I. Match the words (1–10) with their definitions/explanations (a–j):

1 ergonomics a together in the body
2 ligaments b making suitable or convenient for use
3 slouch c come into a sloping position
4 tendons d firm; not likely to move or change
5 adjustment e study of the environment, conditions and efficiency of workers
6 tilt f thick cord that joins muscles to bone
7 glare g stand, sit or move in a lazy, tired way
8 posture h way of holding the body
9 strain i a bright unpleasant light which hurts your eyes
10 stable j condition of being stretched


II. Read the article once and then decide if the following guidelines are true, false or are not given in the text above.

1. Use a stable chair with a dynamic chair back that is angled slightly to the rear.

2. Top of monitor screen should be 3–5 above eye level

3. Do not be afraid of glaring at the screen; the use of an optical glass anti-glare filter is not necessary

4. Sit at arm’s length from the monitor; further if distance is comfortable and screen’s readable.

5. Do not rest feet on the floor, only on a stable foot rest.

6. Do not use a document holder in order to work in maximum comfort

7. Wrists flat and straight in relation to forearms to use keyboard/mouse/input device

8. Keep arms and elbows relaxed in front of you

9. Center monitor and keyboard to the left of you

10. Use a negative tilt keyboard tray with an upper mouse platform or downward tilt-able platform adjacent to keyboard

11. Take frequent short breaks (micro breaks) and stretch.


III. Team work. Work out the main rules for operating the computer. The winner is to give clear recommendations for young people working on the computer. The first one is given for you to help.

1.Use a good chair with dynamic chair back that is angled slightly to the rear.


IV. Ask and answer the questions (Work in pairs).

1. Do you have your own study in your flat?

2. What are there in your study? Is there a computer or a notebook?

3. Do you have a table and a chair designed for a comfortable work on your computer?

4. Have you adjusted your chair to create a better fit?

5. Is the top of your monitor 2–3 above eye level?

6. How much do you usually spend on working with your computer a day?

7. Do you like your ‘working place’ at home? Why?


Text 14

Reading and Speaking


Microcomputer technology is already being applied in areas that only some decades ago were impossible. For example, severely handicapped people with cerebral palsy, who have very little limb control, can now use the Blisstern, a computerized version of the 500-symbol Bliss system. Because of their handicap, these people can hear but can’t respond. Now, with the Blisstern, it is possible to extend their skills. In addition to the Blisstern, other devices have been designed to aid the handicapped who are confined to wheel-chairs and have no control, or virtually no control, of their limbs. A special microcomputer that responds to eye movement has been developed which, when attached to a wheelchairs mechanism, allows the person to move about independently. By opening and closing the eyes and blinking, the person can make the wheelchairs start or stop; and when the eyes move left or right, so does the wheelchair. Similarly, there are other devices that have been developed to help severely handicapped people employ the limited use of their fingers or toes to type. Furthermore, such people can now type with their eyes, by simply focusing on the letter to be typed. Attached to the eyeglasses is a small device that responds to the eye and transmits the signal to a typewriter. It takes time to write a letter this way, but it’s better than not being able to write at all. Another example of electronic development in computer technology is the voice box. Until now, people with heavily restricted vision have had to rely on Braille or sighted people to pick out mistakes on the computer screens or printouts. Now, errors shown on the screen are duplicated audibly through a voice synthesizer. This new simpler voice correction system is a boon to all visually-handicapped students.

Moreover, the nature of work is changing in some areas because of the revolution brought about by computers. More and more police departments are now using sophisticated devices to help control the increasing crime rate. Some of these devices are: firstly, a computer terminal inside a police vehicle to answer an officer’s questions; secondly, a computer-controlled display unit for displaying fingerprints; and thirdly, educational systems for police officers such as terminals, enabling them to verify changes in laws, rules and regulations.

The computer memory of many law enforcement systems contains all kinds of information. First and foremost, it has data on stolen items such as cars, license plates and property. Second, it has information on political extremist groups and their activities.

It goes without saying that computers have certainly revolutionized police work by providing access to millions of items of information with the least possible delay and speeding up the process of apprehending suspicious-looking characters.


I. Match the words (1– 5) with their definitions/explanations (a– e):

1 a handicapped person a advantage, blessing, comfort
2 a boon b something with the latest improvements
3 sophisticated devices c people having power of seeing
4 sighted people d a man suffering from some disability
5 computer terminals e devices to input data to the computer or to output results onto a screen or paper


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