Задание № 2. Перескажите текст, используя слова и словосочетания, приведенные в Key vocabulary



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CONTENTS

Page

Unit 1. HISTORY OF THE LAW………………………………………………………………4

Unit 2. LAW IN ANCIENT GREECE AND ROME ……………………………………….7

Unit 3. HOW DID THE BRITISH LAW DEVELOP? …………………………………………..10

Unit 4. THE MAGNA CARTA ……………………………………………………………....13

Unit 5.  KINDS OF LAW IN THE UNITED STATES ……………………………………..15

Unit 6. HOW CAN DISPUTES BE RESOLVED PRIVATELY ? ……………………….....18

Unit 7. PROCEDURAL LAW..................................................................................................20

Unit 8. HOW ARE DAMAGES  MEASURED ? ………………………………………………........22

Unit 9. WHAT IS THE PROCEDURE IN A CIVIL ACTION ? ………………………........25

Unit 10. HOW IS A CRIMINAL CASE TRIED? ………………………………………….. 28

Unit 1. History of the Law

Text: History of the Law

                                                 Key vocabulary

law– закон, право

adopt – принимать(что-л. официально)

protect – защищать

ancient - древний; старинный, старый

archive - архив (хранилище и материалы)

code - свод законов (государства) ; компендиум законов; кодекс (систематический сборник законов, относящихся к одному или нескольким разделам права) penal code— уголовный кодекс

cuneiform – клинообразный; клинопись

pillar - столб, колонна

temple - храм; церковь

archeological - археологический

 real – реальный; вещественный, имущественный

slave – раб, рабский

revenge – месть

thieve – вор

divinely – при вмешательстве божественной силы

Since the time when people first began living together, rules have been adopted to protect individuals and groups and to govern their relationships. Even the most ancient peoples compiled Law codes. A law code is a more or less systematic and comprehensive written statement of laws. The oldest law code is tablets from the ancient archives of the city of Ebla (now Tell Mardikh, Syria), which date to about 2400 B.C.

The earliest written law was also the Law Code of Hammurabi, a king who reigned over Babylon (on the territory of modern Iraq) around 2000 B.C.

Hammurabi's Code had 282 paragraphs and was carved in cuneiform on a pillar made of very hard stone. This pillar was set up in a temple to the Babylonian god Marduk so that everyone could read it.

After the fall of Babylon in the 16th century B.C. the pillar was lost for centuries. It was found again during archeological expedition among the ruins of the Persian city of Susa in 1901. Now the pillar is in Paris in the Louvre museum.

The scientists managed to read Hammurabi's Code. It dealt with many of the same subjects as our legal system today. It included real and personal property law (the rights of slave owners and slaves, inheritance and property contracts), family law (divorce and marriage), criminal law (crimes and punishment of crimes), and business law (settlement of debts and even regulations about taxes and the prices of goods).

The Code gave very harsh punishments for almost all crimes. Not only murderers but also thieves and those guilty of false accusation faced the death penalty. The punishment was based on the principle of revenge: an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth. The criminals had to receive the same injuries and damages they had inflicted upon their victims.

Nevertheless, the penalty according to Hammurabi's laws could not be harder than the crime. The code banned the tradition of kidnapping women as brides. The laws of Hammurabi's Code took into account the circumstances of the offender as well as the offence itself. For example, if a citizen of a lower rank lost in a civil case he had to pay fewer penalties than an aristocrat, though if he won he also was awarded less.

The laws set forth in Hammurabi's Code were written by the King — a divinely inspired authority. Only the King could change such laws. This absolutism of power in the monarch was typical of legal systems until the time of the Greeks around 300 B.C.

 

Задание № 1. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующим словам и словосочетаниям:

1 с того времени

2 систематический

3 осмысленный

4 прочный камень

5 экспедиция

6 учёные

7 уголовное право

8 месть

9 суровые наказания

10 убийцы

11 травмы

12 налоги

13 абсолютизм

 

Задание № 2. Перескажите текст, используя слова и словосочетания, приведенные в Key vocabulary

 

Unit 2. LAW IN ANCIENT GREECE AND ROME

Text: LAW IN ANCIENT GREECE AND ROME

                                              Key vocabulary

monarch – монарх, монархия

emphasize –придавать особое значение; подчёркивать, акцентировать

total –весь, целый; общий, совокупный, суммарный

prosperity –преуспевание, процветание

trivial –банальный, обычный, тривиальный

 Athens -Афины (столица Греции)

draconian -драконовский, суровый, жестокий

repressive – репрессивный; подавляющий

repeal- аннулировать, отменять

retain - держать; удерживать, аккумулировать, вмещать

homicide – убийство

statute – закон, законодательный акт парламента; статут

revise – проверять; исправлять

humane– гуманный, человечный

enslave – порабощать, делать рабом

ideal– идеал, образец, верх совершенства

sophisticated - изощрённый, лишённый простоты, естественности, наивности;

      

The absolutism of power in the monarch was typical of legal systems until the time of the Greeks around 300 B.C. Before the Greeks people believed that their laws were given to them by gods, represented by their kings. The Greek system emphasized that law was made by man, for man, and could be changed by man. Instead of being an instrument of total social control of the whole population by a monarch, the law was to serve peace and prosperity of the people.

In the year of 621 B.C., Draco, Athenian lawgiver, drew up Greece's first written code of laws. This harsh legal code punished both trivial and serious crimes in Athens with death. The word draconian (6eзжалостный) is still used to describe repressive legal measures.

In 594 B.C. Solon, Athens' lawgiver, repealed Draco's code and published new laws, retaining only Draco's homicide statutes. He revised every statute except that on homicide and made Athenian law more humane. He also retained an ancient Greek tradition — trial by jury. Enslaving debtors was prohibited, along with most of the harsh punishments of Draco's code. Under Solon's law citizens of Athens could be elected to the assembly and courts were established in which citizens could appeal against government decisions.

The Greek ideals were carried over into the Roman system of laws. The Greeks have contributed to the Roman system of laws the concept of «natural law». Actually, natural law was based on the idea that certain basic principles are above the laws of a nation. These principles arise from the nature of people.

As the Roman Empire increased, a set of laws was codified to handle the more sophisticated legal questions of the day. This was done under the sponsorship of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I (from AD 529 to 565). This collection of laws and legal interpretations was called Corpus Juris Civilis («Body of Civil Law») and also theJustinian Code.

French Emperor Napoleon made some modification of the Justinian Code at the beginning of the nineteenth century. Napoleon Code is still the model for the legal codes governing most of the modern nation-states of Europe today.

Задание № 1. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующим словам и словосочетаниям:

1 …был типичным …

2 …люди верили, что …

3 …мог быть изменен человеком…

4 …должен был служить миру и процветанию…

5 …используется, чтобы описать…

6 …принципы восходят от…

7 …в начале 19 столетия…

Задание № 2. Перескажите текст, используя слова и словосочетания, приведенные в Key vocabulary

                                         

                         


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