. ___  not be allowed to play in the street.

21. Will you help me if I ……. ___fall sick and not be able to work?

22. He insisted that people in plays … __talk as they talked in real life.

Ex. 3Choose the correct variant

1. I wish I ... wash the car every week.
a) hadn’t to;     b) didn't have to;    c) hadn’t.

2. If only I had seen the dentist yesterday. I ... toothache now.
a) hadn't;        b) wouldn't have had;        c) wouldn't have.

3. If she hadn’t noticed the mistake, she … the order.
a) can have lost; b) could have lost; c) could lost.

4. If you … a taxi, you will miss the train.
a) don’t take;   b) won’t take ;        c) wouldn’t take.

5. But for the rush hour we … through the city centre now.
a) would drive; b) will drive;        c) drove.

6. I would visit you this weekend if I … so busy.
a) wouldn’t be; b) weren’t;        c) wouldn’t have been.

7. Mary suggested that we … to the theatre.
a) should go;    b) went;             c) would go.

8. It’s required that the course paper … carefully typed.
a) is;                 b) be;                 c) will be.

9. If only he ... our secret to anyone.
a) not to have told; b) hadn’t told;       c) hasn’t told.

10. I would rather you …out late at night.
a) didn’t stay ; b) don’t stay;          c) won’t stay .

11. If he were a better driver, he ... his car yesterday.
a) wouldn't have crashed; b) wouldn't crashed; c) hadn’t crashed.

12. He ... consult a lawyer to avoid further problems.
a) would rather to;       b) had better;          c) would better.

13. I recommend that you … notes of the lecture carefully.
a) will make;           b) should make;  c) made.

14. I wish you … to come to my party. You were supposed to bring some DVDs.  
a) had forgotten; b) wouldn’t have forgotten ; c) hadn’t forgotten

15. If you … need to have a break, just tell me.
a) will;                         b) should;               c) would.

16. I wished we … queue at the box-office to get the tickets.
a) hadn’t had to;       b) didn't have to;    c) hadn’t to.

17. I wish you … find a job and start living on your own.
a) would;                  b) should;               c) will

18. I didn't mention it so that he ... angry about it.
a) shouldn’t get;        b) won’t get;           c) should get.

19. He’s a diabetic. It’s vital that he … anything containing sugar.
a) avoids;                  b) avoid;                c) would avoid.

20. If I … to bed late, it wouldn’t have been such an awful day.
a) hadn’t gone;          b) wouldn’t go;      c) didn’t go                                                

Ex. 4Use two to five words to express the same idea using the word in bold

1. She is very shy; that’s why she doesn’t enjoy parties.

not  If she …… so shy, she …… parties.

2. I would like you to work harder at your English.
work  I wish you … … harder at your English.

3. He doesn't know her. So he didn't speak to her.
have   If he … her, he ……… to her.

4. Ann is a secretary but she is always acting like the boss.
as       She is always acting ……… … the boss.

5. We were bored. Ann suggested going to the cinema.
that    Ann suggested ………… to the cinema.

6. You shouldn’t touch this button. It’s dangerous.
betterYou … ……… this button.

7. It’s important for her to stay calm while she’s explaining her side of the issue.
that    It’s important ………… calm while she’s explaining it.

8. I would prefer not to go out tonight.
ratherI … …… … out tonight.

9. If it starts raining, don’t go out. (I think it’s unlikely, though.)
should……… raining, don’t go out.

10. I regret not buying the dictionary.
wish    I ……… … the dictionary.

11. He is not an honest person so he didn’t tell the truth.

have      If he …an honest person he ……… the truth.

12. I would like you not to borrow my car without asking me first.

you     I would rather … …… my car without asking me first.

13. Mary suggested our arranging a farewell party.

that    Mary suggested …… … … a farewell party.

14. She missed the meeting because her car broke down.

hadn’t   She … … missed the meeting if her car …… down.

15. She behaves like a beauty queen.

If    She behaves as ……… a beauty queen.

16. I'm sorry you gave him my phone number.

wish    I …………him my phone number.

17. You should start working. It’s urgent.

better You …… … working.

18. It’s high time for her to understand these things. She is old enough for that.

she      It’s high time …… these things.

19. I would prefer to go somewhere else for a change.

ratherI … …… somewhere else for a change.

20. It is important for you to call him today.

that    It’s important……… call him today.

Ex. 5  Correct the following sentences. Find a word which shouldn’t be in the sentence or add a word which is missing. (– … / + …)

e.g.: But the bad weather we would go for a walk. (+ for)

1. Unless he is not busy, we will have a talk today.

2. I think you are wrong. You had better to ask Peter, he’ll know for sure.

3. I would rather prefer go on holiday abroad. 

4. He suggested that we would go for a walk but we refused.

5. But for the policeman I would have mugged by a man in a mask.

6. Had I known what was going to happen, I never would said yes.

7. If only I had knew how to start this car.

8. It’s time you had started earning your living.

9. I wish I had put on that silly hat. I looked awful and everybody was staring at me.

10. Even if they will ask you, please, don’t tell them my secret.

11. In your place I would taken a sick-leave when you caught a cold.

12. It’s high time you had stopped asking for my advice every time you do anything.

13. I wish my mother would have let me go to the disco tonight.

14. His mother would rather prefer he stopped smoking.

15. She is his wife but she looks as she were his mother.

16. I wish you been more attentive during the previous lesson. 

17. It’s urgent that you would write him a letter.

18. You had better to check your spelling.

19. If you will go on a diet you will lose some weight.

20. My father insisted on that I should enter this university.

Ex. 6Translate the following into English using the ap­propriate means of expressing unreality:

1. Я б хотіла, аби ти кинув курити. 2. Він вимагав, щоб йому відразу заплатили. 3. Якби не його посмішка, я нічого не запідозрила. 4. Необхідно, щоб ти взяв відпустку на місяць. 5. Я сховала газету під диванну подушку, щоб Макс не побачив її. 6. Небагато знайдеться людей, які би так спокійно віднеслись до цього. 7. Я б воліла, аби ви не турбували мене хоча б годину. 8. Будь обережна з ключем. Якщо ти раптом його загубиш, ми не зможемо відкрити сейф. 9. Час вам вже його будити. Він може спізнитись в школу. 10. Він наполягав, щоб ми зупинились в тому готелі. 11. Якби ж хоч хто-небудь повірив мені! Все могло б закінчитись інакше. 12. Раптом він відчув себе безпомічним, ніби він був малою дитиною. 13. Нам пора бы приняться за работу. 14. Якби батьки не взяли мене з собою, я б їм цього не пробачив. 15. Шкода, що ти не поїхав з нами. Нам було б весело разом. 16. Навіть якби я спробував тобі все пояснити, ти б мені не повірив. 17. На вулиці холодно. Краще вдягнись тепліше.  18. Про неї завжди говорили в третій особі, ніби її там не було. 19. Дивно що він запам’ятав такі подробиці нашої випадкової зустрічі десять років тому. 20. Він запропонував, що б ми зустрілись наступного дня на ланч.

Ex. 6Listen to Laboratory work №9 task 2a.  Follow the example and speak about a similar experience using the patterns with oblique moods.

Self-Study Assignments

1.Laboratory work №9 task 2b: Unit 25 “Focus on Grammar”.Listen to a segment of the radio talk “Wimp No More” Copy out patterns with oblique moods, practice pronouncing them and be ready to complete and analyse some of the sentences.

Make sure you understand the following phrases from the text: to own the place; to be some sort of intruder; to set foot in the house: to consider someone’s feelings; high blood pressure; a retirement center; to be worth fretting over. Find modal verbs ‘would rather’, ‘might’, ‘were to’.

2.Laboratory work №9 task 1 (a,b): Unit 25 “Focus on Grammar” (Dear Pamela, …) Listen to the monologues and Copy out sentences with oblique moods. Practice pronouncing them; be ready to complete some of the sentences.

Make sure you understand the following phrases from the text: to pay off a loan, to default, to go through the usual channels; get a bank loan; pay it back with interest; keep peace in the family; to confront Sarah; to be the straw that broke the camel's back; a blow to her self-esteem; to get some assertiveness training; to let people tell you what to do; to sign a notarized agreement; to spell out the terms of repayment; to balk at what you're saying; family squabbles; to take her to small claims court; to take advantage of you; get into a fight about it; to be a wimp.


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