Try to analyse the advantages and disadvantages of the advertisement



The purpose of an ad is to influence you to purchase the product. If you select one brand of product over another brand of product, say a loaf of bread which you need, that's one thing. But, if you go out and purchase a product you don't need because an ad convinced you that you "had to have it", that's excessive consumption, which is wasteful.

Also, ads sometimes position a product as a status symbol - the cool thing to have - and if someone can't afford that product and buys a lesser expensive version (say, sneakers) they might beridiculed by their peers.

Робота над текстом за професійним спрямуванням: SLAVONIC TRIBES IN THE 4TH-7TH CENTURIES

        Slavonic tribes had lived in Central and Eastern Europe, to the east of the Germanic tribes during many centuries. In the 6th century they occupied vast territories stretching from the river Labe (the Slavonic name for the Elbe) to the upper reaches of the Volga and the Don, and from the Baltic Sea to the Danube and the Black Sea.

        Land cultivation had been the Slavs' main occupation from time immemorial. They also bred cattle, went hunting and gathered the honey of wild bees.

       The Slavs lived in settlements surrounded with wooden stockades, earth banks and moats. In ancient times the Slavs lived in clans united into tribes.

          As was the case with Germanic tribes, the Slavs' tribal communities were superceded by neighbours' communities. Then some of, the community members grew rich and the best land fell into the hands of the elders and military chiefs. A Slavonic military chief was called a kniaz.

        In wartime the princes and their troops seized most of the booty and grew rich. The frequent campaigns forced the ordinary members of the community to go away from their farms for many weeks at a time. As a result they grew poorer and poorer and eventually became destitute. Inside clans and tribes inequality appeared and grew more and more marked, a rich nobility began to be formed.

        By the 7th century the Slavonic tribes had divided up into three branches: the Eastern, Western and Southern Slavs. The Eastern Slavs lived to the east of the rivers Vistula and Dnestr. They were ancestors of three great fraternal peoples: the Russians, the Ukrainians and the Belarusians.

       The Western Slavs — the Czech, Polish, Polab and Pomore tribes — settled in the basins of the rivers Labe, Odre (Oder) and Vistula.

       Some of the Slavonic tribes settled in the Balkan Peninsula in the 7th century. They founded the Southern Slavonic nations: the Bulgarians, the Serbians and the Croatians.

Ex. 1. Transform as in the models:

Model 1: to suppress the revolt — the suppression of the revolt.

to occupy vast territories, to cultivate land, to found new nations, to divide riches.

Model 2: members of the community — the community members

the division of tribes, the basins of rivers, the reaches of the Volga.

Ex.2. Match English and Russian equivalents.

1. during many centuries          а. захватить большую часть добычи

2. main occupation                       g. разводить скот   

3. from time immemorial         b. с незапамятных времен

4. frequent campaigns               с. становиться обездоленньм

5. to breed cattle                       d. попасть в руки кого-л.

6. to become destitute              е. в течение многих столетий

7. to fall into the hands             f. главное занятие of smb.

8. to seize most of the booty    h. частые походы

Ex- 3. Choose the right word or word-combination.

1. Slavonic tribes lived to the ... of the Germanic tribes,
a) south b) north c) east

2. ... had been the Slavs' main occupation from time
immemorial.

a) land cultivation b) fishing c) hunting

3. The frequent campaigns forced the ... to go away from their
farms.

a) elders b) military chiefs c) ordinary members of the community.

4. By the 7th century the Slavonic tribes had ... up into three
branches.

a) settled b) divided c) lived

Ex. 4. Complete the sentences.

1. Slavonic tribes had lived in Central and Eastern Europe during ... . 2. Land cultivation had been the Slavs' ... . 3. The Slavs lived in settlements surrounded with ... . 4. The best* land fell into the hands of .... 5. In wartime the princes and their troops seized .... 6. The frequent campaigns forced the ordinary members of the community to .... 7. The Eastern Slavs were ancestors of ... .

Ex.5. Insert the right words:

(went, gathered, bred, was called, lived, appeared, seized, settled)

1. The Slavs ... cattle, ... hunting and ... the honey of wild bees. 2. In wartime the princes and their troops ... most of the booty and grew rich. 3. A Slavonic military chief ... a kniaz 4. The Eastern Slavs ... to the east of the river Dnestr. 5. The Western Slavs ... in the basins of the rivers Labe, Odre and Vistula. 6. Inside clans and tribes inequality ... and grew more and more marked.

Ex. 8. Answer the questions on the text.

1. Where had Slavonic tribes lived during many centuries?

2. They occupied vast territories in the 6th century, didn't they?

3. What was their main occupation? 4. Did they live in clans? 5. Who seized most of the booty during wartime? 6. Why did the ordinary members of the community have to go away from their farms? 7. By the 7th century the Slavonic tribes had divided up into three branches, hadn't they?


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