II. Decide if the given statements are true (T) or false (F) according to the text.
1.At first the term ‘Statistics’ was used in English by Sir John Sinclair who published ‘Statistical Account of Scotland’.
2. Originally the term was used to designate the systematic collection of demographic and economic data.
3. Being extended by Laplace statistics stopped its development for some period of time.
4. In the nineteenth century new sciences were developed only by physical scientists who based them on statistical reasoning and probability.
5. The development of statistical reasoning didn’t happen to be closely connected with the development of inductive logic and the scientific method.
III. Search for information about one of the scientists listed below and then give a presentation.
Important contributors to statistics
|· Thomas Bayes · Gertrude Cox · Harald Cramér · Francis Ysidro Edgeworth · Bradley Efron||· Aleksandr Lyapunov · Abraham De Moivre · Jerzy Neyman · Florence Nightingale · Blaise Pascal|
|· Ronald A. Fisher · Francis Galton · Carl Friedrich Gauss · William Sealey Gosset · Andrey Kolmogorov · Pierre-Simon Laplace · Erich L. Lehmann · Bruno de Finetti||· Charles S. Peirce Adolphe Quetelet · C. R. Rao · Walter A. Shewhart · Charles Spearman · Thorvald N. Thiele · John Tukey · Abraham Wald · Karl Pearson|
Reading and speaking
DEGREES AND DIPLOMAS IN STATISTICS
England is perhaps the first country where Statistics has been taught as a distinct University subject. There are as many as 37 institutions in different universities in the UK having one or more courses in Statistics. This number excludes the post-graduate medical schools where some Statistics is taught and university institutes and research institutions where no regular teaching is provided. The 37 institutions are distributed as follows: London University schools, 2; other colleges and schools, 8; Oxford and Cambridge universities, 2; other English universities,13; English university colleges, 2; University of Wales,5; Scottish universities,4; Northern Ireland universities,1.
London University is the only university which awards a full degree (B. Sc. Special) in Statistics. Courses for the degree are given by University College. In all other universities, Statistics can be taken as an ancillary or minor subject for the first degree in Mathematics, Economics, Biology, Education, Engineering, or Agriculture. At Cambridge University Statistics appears as a ‘whole subject’ in Mathematics. There are two courses in Mathematical Statistics plus two Probability courses for a group for part III of the mathematical tripos. The faculty of Economics offers a course for part II of the Economics tripos. In Manchester University Statistics is offered as a subsidiary subject for honours in Mathematics, and there is an advanced theoretical course intended primarily for third – year undergraduates of Mathematics who have taken the subsidiary courses. Economic Statistics is included in the Economics courses.
Post-graduate and research facilities are available at University College (London), the London School of Economics, Imperial College (London), the universities of Oxford, Cambridge, Manchester and Edinburgh and also the University College of South Wales (Swansea). The duration of study is one or two years. Statistics also forms a part of the curricula for the diplomas in agriculture and agricultural sciences at Cambridge and the post-graduate diploma in public health given by the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
Some general observation can be made with regard to the content of the courses in Statistics for undergraduates in Mathematics. Courses for students of Mathematics concentrate on Mathematical Statistics, usually of a fairly high level, concentrating on subjects such as Probability, Multivariate Correlation and Regression, Sampling Theory, Estimation, Tests of Significance, Analysis of Variance. The aim of post-graduate courses in Statistics is to give an advanced knowledge through lectures, seminars and research work. London University arranges regularly advanced courses by the professors in the constituent colleges as well as visiting professors. The curricula for the post-graduate diplomas in Statistics are fairly uniform in different universities. At one or two universities there is a practical work in fields of application; but no dissertation or thesis is required.
I. Match the words (1–5) with the definitions/explanations (a–e):
|1||an ancillary subject||a||examination for getting a degree at Cambridge|
|2||curricula||b||aids which make learning or doing things easy|
|3||tripos||c||taught as a subsidiary subject serving as a help but not of first importance|
|4||available||d||courses of study in a school, college, etc.|
|5||facilities||e||able to be used; may be obtained|
II. For ( 6 – 10 ) choose T if the statement is true according to the text, Fif it is false or NGif the information is not givenin the text.
1.Institutions in different universities of the UK have one or more courses in Statistics except post-graduate medical schools.
2. This survey takes into consideration research institutions and university institutes where regular teaching is not available.
3. In all British universities Statistics is taught as a subsidiary subject.
4. Post-graduate courses in Statistics are aimed at carrying out research work.
5. In the course of studies students of Mathematics are delivered lectures in Probability, Multivariate Correlation and Regression, Sampling Theory, Estimation, Tests of Significance, Analysis of Variance.
III. Do you know anything about awards in Statistics in your country or abroad?
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