Complex Sentences with Purpose Clauses



ЧЕРНІГІВСЬКИЙ НАЦІОНАЛЬНИЙ ПЕДАГОГІЧНИЙ УНIВЕРСИТЕТ

IМЕНI Т.Г.ШЕВЧЕНКА

ФІЛОЛОГIЧНИЙ ФАКУЛЬТЕТ

Кафедра педагогіки
та методики викладання іноземних мов

                      

Методичні рекомендації до змістового модулю 3 «Практичної граматики (3 семестр)» для студентів 2 курсу.

 

Subjunctive I & the Suppositional Mood

 

 

Укладач: Гайдай Н.М.

 

 

Чернiгiв – 2012

Г14 Subjunctive I & the Suppositional Mood: Методичні рекомендації для студентів 2-го курсу філологічного факультету спеціальності 6.020303 "Філологія. Мова та лiтература (англiйська)". – Чернiгiв: Чернiгiвський національний педагогiчний унiверситет iменi Т.Г. Шевченка, 2012. – 40 с.

УДК 811.111’36(076)

ББКШ143.21-9 2

 

Рецензенти:            С.Л. Бобир – кандидат пед. наук, доцент, завiдувач кафедри педагогіки та методики викладання iноземних мов;

 

Т.О. Стеченко – кандидат педагогiчних

наук, доцент кафедри педагогiки та

методики викладання iноземних мов

 

Вiдповiдальний редактор С.Л. Бобир – кандидат педагогiчних наук, доцент

 

 

Методичні рекомендації призначені для студентiв II курсу спецiальностi «Мова та лiтература (англiйська)». Він включає теоретичні пояснення щодо особливостей вживання форм, що вказують на нереальність або проблематичність дії та вправи для формування навички їх вживання в усному та писемному мовленні.

Рекомендовано до друку на засiданнi кафедри педагогiки та методики викладання iноземних мов

(Протокол № 1  вiд 10 вересня 2012 р.)

 

© Н.М. Гайдай, 2012

ПЕРЕДМОВА

Запропоновані методичні рекомендації призначено для студентів 2-го курсу філологічного факультету, що навчаються за спеціальністю «Мова та література (англійська)». Рекомендації мають на меті ознайомити студентів із особливостями вживання форм, що вказують на нереальність або проблематичність дії, запропонувати вправи для формування та вдосконалення навичок вираження нереальності в усіх видах мовленнєвої діяльності.

Теоретичні пояснення подаються щодо утворення форм вираження нереальності та структур, в яких вони вживаються. Стійкість навички формується завдяки вживанню форм дієслова умовного способу поряд з формами дійсного способу. Структури розглядаються відповідно до типу підрядних речень.

Комплекс вправ включає як одномовні так і перекладні вправи. Серед вправ домінують умовно-комунікативні та комунікативні вправи. Для формування рецептивних навичок пропонуються цитати відомих людей, що є цікавим автентичним матеріалом для вивчення. Для розвитку умінь студентів вживання умовного способу в усному мовленні запропоновані проблемні ситуації, що спонукають їх до вираження своїх думок.

Виконання вправ, запропонованих у методичних рекомендаціях, сприятиме успішному формуванню граматичної компетенції студентів. 


Subjunctive I

In old English the subjunctive mood was expressed by a special system of forms different from those of the indicative. In the course of time, however, most of them were lost. In Modern English there remain only two forms.

- ‘Were’ for all persons (past subjunctive) expresses an unreal action referring to the present or future: If only it were true!

- Subjunctive I (present subjunctive) has exactly the same form as the infinitive. It survived in certain exclamations expressing a wish or hope, very often involving supernatural powers: God bless you! Heaven help us! Long live the King!

They are fixed expressions that should be memorized.

Ex 1Which of the following expressions could you use when

- you are happy, irritated, nervous, upset, at a loss;

- you are at a birthday party, at a wedding, a school reunion party;

- somebody sneezes, goes on a trip, takes part in a competition;

- you take a decision?

Success attend you!

Manners be hanged! Hang it all! Hang the expense!

Confound your ideas/ the politics!

God bless you! God save our country!

May all your dreams come true!

May the best man win! Success attend you!

Be yours a happy marriage!

Be yours a happy journey!

Heaven help us! Heaven forbid!

Heaven be praised!

Long live peace!

So be it then. Be that as it may.

Far be it from me to (spoil the fun)

Suffice it to say (we lost)

Curse this fog! Damn it!

Cost what it may (we shall not yield).

Happen what may! Come what will (I shall not return).

Subjunctive I & Suppositional Mood

Subjunctive I verb forms are rare in present-day English. They occur in special kinds of subordinate clauses, particularly in some ‘that-clauses’. In Britain Subjunctive I is rather formal. Instead ‘should’ + infinitive (the Suppositional mood) is often used or the normal form of the verb. Americans use it more often. Subjunctive I is also used in written English.

GB:  The Opposition are insisting that the Minister should resign.

   TheOpposition are insisting that the Ministerresigns.(informal)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  

US:  The Opposition are insisting that the Minister resign.

We often use the Suppositional mood or Subjunctive I in ‘that-clauses’ to report advice, orders or suggestions, and after ‘it + be + adjective’ to talk about things that need to be:

the Suppositional Mood

It has been agreed that the company should not raise its prices.

It is important that we should win this order.

They proposed that we should sell off our subsidiary company.

It’s vital that we not allow our competitors to gain an advantage over us                  ↑

Subjunctive I

The Suppositional Mood and Subjunctive I represent an action as problematic, but not contradicting reality. They are used to report advice, requests, suggestions, etc. about things that need to be done or are desirable.

The Suppositional Mood is formed with ‘should’ for all persons and a bare infinitive: ‘Should + do / not do/ be’. Subjunctive I coincides in form with the bare infinitive: do/ not do/ be.

E.g.:  The report recommended that the land should not be sold.

The report recommended that the land not be sold.

Usage:

1.In subjectsubordinate clauses after ‘it + be + adjective’:

       important It’s necessary   that smb (should) do smth.        suggested

E.g.: It is important that she understand what her decision means. (S I)

 It is vital that the tourists should go climbing with a local guide. (SM)

The adjectives to use: important, necessary, important, urgent, desirable, essential, crucial, vital, imperative, appropriate, etc.The past participles to use in the pattern: suggested, requested, required, ordered, advised, agreed, arranged, etc.

2.In object subordinate clauses:

A Smb is   anxious        that smb (should) do smth.        was dertermined

E.g.: My parents are anxious that I should get a good education.

Our dean is determined that the philological faculty should   survive all the difficulties.

  B        requested        Smb suggested   that smb (should) do smth.        insisted

E.g.: They directed that the building be pulled down. (S I)

    We urged that the students should be told immediately. (SM)

The verbs to use in the main clause: suggest, propose, insist, demand, agree, arrange, direct, urge, advise, ask, beg, order, command, warn, recommend, instruct, request, require, stipulate.

3.In predicative subordinate clauses:

             demand Smb’s    suggestion    is/was that smb (should) do smth.        arrangement

E.g.: His request was that he take no part in the proceedings. (S I)

My only wish was that I should be let alone. (SM)

4.In attributive subordinate clauses:

  gave           a warning Smb put farward a suggestion that smb (should) do smth.

E.g.: The weather forecast gave a warning that people should be   prepared for heavy snow.

5.In adverbial clauses of purpose:

Smb does/ did smth so that   smb (should) not do smth.                               lest        smb (should) do smth.

E.g.: Write down the date so that you (should) not forget about it.

      lest  you (should) forget about it.

6.In object subordinate clauses after expressions of fear + lest:

       fears (ed)/ Smb is/was afraid lest smb (should) do smth.        worries (ed)

E.g.: I'm afraid lest I (should) fail my exams.

Ex. 1Translate the sentences into Ukrainian and analyse them.

1. The doctor insisted that the patient be placed in hospital. 2. They recommended that I should repeat this course of treatment in a year. 3. I rejected his suggestion that I spend another day in the hospital. 4. The doctor said it was urgent that I see a heart specialist. 5. It’s advisable that he try the new treatment. 6. She turned away from the window lest anyone see them. 7. They demanded that an explanation should be given at once. 8. Brown insisted that the Smiths return the money immediately. 9. He paused, afraid lest he say too much. 10. The nurse reminded about the requirement that the patient take the medicine as instructed by the doctor. 11. It was requested that the speaker should touch upon the progress in modern linguistics. 12. Their demand was that the workers should have higher wages. 13. His order was that action be taken immediately. 14. He accepted my suggestion that we should go there by boat, with enthusiasm. 15. She worried lest he should tell someone what had happened. 16. She insisted that we hire a porter to help us with our suitcases. 17. His advice that we set up camp on the bank of the river was quite sensible. 18. The doctor recommended that I should return home as soon as hot weather set in. 19. He fidgeted with a basketball, anxious that the five-minute conversation should end. 20. They suggested that we should go sightseeing on the second day of our arrival. 21. She reserved a table so that she shouldn’t have to wait in a queue. 22. We insisted that the terms be made quite clear. 23. It was recommended that the mother stay with the child in the hospital.

Ex. 2Complete the sentences. Make use of the words in brackets:

1. It's urgent that ……………….. the information now. (we/send)

2. It's essential that………………home now. (she/return)

3. It's vital that…………………. (he/be informed)

4. It’s desirable that……………. present at the meeting. (she/be)

5. It’s essential that …………. this form completely. (you/fill out)

6. It’s necessary that …………… to John. (you/ talk)

7. It’s not advisable that …………….... before you graduate from university. (you/ get married)

8. It was suggested that …………… a crash course in computers to have any prospects for the job. (John/ take)

Ex. 3We would like our town to become popular with tourists. What do you think needs to be done to achieve the goal? Suggest your ideas.

E.g.: It’s important that there should be a vast range of sports and leisure facilities in our town.

Ex. 4Complete the sentences. Make use of the words in brackets:

1. Marion proposed that ………………...a gift for Jim who would soon be leaving the firm. (we/buy)

2. The travel agent recommended that …………... driving abroad during the holidays. (we/avoid)

3. I suggest that….... this matter during the meeting. (he/not raise)

4. All I ask is that……………………... the rules. (they/not break)

5. What does she advise that ………………………….. ? (he/do)

6. It's no good demanding that ………………….our performance. We're doing our best. (we/improve)

7. I would only request that ………………...good care of this flat while you're living in it. (you/take)

8. Her solicitor insisted that ... in signing the contract. (she/not/delay)

9. I suggest ... a taxi if we want to get to the meeting on time. (we/take)

10. He asks that....... to visit his children once a week. (he/be allowed)

Ex. 5Turn the following sentences into reported speech.

1. "You must help us," he said to me. (insist)

2. "Let's go to the cinema," they said to us. (suggest)

3. "I’ll pay for the damage." I said to him. “OK” he said. (agree)

4. "Try the new Greek restaurant," my friend said to us. (recommend)

5. “You must visit us,” they said to me. (insist)

6. “You ought to take the other road,” he said. (suggest)

7. “Stay in bed for a few days,” the doctor recommended.

8. “Shall we meet again next Thursday?” Roger said. (suggest)

9. “Don’t be horrible to your little sister,” his father said. (demand)

10. “You must finish the report,” she said to him. (insist)

 Ex. 6You are going to write a report to assess the new Monty’s fast-food restaurant. Read the following notes and suggest improvements.

E.g.: I recommend/ advise that different vegetarian dishes (should) be added to the menu.

1. The menu was varied but the choice of vegetarian dishes was boring. (to add different vegetarian dishes)

2. The wine tasted like vinegar. (to check quality of wines)

3. The hamburger was tasty but rather cold. (to make sure that all hot dishes are served hot)

4. The Monty’s staff were helpful but the service was rather slow. (to improve staff training)

5. The waiters were wearing jeans. (to get staff a proper uniform)

6. It was a bit noisy and smoky. (to start a no-smoking policy)

7. It was too expensive for a fast-food restaurant. (to lower the prices)

                   Modal verb expressing advice                                   ↓ Compare: Tom, you should find a job.  It is important that you should find a job. ↑                                     Suppositional mood (only in sub-te clauses)

Ex. 7 Read this page of advice from a travel guide and complete the sentences with ‘that-clauses’. Add your own ideas about Ukraine.

TRAVEL TIPS

E.g.: (A driver must keep to the right-hand side of the road.) In the United States and many European countries, it is essential that a driver (should) keep to the right-hand side of the road.

1. (Drivers have to stay on the left side of the road.)

In Japan and England, however, it is mandatory ………………

2. (People should remove their shoes before going inside a house.)

In some places, such as Japan and Saudi Arabia, it is important

3. (People should keep their shoes on.)

In other places, it is expected …………………………………    

4. (People must not eat pork products.)

In some places, religious laws demand ………………………

5. (A sick person should be treated with modern medicine.)
In some places, doctors recommend   ………………………

6. (A sick person should use herbal remedies.)
In other places, they advise     ………………………………

7. (A waiter should be summoned by whistling.)

In some places, it is suggested …………………………………

8. (A waiter must not be summoned by whistling.)

In other places, it is important ……........................................... because this would be considered exceedingly rude.

9. (A traveler ought to learn about customs in various places.)

Logic suggests …………………………………………….….

Ex. 8Paraphrase the sentences as in the example:

a) E.g.: He suggested that we should do it ourselves. (object cl.)

His suggestion was that we should do it ourselves. (predicative cl.)

He put forward a suggestion that we should do it ourselves. (attributive)

1. I demanded that they should show me the letter.

2. They suggested that the consultation should take place on Sunday.

3. She ruled that the children should always come in time.

4. We have arranged that the swimming pool should be reserved for younger children on Sunday mornings.

5. Mother ordered that my light should be out at ten o’clock.

b) E.g.: I’ll explain it to her again or she will make mistakes. – I’ll explain it to her again so that she shouldn’t make mistakes.

I’ll explain it to her again lest she should make mistakes. (adverbial clause of purpose)

1. I told her about it or she would’ve heard it from somebody else.

2. I’ll stay with him for a day or two otherwise he’ll feel lonely.

3. They gave me a lift in their car or I would’ve missed the train.

4. I’ll speak very slowly or they will misunderstand me.

5. I’ll mark the place in the book or you’ll waste time looking for it.

c) E.g.: He was afraid that the nurse might hear them talking. –

He was afraid lest the nurse should hear them talking. (object)

1. He was afraid he might miss her in the crowd.

2. She was overcome with fear that I might let her down.

3. He feared that his landlord would betray him to the Germans.

4.  I worried that he might be afraid to play in public again.

5. I’m sure he’ll come, but I’m afraid that it will be too late.

Ex. 9Complete the sentences and state the type the subordinate clause which you add.

1. It is advisable that ……………………………….……………..

2. Her first suggestion was that …………………………………...

3. I can arrange that …………………………………….…………

4. What do you think of our plan that …………………….……..

5. I think it’s a good arrangement that …………………………....

6. Nobody demands that ………………………………………..…

7. She had only one wish that……………………………………..

8. I’ll give them some sandwiches so that ………………………..

9. The general rule is that …………………………………………

10. I’ll write down her address and telephone number lest ………

11. I say it again so that ……………………………………………

12.  No one objected to her demand that …………………………..

Ex. 10Say it in English and analyse the sentences:

1. Важливо, щоб ви вжили усіх заходів безпеки.

2. Я запропонував , щоб Містер Кларк почав шукати нову роботу.

3. Я думаю, дуже важливо, щоб всі розуміли необхідність запропонованих заходів. (measures)

4. Її пропозиція була , щоб діти залишились на цей час з нянею.

5. Всім сподобалась його ідея , щоб ми приєднались до експедиції.

6. Не сперечайтеся, щоб потім не жалкувати.

7. Вони запропонували, щоб він переїхав до їх офісу в Лондоні.

8. Моя порада, щоб ви уникали їздити через центр міста.

9. Страйкуючі висунули вимогу, щоб їхні претензії були розглянуті правлінням заводу.

10. Необхідно, щоб ви віднеслися до цього з належною увагою.

11. Прибери цей камінь з дороги, щоб хто-небудь не перечепився.

12. Хто наполягає на тому, щоб це було зроблено сьогодні?

13. Чи це дійсно так необхідно, щоб їх покарали?

14. Вона ніколи не приймає снодійне, щоб не звикнути до нього.

15. Лікар рекомендував, щоб його пацієнти не купували без рецептурні (non-prescriрtion) ліки не порадившись з ним.

16. Було запропоновано, щоб меморандум був підписаний напередодні зустрічі у верхах.

Ex. 11 Students from several universities are coming to take part at the student’s conference. Work out your suggestions about how to arrange things for them: accommodation, meals, leisure time and so on.

Useful grammar for discussing it in groups: Let’s do …; Why don’t we do…; How about doing …; We could also do …; Shall we …?

Useful grammar for reporting your ideas: We suggest that …; Our idea is that …; I hope, everybody will support our suggestion that …; We think it’s important that …; … so that our guests shouldn’t …; So we agreed that…; It’s better that …, and so on.

Compare: Він просить мене допомогтипідготувати доповідь. Він просить, щоб я допомогла підготувати доповідь.

Ex. 12Paraphrase using the suppositional mood.

E.g.: She advised us to keep the gate locked. –

She advised that we should keep the gate locked.

They agreed to repair the roof. –

They agreed that the roof should be repaired.

1. He arranged for me to go abroad.

2. He is anxious for the classes to start at once.

3. It won’t be necessary for him to report to the police.

4. It is only fair for him to have a chance.

5. It is only right for her to have a share.

6. He suggested drawing up a petition.

7. They arranged for the minister to be met at the airport.

8. She was determined to make him study music.

9. He ordered the goods to be sent by air.

10. It is advisable for everyone to have a map.

11. He suggested our trying homeopathic remedies.

12. It is better for him to hear it from you.

13. They stipulated for the best materials to be used.

14. It is essential for him to be prepared for this.

15. Why was she so anxious for me to stay?

Ex. 13Read the answer from an advice columnist. Then complete five sentences with subjunctive I that restate the columnist's suggestions.

To Mary in Montreal:

No one should have to put up with a dog that barks all night. First, it's essential for you to talk with your next-door neighbor. At the same time, though, it's important not to lose your temper while you're explaining your side of the issue. Ask your neighbor to bring the dog in at night. Stay calm. If she refuses, insist on her getting rid of the animal. If she doesn't do something about the problem, I'd recommend calling the animal control bureau.                                                              Pamela

1. It is essential that Mary …

2. It is important that Mary …while she’s explaining her side of the issue.

3. Mary should ask that her neighbor …

4. If she refuses, Mary should insist that she …

5. The columnist recommends that Mary … if her neighbor doesn't do something about the problem.

Ex. 14 Choose the correct answers to complete the letter to the advice columnist and the columnist’s response.

a) Dear Pamela,

Two months ago, I lent a friend some of my old essays, and now I 

(hope/wish) I hadn't. A few weeks later, I was horrified to learn that he had retyped one of my essays and handed it in to his teacher. When I demanded that he … (tell / tells) the teacher the truth, he acted … (as though / if only) he'd done nothing wrong. Now I'm afraid that, if the teacher … (finds / find) out he cheated, I'll be blamed. … (What if / If so) I get kicked out of school? … Had I … (know/ known) that my friend was so dishonest, I wouldn't have let him borrow my essays. I really wish he … (will / would) tell the teacher the truth, but I don't think he will. I'm really upset about this situation, but I do … (hope / wish) we can remain friends. What should I do?

Distressed

Dear Distressed,

I don't know what the rules at your school are, but I suggest that you …….… (speak / will speak) with an advisor. If another student ………… (has done / will do) something wrong, you probably won't be blamed for it. And if I … (was/were) you, I'd drop that friend. ………. (If not /What if) he tried to take advantage of you again?

Pamela

 

b) Dear Pamela,

My sister and I are close, even though we live in different cities. The problem is, whenever she and her family come to visit, they never give me any notice. I really ….. (hope/wish) they wouldn't do this. Just three weeks ago, she and her family dropped by unexpectedly and stayed for six days. …. (Have/Had) I known they were going to show up, I ……….… (will have / would have had) time to clean the house and prepare some food. I ended up running around like crazy trying to get organized. Should I say something to her? If I …….. (was / were) to tell her that her unexpected visits cause me stress, she might … (feel / have felt) insulted. I really hope you (can / could) help me with this problem.

Stressed Out

 

Dear Stressed Out,

Honey, it's time you …….… (tell/told) your sister your true feelings. You don't have to be rude. Just say, "I'd rather you …. (called / were to call) us before you come to visit." If your sister …….. (feels/felt) insulted, it's her problem, not yours. It's essential that you ………. (learn / would learn), to say no to demands that are unreasonable. ……. (What if / Otherwise) she tried to pull the same stunt at a friend's house? In fact, the next time she and her family drop by unannounced, you might want to suggest that they ……… (check / will check) into a hotel instead.

Pamela

Ex. 15 We sometimes find ourselves in conflict with our relatives, neighbours or even close friends. Tell your group-mates about a problem you’ve got as in the examples above and ask them to give you some advice.

Ex. 16 Read the letter and correct the eight verb errors. Give advice to Helen using Subjunctive I or the Suppositional mood in that-clauses’.

December 10

Dear April,

I wanted to write and fill you in on what's been happening since I left Ponders. I finally got a job! Remember when you suggested I just went walking around, getting a sense of what Atlanta was like? A few weeks ago I was really getting worried, and I had spent almost all the money I had saved up to tide me over until I found work. I had got to the point where it was absolutely essential that I found something or just came home. So I decided to follow your advice. Had I know how easy this would be, I would have tried it in the first week I was here. I started walking around in the downtown area, and before I knew it, I saw a beautiful little florist's shop. I walked right in as if I have courage and experience and asked whether they needed anyone. Can you believe that they did? I was really happy in my job until my boss hired a new assistant manager who has been making my life miserable. He treats me as if I be his personal slave. I took this job to work with plants, not to serve him coffee. I think it's time I'm telling him where I stand.

I have a few days off for the holidays. What if I had come home as a surprise to Mom and Dad? Could we plan some kind of party? Write and let me know, OK?

Love, Helen.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Emotional ‘should’

We can use ‘should’ in ‘that-clauses’ when we talk about our own reaction to something we are reporting. In this case ‘should’ is a modal verb adding emotional colouring to the statement. The perfect infinitive is used when referring to past events which preceded the action of the main clause. Notice that when we leave out ‘should’ we use the indicative mood, not subjunctive I.

  A       concerned                                                   amazed                                                  be happening I’m disappointed that something should happen       surprised                                         have happened       upset

E.g.:   I am concerned that she should think I stole the money.           I am concerned that she thinks I stole the money.

  B amazing annoying                           be happening It is/was disappointing that something should happen ridiculous                          have happened strange

E.g.: It’s amazing that she should have said nothing about the murder.

It’s amazing that she said nothing about the murder.

Ex. 1 Fill in the correct form of the infinitive:

1. It's ridiculous that we should … (have to) wait six weeks to receive the information.

2. It’s strange that the results of the official investigation should……………………….….. (be kept) a secret for so long.

3. I was astonished that he should even ……. (think) such a thing!

4. It's strange that Linda shouldn’t even …………………... (call).

5. I was disappointed that we … (lose) though we played so well.

6. Your father is astonished that he should ………. (hear) nothing from you for two weeks.

7. She was surprised that there should (be) no one there to greet her.

8. It's annoying that you shouldn’t … (tell) us about this before.

Ex. 2 Add emotional colouring to the statements.

1. It’s ridiculous that we are short of water in a country where it is always raining.

2. It’s odd that we met in my aunt’s house.

3. I’m amazed that anyone objects to the proposal.

4. It’s very disappointing that Hugh went off like that just when I counted on him to help me.

5. I’m sorry that you had a row with Pat about it.

6. It outraged him that the man was so foolish.

7. It's not very surprising that Rose denies taking the money.

8. It's outrageous that the poor pay such high taxes.

9. It's strange that we've never met before.

Ex. 3Supply the necessary forms for the verbs given in brackets in subject subordinate clauses. Give two variants where possible:

E.g.: It’s outrageous that he should be/ is so rude with his sister.

It was important that they should make up/ make up their quarrel.

1. He had spent the first part of the night lying rigid and telling him­self how important it was that he …................. (to sleep). 2. It's wonderful that they …................. (to give) you a present. 3. It was arranged that his wife ….................  (to join) him in six months. 4. It was all wrong that someone so young ….................  (to be) so ill. 5.  She listened in silence to Mel's explanation why it was essential that he ….................  (to remain) at the airport. 6. It's not fair that the girl ….................  (to be sent) to bed so early on a day like this. 7. It had long been decided that I ….................  (to spend) a fourth year at Cambridge doing psychology. 8. It was advisable that she …................. (to continue) the treatment. 9. It was unnatural the way he ….................  (to keep) his feeling in check. 11. It was amazing that this coarse man ….................  (to be) so worried about a dog. 12. It was arranged that I ….................  (to pick) up Hudson at his flat after lunch. 13. It’s obviously necessary that an investigation ….................  (tо be made).

Ex. 4Say it in English.

1. Порадили, щоб ми відправили посилку морем. 2. Наприкінці було вирішено, что вони організують вечірку. 3. В цьому випадку суттєво, щоб він не наробив помилок. 4. Домовились, що ми зустрінемось в кафе за чашкою кави. 5. Було дивно, що вона так розсердилась через підгорілий обід. 6. Цілком природно, що вона вступила до університету. 7. Було бажано, щоб він, наслідуючи сімейні традиції, вступив до юридичної школи. 8. Дивно, що вони поводяться, як діти. 9. Важливо, щоб усі документи були підписані. 10. Я здивована, що ти ніколи не чув про ‘Rolling Stones’. 11. Чудово, що вона сама взялась за це завдання. 12. Суттєво, щоб всі знали, що вони мають робити. 13. Для успіху будь-якої фірми важливо, щоб всі партнери працювали узгоджено. (be in complete accord) 14. Це несправедливо, що декілька привілейованих (a few privileged) продовжують акумулювати багатство.

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Ex. 5 What do you find strange, amazing, annoyingor disappointing about studying at university.

Complex Sentences with Purpose Clauses

              why?       Indicative mood

                                          ↓

I must hurry up so that I will/ can catch the train.

Ann was in a hurry so that she could/ would catch the train.

Ann was in a hurry so that she wouldn’t/ shouldn’t miss the train.

                                                      Suppositional Mood

1. In present-time situations use present simple indicative or can/will + infinitive.

       has done                                   can

Smb does     smth        so that   smb will do smth

           will do

You should keep milk in a fridge so thatit stays fresh.

Advice is given so that students will choose the best courses.

Les has bought a video camera so that he can film his holiday.

2. In past-time situations use could/would + infinitive.

       had to do                                  could

Smb did     smth       so that       smb would do smth

She gave up her job so that she could take care of her mother.

I gave Sam my address so that he would contact me.

3. The suppositional mood may be used in negative sentences but the indicative mood is also possible.

Smb did smth    so that      smb shouldn’t do smth

                                      wouldn’t/ couldn’t   

He dyed his beard so that we shouldn’t recognize him.

4. The suppositional mood is always used after the conjunction ‘lest’

Smb did smth    lest    smb should do smth

He didn’t dare to leave the house lest somebody recognize him.

5. More formal constructions are formed by in order that + may/ shall or their past forms.

does                                       may/ shall

Smb did smth in order that   smb might/ should do smth

These men risk their lives in order that we may live more safely.

We carved their names on the stone so that future generations might/ should know what they had done.

6. In case-clause means “because this may/ might happen.” After the conjunction ‘in case’ the present or past simple indicative are usually used. Modal verb ‘should’ can be used to express greater improbability. The suppositional mood isn’t used here.

does                                   does

Smb did  smth in case   smb did / should do     smth

I’ll make a cake in case someone drops in at the weekend.

I carry a spare wheel in case I should have a puncture.

(Я маю в машині запасне колесо на випадок, якщо трапиться прокол шини.)

Note: Future Simple can’t be used after the conjunction ‘in case’

I always keep candles in the house in case there is power cut.

(in case there will be power cut..)

Compare: If you shouldneed my help, this address will always find me. = У випадку, якщо знадобиться моя допомога, ти завжди знайдеш мене за цією адресою.

Write down my address in case you should need my help. = Запиши мою адресу на випадок, якщо знадобиться моя допомога.

Ex. 1  a)Read the article about Mr. Roy Miller and note the use of purpose clauses. What did he do and why?

A journalist is interviewing Mr Miller, a Sheffield postman, for an article in ‘Do It Yourself’ magazine.

Journalist: Well, I'm very impressed by all the work you've done on your house, Mr Miller. How long have you been working on it?

Mr Miller: I first became interested in do-it-yourself several years ago. You see, my son Paul is disabled. He's in a wheel-chair and I just had to make alterations to the house. I couldn’t afford to pay workmen to do it. I had to learn to do it myself.

Journalist: Had you had any experi­ence of this kind of work? Did you have any practical skills?

Mr M: No. I got a few books from the library but they didn't help very much. Then I decided to go to evening classes so that I could learn basic carpentry and electrics.

Journalist: What sort of changes did you make to the house?

Mr M:  First of all, practical things to help Paul. You never really realize the problems handicapped people have until it affects your own family. Most government build­ings, for example, have steps up to the door. They don't plan buildings so that disabled people can get in and out. We used to live in a fiat, and of course, it was totally unsuit­able. Just imagine the problems a disabled person would have in your house. We needed a large house with wide corridors so that Paul could get from one room to another. We didn't have much money and we had to buy this one. It's over ninety years old and it was in a very bad state of repair.

Journalist: Where did you begin?

Mr M: The electrics. I completely re­wired the house so that Paul could reach all the switches. I had to lower the light switches and raise the power-points. I went on to do the whole house so that Paul could reach things and go where he wanted.

Journalist: What else did you do?

Mr M: By the time I'd altered every­thing for Paul, do-it-yourself had become a hobby. I really enjoyed doing things with my hands. Look, I even installed smoke-alarms.

Journalist: What was the purpose of that?

Mr M: I was very worried about fire. You see, Paul can't move very quickly. I fitted them so that we would have plenty of warning if there were a fire. I put in a complete burglar-alarm system. It took weeks. The front door opens auto­matically, and I'm going to put a device on Paul's wheelchair so that he'll be able to open and close it when he wants.

Journalist: What are you working on now?

Mr M: I've just finished the kit­chen. I've designed it so that he can reach everything. Now I'm building an extension so that Paul will have a large room on the ground floor where he can work.

Journalist: There's a Ј10,000 prize. How are you going to spend it?

Mr M: I'm hoping to start my own business so that I can convert ordinary houses for disabled peo­ple. I think I've become an expert on the subject.

b)These are some of the things that Mr Miller did. Look at the chart. In pairs ask questions with Why? /What's the pur­pose of...' and answer them.

Improvement Purpose
swing gate, swing doors widen the doors phones in every room special bathroom lower the light switches remove the steps, put in ramps Paul/ to use the handles The wheel-chair/ get through. Paul/ always get to one. Paul/ use it. Paul/ reach them. The wheel-chair/ get in and out.

c) Here are some of the things Mr Miller is going to do. Ask questions and answer them.

Improvement Purpose
a device on his wheelchair install a lift build an extension convert mini-bus with a ramp design a 'Weeper' build a workshop in the garden He/ to open and close the front door He/ to get upstairs on his own He/ have a room on the ground floor He/ to get in and out He/ call me at any time I/ have somewhere to work.

d) Imagine the problems a disabled person would have in the building of the university. What needs to be done so that a person in a wheel chair can become a student of this university? What needs to be done so that disabled people won’t feel like social outcasts?

Ex. 2 You're packing for a holiday abroad and you're talking to a friend about what you should take with you. In pairs, ask and answer questions using the prompts below, as in the example.

SA: Shall I take my raincoat?       

SB: Yes, take your raincoat in case it rains/ it should rain. (M.V.)

Take your raincoatso (that) youwon’t / shouldn’t get wet. (S.M.)

a) in case

- credit card / run out of money  

- a copy of your passport/ lose

- jumper/ be cold         

- some plasters / cut yourself   

- some medicine / catch a cold

B) so that

- a guidebook/ have information about the city

- swimsuit / go swimming

- dictionary/ communicate 

- a mobile phone/ keep in touch

Ex. 3 Combine two sentences so as to use purpose clauses. Use ‘should’ where possible.

E.g.:1. He killed the men who helped him to bury the treasure. He wanted nobody but himself to know where it was. – He killed the men who helped him to bury the treasure so that nobody but himself should/ would know where it was.

2. Put the cork back. Someone may knock the bottle over. – Put the cork back in case someone knocks/ should knock the bottle over.

1. The airfield authorities have put arc lights over the damaged runway.

2. They want repair work to continue day and night.

3. The girl packed the vase in polyester foam. She didn't want it to get broken in the post.

4. He wore a false beard. He didn't want anyone to recognize him.

5. She built a high wall round her garden. She didn't want her fruit to be stolen.

6. They talked in whispers. They didn't want me to overhear them.

7. You ought lo lake some serum with you. You may get bitten by a snake.

8. Airplanes carry parachutes. The crew can escape in case of fire.

9. I am insuring my life. I want my children to have something to live on if I am killed.

10. Please shut the gate. I don't want the cows to get out of the field.

11. He telephoned from a public call-box. He didn't want the call to be traced lo his own address.

12. I am putting nets over my strawberry plants. I don't want the birds to eat all the strawberries.

13. We keep a spade in the house. There may be a heavy fall of snow in the night.

14. We put bars on the windows. We didn't want anyone to climb in.

15. You should carry a jack in your car. You may have a puncture.

16. We built the roof with a steep slope. We wanted the snow to slide off easily.

17. The notices are written in several languages. The government wants everyone to understand them.

18. I put my address on my dog's collar. I want anyone who finds him to know where he comes from.

19. She tied a hell round her cat's neck. She wanted the birds to know when he was approaching.

20. Bring your gun with you. We may be attacked.

21. I have put wire over my chimney-pots. I don't want birds to build nests in them.

22. Write your name in the book. He may forget who lent it to him.

23. He chained up the lioness at night. He didn't want her to frighten anyone.

24. Take a torch with you. It may be dark before you get back.

25. The manufacturers have made the taps of their new gas cooker very stiff. They don't want young children to be able to turn them on.

Ex. 4Say it in English.

1. Не дозволяй дитині грати з моїми окулярами, щоб вона їх не зламала.

2. Дебати щодо освіти відклали, щоб уряд міг обговорити кризи в промисловості.

3. Якщо хтось постукає у двері вночі, не відкривай на випадок якщо це засуджений, що втік. (the escaped convict)

4. У випадку, якщо буде потрібна допомога, дзвони.

5. Поліцейській зупиняв рух що декілька хвилин, щоб перехожі могли перейти вулицю.

6. .а випадок якщо це засуджений, що втік. Не дозволяй дітям грати з сірниками, щоб вони не підпалили себе. (set themselves on fire.)

7. Коли Біл йшов лісом, він робив зарубки на деревах (marked the trees), щоб інші знали, куди він пішов. (which way he had gone)

8. Виключи плиту, щоб м’ясо не підгоріло.

9. Грабіжник перерізав дроти телефону (the telephone wires), щоб а не подзвонив в поліцію.

Ex. 4 Write a short essay about the problems of disabled people in Ukraine. Do you think a young person in a wheel-chair can get education at this university? What needs to be done so that he or she can do it? How do we need to change our attitude to disabled people? Use that-clauses with the suppositional mood and purpose clauses with the suppositional or indicative mood. (It’s necessary that we should… so that smb can /shouldn’t …)

SUMMARY

‘The Category of Mood’

The category of mood shows in what relation to reality the speaker places the action. The indicative mood is used for real actions. e.g.: I feel tired, I will go to bed. The imperative is used for orders and requests. e.g.: You are tired, go to bed. Oblique moods are used for unreal or problematic actions. e.g.: In your place I would go to bed.

OBLIQUE MOODS

The Conditional Mood is formed with should/ would + infinitive should/would do/be doing        (for present actions) should/would have done/ have been doing (past) Subjunctive II coincides in form with past tenses of the Indicative mood : were/ did/ was doing/ was done (for simultaneous actions– одночасних) had been/ had done/ had been doing/ had been done (for prior actions)
the action is unreal because of absence of necessary condition unreal actions
Usage: (only in conditionals) 1.In simple sentences of implied condition: In your place I would take a taxi. But for my friends I would have felt lonely. (Якби не мої друзі, я б почувалась самотньо.) 2.In compound sentences of implied condition:  I was busy, otherwise (or else) I would have come. (… а інакше я б прийшов.) 3.In main clauses of complex sentences with adverbial clausesof a) condition(Якби …) If I were you, 1 would buy a car. I would have bought a car if I had taken a loan. b) concession(Навіть якби Even if I had a car I wouldn’t drive to work. I wouldn’t have bought a car even if I had been given a loan. Usage: 1. In simple sentences expressing - unreal wish(Якби ж то…): If only I had more free time. - advice(Краще б ти …): You had better not go alone. - preference (Я б воліла …): I would rather stay at home now/ have      stayed at home yesterday. 2. In subordinate cl. of complex sent-s: - in subject sub. clauses (Час вже…) It's time you earned your living. - in object sub. clauses (Шкода … ) I wish you earned your living. - in predicative sub. clauses a) I would rather you didn’t go alone b) You look as if you had seen a ghost. - in adverbial clauses of a) manner/ comparison: He looked at me as if I were a ghost. b)condition: If I were you, I would buy a car. Ifthey were sleeping, we couldn’t be watching TV. If I hadn’t been busy, I would have helped you.      c) concession: Even if I had bought a car, I wouldn't drive it to work.
The Suppositional Mood (BE) Subjunctive I (American English)
is formed with should + inf. should do / not do/ be Coincides in form with the bare infinitive: do/ not do/ be

actions need to be done or are desirable, important, essential, required etc

Usage:

In subordinate clauses of complex sentences:

1. In subjectsubordinate clauses:

It's necessary that everyone (should) be present at the meeting.

Adjectives to use: important, necessary, urgent, desirable, essential, crucial, vital, imperative, appropriate, etc.

Past participles to use: suggested, requested, required, ordered, advised, agreed, arranged, etc.

2. In object subordinate clauses :

a) He feels it necessary that everyone (should) be present there.

b) My parents are anxious/ determined that I should succeed.

c) He suggested that everyone (should) be present at the meeting.

Verbs to use: suggest, propose, ask, warn, urge, order, advise, insist, demand, arrange, warn, recommend, instruct, request, require.

3. In predicative subordinate clauses :

His suggestion was that everyone (should) be present at the meeting.

4. In attributive subordinate clauses :

He put forward a suggestion that everyone (should) be present there.

5. In negative adverbial clauses of purpose:

Write down the date so that you (should) not forget about the meeting

lest you (should) forget about the meeting.

6. In object subordinate clauses introduced by conjunction lestafter expressions of fear: I'm afraid lestI (should) fail my exams.

7. Subjunctive Iis also used in set expressions: God bless you!

Don’t confuse the Suppositional mood and modal verb ‘should’

- advice:Modal verb ‘should’ doesn’t depend  on the sentence structure. The Suppositional Mood is used only in subordinate clauses:           You should (M.V.) have a rest. = Тобі варто відпочити.    It’s vital that you should have a rest (SM) = Важливо, щоб ти відпочив.

- emotional ‘should’:Use modal verb ‘should’ in ‘that-clauses’ to add emotional colouring and the S. M. for actions which need to be done.

It’s outrageous that they should (MV) be late. = Це обурює, що вони ….

It’s important that they should be (SM) in time. = Важливо, щоб вони були


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