Most presentations are divided into 3 main parts (+ questions):



3. CONCLUSION + Questions

As a general rule in communication, repetition is valuable. In presentations, there is a golden rule about repetition:

Say what you are going to say; say it; then say what you have just said.

In other words, use the three parts of your presentation to reinforce your information. In the introduction, you tell your audience what your message is going to be. In the body, you tell your audience your real message. In the conclusion, you summarize what your message was.

We will now consider each of these parts in details and useful phrases in each of it.



The introduction is a very important – perhaps the most important – part of your presentation. This is the first impression that your audience has of you. You should concentrate on getting your introduction right.

You should use the introduction to:

1. welcome your audience

2. introduce your subject

3. outline the structure of your presentation

4. give instructions about questions

Welcoming your audience

Good morning, ladies and gentlemen

Good morning, gentlemen

Good afternoon, ladies and gentlemen

Good afternoon, everybody


Introducing your subject

I am going to talk today about...

The purpose of my presentation is to introduce our new range of …

We are here today to decide…or

(to agree …or

to learn about …)

The purpose of this talk is to …


Outlining your structure/ main parts

To start with I’ll describe the progress made this year. Then I’ll mention some of the problems we’ve encountered and how we overcame them. After that I’ll consider the possibilities for further growth next year. Finally, I’ll summarize my presentation.

I’ve divided my presentation into four parts/sections.

They are …

The subjects can be looked at under the following headings: …

We can break this area down into the following fields :

Firstly/first of all …

Secondly/then/next …

Thirdly/and then we come to …

Finally/lastly/last of all …


Giving instructions about questions

Do feel free to interrupt me if you have any questions.

I’ll try to answer all of your questions after the presentation.

I plan to keep some time for questions after the presentation.


The body is the ‘real’ presentation. If the introduction was well prepared and delivered, you will now be ‘in control’. You will be relaxed and confident.

The body should be well structured, divided up logically, with plenty of carefully spaced visuals.

Linking ideas

Let’s start with …

Let’s move /go on to…

Now we come to …

That brings us to …

Let’s leave that …

That covers …

Let’s get back to…

Giving examples

For example …

As you can see from the picture…

The (graph/chart) shows …

Remember these key points while delivering the body of your presentation:

Don’t read your presentation

Do not hurry

Be enthusiastic

Give time on visuals

Maintain eye contact

Modulate your voice

Look friendly

Keep to your structure

Use your notes

Use signpost throughout

Remain polite when dealing with difficult questions

Try to sound interested.

Pause to give your listeners to check they understand you.

Look at your listeners to check they understand you.

If you make a mistake, start your sentence again.

If you can’t remember a word, use another one.

Don’t get into personal details.

Observe the time limit.


Use the conclusion to:

- sum up

- give recommendations if appropriate

- thank your audience

    - Invite questions


So let me summarise/recap what I’ve said.

Let me just run over the key points again.

I’ll briefly summarize the main issues.

To sum up …

Briefly …



As you can see, there are some very good reasons …

In conclusion …

I’d like to leave you with the following thought/idea.


Giving recommendations     

In conclusion, my recommendations are...

I therefore suggest/propose/recommend the following strategy.



Thanking your audience     

Many thanks for your attention.

May I thank you all for being such an attentive audience.

Inviting questions       

Now I’ll try to answer any questions you may have.

Can I answer any questions?

Are there any questions?

Do you have any questions?

Are there any final questions?


Questions are a good opportunity for you to interact with your audience. It may be helpful for you to try to predict what questions will be asked so that you can prepare your response in advance. You may wish to accept questions at any time during your presentation, or to keep a time for questions after your presentation. Normally, it’s your decision, and you should make it clear during the introduction. Be polite with all questioners, even if they ask difficult questions. They are showing interest in what you have to say and they deserve attention. Sometimes you can reformulate a question or answer the question with another question, or even ask for comment from the rest of the audience.


Appendix B

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