The importance of converted neologisms and their meaning.
Currently, English, as well as many other languages, is experiencing "neological boom." In the English language, according to R.Bёrchfilda, in an average year there are about 800 new words. This poses a problem for linguists, not only of fixation of new words, but also of their research.
Based on the classification of Louis Gilbert, on ways of creating neologisms are divided into: phonological, borrowing, semantic and syntactic (word formation, phrase).
It seems from the latter type to us appropriate to isolate the kind of morphological (word formation) neologisms, or rather neologisms formed by the conversion.
The basic model of the conversion of word formation continues to be N >V, on which a large amount of new terms emerge:
Back-stroke (Back) - to back-stroke (to retaliate);
Lesion (damage) - to lesion (cause damage);
Polygraph (lie detector) - to polygraph (lie detector check), etc.
As in previous stages of language development, the formation of nouns from verbs is currently less productive. As we know, this is due to the fact that English nouns are easily formed from verbs by affixation.
Among converted nouns the trend towards the formation of verbs with postpositions is growing (by auxiliary words, appropriate to preposition by meaning, but takes a post-positional state):
rip-off - theft (from to rip-off - steal);
the workaround (astronautics term) - workaround (from to workaround - implement workaround);
give-back - the return (from to give-back - to give, return);
buy-off - mercy (from to buy-off - to pay off), etc.
A significant number of new nouns are formed by conversion of adjectives, such as:
collectibles - items to be collecting, especially old or rare;
cool - self-control, self-restraint is often used in phrases to lose one's cool, to keep one's cool.
Formation of nouns from adjectives ending in –ic is especially productive, for example: acrylic, transuranic, tricyclic. This model is widely used in medicine: autistic, astigmatic, geriatric. All these units are formed by analogy with such well-known ones, as alcoholic, fanatic, critic.
As for affixed and difficult neologisms, for new structures a tendency to be converted to a multi-component structures is a main characteristic. Thus, nouns can be formed from the verb phrases, such as: work-to-rule (from to work, to rule) - demonstration of the workers with the requirements to comply with all points of the employment contract.
A similar trend was observed among multi-component converted new adjectives: cents-off reduction (on the price) (limited to the use of the US version).
The dictionary Barnhart accounts the unique model of adjectives formed from prefixes and half-prefixes. For example: hyper - excited, emotional; maxi - something big.
The converted verb R.S.V.P. (reply to an invitation), formed from the reduction R.S.V.P. (the initials of the French phrase Repondez, s'il vous plait. - Please answer.), used at the end of the letter of invitation is a unique one.
It is also a growing trend towards the formation of the converted units from truncation: to frag – to kill by the method of dismemberment; to psych; the phrase to psych out. This verb is set to "suppress psychologically", in the phrase to psych up – “stimulate, excite”.
A conversion in linguistics is called as the method of word formation, in which from one part of speech emerges another without any changes in the external form of the word. The process of formation of new words is more typical for the English language due to its analytical system.
It is also important to note that the conversion phenomenon came to the attention of scientists in relatively early times, but the issue is still not explored to the fullest. Great contribution to the study of the phenomenon of the conversion was made by such scholars-linguists as G. Sweet, I.A. Smirnitsky, O.S. Akhmanova, P.M. Vogel et al.
The debate of linguists on the topic of conversion belonging to a process of word formation does not cease to this day. But despite the differences in views on the essence of the phenomenon of conversion, researchers still agree in one issue - models, types and features of functioning of the conversion, the essence of which is presented in this paper.
In general, in the course of my investigation, I: 1) defined conversion as one of the most productive ways of forming new words in modern English; 2) discussed the history of conversions; 3) revealed different conversion types: substantivization, verbalization, adjectivization, adverbalization; 4) revealed conversion types: trans-positive and derivational (lexical), full and partial; 5) covered the basic models of conversion; 6) provided examples of neologisms formed by conversion.
Summarizing, we can conclude that the set at the beginning aims and tasks of the study have been reached in the course of my work. In the process of writing this work various sources of theoretical and practical material were used, which gave us detailed information about the subject and the object of this work. Therefore, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of the subject and the object and drew appropriate conclusions.
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