Unit 5. KINDS OF LAW IN THE UNITED STATES



Text: KINDS OF LAW IN THE UNITED STATES

                                                 Key vocabulary

separate -отдельный; обособленный

similar - подобный ; похожий, сходный

marriage -брак, супружество

divorce -развод, расторжение брака

sovereign -суверенный, независимый

county –округ (административно-территориальная единица в США)

enact -предписывать, определять, устанавливать

representative -представитель

case -дело

statutory -установленный, предписанный (законом)

supreme -верховный; высший, главный, старший

void -ничтожный; не имеющий юридической силы

interpreter -лицо или орган, толкующие норму права

allocate -назначать; распределять

There are 51 basic legal systems in the United States: the federal system and a separate system in each of the 50 states. Although these systems are mainly similar, they also have important differences. For example, laws governing marriage and divorce are not the same in all states. The differences among legal systems exist because each of the original 13 states was previously sovereign (independent).

The US law consists of the following;

1. The constitutions of the United States and of the 50 states, and charters or constitutions for cities or counties.

2. The statutes enacted by elected representatives.

3. Administrative law.

4. Case law, as expressed in court decisions.

These four types of laws — constitutional, statutory, administrative, and case — are each created by federal and state governments. Local governments generally create only statutory and administrative laws.

1. Constitutional Law

Constitutions are the supreme sources of law. The federal Constitution of the USA is said to be «the supreme law of the land». This means that any state law — including a part of a state constitution - is void to the extent that it conflicts with the federal Constitution.

The Supreme Court of the United States is the final interpreter of the federal Constitution and each state Supreme Court is the final authority on the meaning of its state constitution.

The federal and state constitutions allocate powers:

1. Between the people and their governments.

2. Between state governments and the federal go­vernment.

3. Among the branches of the governments.

Задание № 1. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующим словам и словосочетаниям:

 1…были изначально суверенными… 2…например… 3…федеральное правительство 4…Федеральная Конституция… 5…административное право 6…источники права…

7…важные различия… 8…брак и развод… 9 Хотя… 10…эти системы…

 

Задание № 2. Перескажите текст, используя слова и словосочетания, приведенные в Key vocabulary

 

Unit 6. HOW CAN DISPUTES BE RESOLVED PRIVATELY?

Text: HOW CAN DISPUTES BE RESOLVED PRIVATELY?

                                         Key vocabulary

litigate - судиться (с кем-л.)

dispute - спор

injure- причинять вред, нарушать права

agreement – согласие

mutually - взаимно; обоюдно

plaintiff – истец

adjuster – оценщик

third party – третья сторона

mediator – посредник

arbitrator - третейский судья, арбитр

avoid– избегать

Many persons decide too quickly to litigate their disputes — to take their disputes to court. When someone injures another person or fails to keep a binding agreement, he usually first tries to settle the matter by direct negotiation. The injured party should discuss the problem with the wrongdoer as calmly as possible. The two of them can often reach a mutually acceptable solution. If there has been an automobile accident and the prospective defendant is injured, the insurance company will sometimes send an insurance adjuster to the injured prospective plaintiff. The adjuster tries to learn the facts about the accident and may suggest a mutually acceptable settlement.

In some cases, an independent third party may be called in to act as mediator (also known as a conciliator арбитр, мировой посредник). The mediator talks to both parties and tries to develop a solution acceptable to both parties.

In other cases, an independent third party known as an arbitrator may be brought in by agreement of the parties. Sometimes original agreement between the parties has a provision for arbitration of disputes. The arbitrator's decision, unlike that of a mediator, is binding on both parties. By using negotiation, mediation, or arbitration, the disputing parties may avoid the heavy costs and delays and difficulties of litigation (court trial). Moreover, the arbitrator's decision (award) can be enforced by court order if necessary.

When no provision has been made for arbitration, and if the parties cannot reach an agreement by any other method, either party may go to court. However, courts generally treat the decisions of arbitrators as final; the matter cannot be reheard by a trial court.

Задание № 1. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующим словам и словосочетаниям:

1…не может быть вновь заслушано… 2.. если необходимо… 3…используя переговоры… 4…между сторонами… 5…вначале пытается… 6…страховая компания 7…приемлемое решение…

Задание № 2. Перескажите текст, используя слова и словосочетания, приведенные в Key vocabulary

Unit 7. PROCEDURAL LAW

Text: PROCEDURAL LAW

                                           Key vocabulary

procedure – судопроизводство

procedural law — процессуальное право

specify - указывать

substantive law - материальное право

enforcement - правоприменение

define - определять, давать определение

offense – правонарушение

violation – нарушение

patrol- патруль

imprison – заключать в тюрьму

state attorney – атторней штата

trial- судебный процесс

concern - касаться

primarily – первоначально

matter – дело

Procedural law deals with methods of enforcing legal rights and duties. Laws, which specify how and when police can make arrests and what procedures can be used in a trial, are procedural laws. In contrast, substantive lawdefines rights and duties; it is concerned with all rules of conduct except those involved in enforcement.

There are two types of procedural law — civil procedureand criminal procedure.Criminal procedure defines the process for enforcing the law when someone is charged with a crime. A crime is an offense against society, as well as a violation of the rights of the victim. Because a crime is an offense against society, representatives of society such as city police, the state highway patrol, or FBI agents investigate the alleged criminal conduct and try to arrest and imprison those who commit criminal acts. Other representatives of society - city prosecutors, state attorneys general, or U.S. attorneys try to convict the alleged offender during a criminal trial. The law of criminal procedure controls each of these activities.

Civil procedure is used when a civil law has been, violated. Civil law is concerned only with private offenses. These are offenses against a particular person who has been injured. When a civil law is violated, the injured party uses civil procedure to protect his or her rights, primarily through a civil trial. Since civil matters involve a private offense, police and public prosecutors generally do not involve themselves in the dispute.

One act may be both a crime and a civil offense. That is, one act may violate the criminal laws and at the same time violate the civil laws by causing a private injury.

 

Задание № 1. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующим словам и словосочетаниям:

1…в тоже время … 2 …гражданская процедура … 3 …гражданские дела … 4 …контролирует … 5 …представители общества … 6 …агенты … 7 …против общества … 8 …способы … 9 …производить аресты … 10 …в противоположность …11 …обязанности …

Задание № 2. Перескажите текст, используя слова и словосочетания, приведенные в Key vocabulary

                                       


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