Modern tasksof Cell engineeringin Veterinary Medicineand Animal Husbandry
Periods of developmentof Biotechnology.Classicaland modern Biotechnology
The history of the development of biotechnology is conditionally divided into five main periods:
1). Pre-Pastoral period (before 1865). During this period, beer, wine, cheese, bread, yogurt, kefir, various kinds of fermented food were received by biotechnological methods;
2). Pasteur period (1865-1940 gg.). Microorganisms-producers became known, and this allowed the creation of ethanol, butanol, acetone, glycerol, citric acid, many vaccines, to organize the biological treatment of effluents by aerobic
3). Period of antibiotics (1940-1960). Penicillin, streptomycin and many other antibiotics were discovered, the technology of culturing animal cells and obtaining viral vaccines, the technology of biotransformation of steroid hormones;
4). Period of controlled biosynthesis (1960-1975). Technologies for the production of amino acids, microbiological protein on oil paraffins, as well as enzymes used in detergent powders have been developed; introduced into production methods for immobilizing enzymes (fixing them on carriers) to produce glucose-fructose syrups; The technology of anaerobic treatment of solid waste with biogas production has been developed; a microbiological method for obtaining polysaccharides has been discovered (starting from xanthan to increase the viscosity of the oil well solution to chewing gum); the use of microorganisms for the production of vitamins B3 and B12, as well as mycoprotein, a mycelial microscopic fungus, used as a meat substitute; scientists have learned to cultivate isolated plant cells, which initiated the biotechnological production of many valuable medicinal substances using the enormous potential of medicinal plants; the basis of biometallurgy - bacterial leaching of copper and zinc from ores - was created; and etc.;
5). The period of modern biotechnology (after 1975). Characterized by the development of genetic engineering, which allowed the development of a microbiological technology for the production of human insulin, interferon, somatotropic and growth hormones and much more; a hybrid technology for the production of monoclonal antibodies has been created - a powerful "tool" in the development of a huge variety of diagnostic drugs; appeared, the so-called "transgenic" plants and animals, in which the purposeful design of the genome was carried out; and etc.
Definition of classical and modern biotechnologyAs the development of biotechnology, various definitions of the term appeared. Moreover, until today there is no clear, comprehensive definition of science "biotechnology". The most successful, in our opinion, is the definition of Academician VS Shevelukha. He considers biotechnology, as a science, in two temporal and essential dimensions: modern and traditional; classical. The newest biotechnology, as defined by the academician, is the science of genetically engineered and cellular methods and technologies for the creation and use of genetically transformed (modified) plants, animals and microorganisms for the purpose of intensifying production and obtaining new types of products for various purposes. In the traditional, classical sense of biotechnology, he defines as a science about the methods and technologies of production, transportation, storage and processing of agricultural and other products using conventional, non-transgenic (natural and selection) plants, animals and microorganisms, in natural and artificial conditions.
Modern problemsof Geneticengineering inthe field of Veterinary Medicineand Animal Husbandry
Genetic and cellular engineering are the most important methods underpinning modern biotechnology. Methods for Cell Engineering focused on construction of a new cell type. They can be used to reconstruct viable cells from the individual fragments of different cells, to combine whole cells belonging to different species with the formation of cells carrying the genetic material of both the original cells, and other operations. Genetic engineering methods are aimed at design of new combinations of genes that do not existing in nature. As a result of genetic engineering techniques recombinant (modified) RNA and DNA can be obtained. After a certain manipulation of these genes by introducing them to other organisms (bacteria, yeast and mammals), which having received the new gene (s) will be able to synthesize the final products with the changed, desired properties. In other words, genetic engineering makes it possible to obtain transgenic plants and animals.
People have always thought about how to learn to control nature, and searched for ways to get, for example, plants with improved properties: a high yield, a large and delicious fruit, or with increased cold tolerance. Since ancient times, the main method used for this purpose was selection. It is widely used to date, and it is aimed at creating new and improving existing varieties of cultivated plants and breeds of domestic animals, strains of microorganisms with valuable features and properties for a man. Breeding is based on the selection of animals (plants) with distinct symptoms and further favorable crossing of such organisms, whereas genetic engineering allows direct intervene in the genetic apparatus of cells. It is important to note that during the traditional breeding for obtain hybrids with the desired combination of useful features is very difficult because very large fragments of the genome of each parent are transmitted to the offspring, whereas the genetic engineering techniques allow to work more often with one or several genes. As a result, one or more of the useful features that is very valuable for the creation of new varieties and new forms of plants can be added, without losing other useful properties of plants. It became possible to modify in plants, for example, their resistance to climate and stress, or susceptibility to insects or disease widespread in some regions, drought, etc. There is considerable research to improve the nutritional value of various crops such as corn, soybeans, potatoes, tomatoes, peas, etc. Historically, "three waves" in the creation of genetically modified plants were distinguished. The first wave (late 1980s) is the creation of plants with novel properties of resistance to viruses, parasites, or herbicides. In plants of the "first wave" only one additional gene was introduced, and it was forced to "work" that is, to synthesize an additional protein. "Good" genes "were taken" from plant viruses (for the formation of resistance to this virus) or from soil bacteria (to form a resistance to insects, herbicides). The second wave (early 2000s) is the creation of plants with new consumer properties: oilseeds with a high content of reformulated oils, fruits and vegetables with high content of vitamins, more nutritious grains, etc. Today, scientists create plants of "third wave", which in the next few years appear on the market. They are plant vaccines, plant bioreactors for the production of industrial products (components for various types of plastics, dyes, industrial oils, etc.), plant –factory for medicines, etc.
Genetic engineering in livestock have another problem. Technology which is achievable at the present level is the creation of transgenic animals with a specific target gene. For example, transgenic goats, by the introduction of corresponding gene can produce a specific protein - factor VIII, which prevents bleeding in patients with hemophilia, or an enzyme - trombokinasa that promotes resorption of the thrombus in blood vessels, which is important for the prevention and treatment of thrombosis in humans.
Transgenic animals produce these proteins are much faster and much cheaper than the very method of the traditional.
Modern tasksof Cell engineeringin Veterinary Medicineand Animal Husbandry
· production and application of cell cultures of animals, humans, plants and bacteria for the cultivation of viruses for the purpose of creating vaccines, serums, diagnostic preparations.
· Culturing cell cultures to produce biologically active substances.
· production of monoclonal antibodies (hybridomas) for use in medicine and veterinary medicine.
· genetically engineered manipulations with cells to obtain new forms, new cell cultures, biologics, etc.
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