Find the words or phrases (1–7) in the text above (6) which are explained / defined (a–g)? The first and the last letter are given to help you.



1 a----s a get to and enter
2 i----t b strong impression or effect
3 a-------e c able to be obtained, taken or used
4 s------e d programs used by computers for doing particular jobs
5 a----t e help something/someone
6 c--------m f temporary cooperation of a number of powers, companies, banks, etc. for a common purpose
7 c—p g a very small piece of silicon marked with electronic connections that is used in computers and other machines

Test yourself. Cover the dictionary meanings and look at the words. What are the meanings?

Do these statements relate to Turing, Berners-Lee or both?

1. He was born in London.

2. He studied at Cambridge University.       

3. He built his first computer being a university student.

4. He has a degree in physics.

5. He is the founder of computer science.

6. He worked only in the United Kingdom.

What events/dates do the following numbers refer to?

1990   1939   1955   6800   1954  
23 1976 1949 1994  

Answer the questions about the two scientists.

1. What idea was Alan Turing taken by at the beginning of his career?

2. Why is Turing machine universal?

3. What was Turing’s contribution to a decipherment of German messages?

4. Why did the Bletchley team begin building Colossus?

5. What were advantages of the Colossus computer over the Bombe?

6. How is Colossus compared with a modern PC?

7. Why did Alan Turing die?

8. What does the fame of Tim Berners-Lee come from?

9. What sort of scientist is Berners-Lee?

10. What is a hypertext?

11. What achievements is Berners-Lee most proud of?

HELP box


Grammar review: Gerund and Infinitive

Use the gerund (verb + -ing)
1  after prepositions and phrasal verbs. 2  as the subject of a sentence. 3  after the following verbs: enjoy, hate, finish, like, love, mind, practise, spend, stop, suggest and phrasal verbs, e.g.: give up, go on, keep on, succeed in, think of, etc. I’m very good at writing programs. Performing the first operation made possible further steps. Students like writing sentences in algebraic  way.
Use the infinitive (+ to)
1 after adjectives. 2 to express a reason or purpose. 3 after the following verbs: (can’t) afford, agree, decide, expect, forget, help, hope, learn, need, offer, plan, pretend, promise, refuse, remember, seem, try, want, would like This method is easy to describe. To adjust the new program we’ll have to do a great deal of work. He didn’t want to reveal his personal information in interviews.
● Gerunds and infinitives form the negative with not, e.g. not to be, not being ●The common verbs ‘begin/start, continue, prefer’ can take either the gerund or infinitive with no difference in meaning. ●The verbs ‘try, remember’ can take a gerund or an infinitive but the meaning is different. Try to be on time in the airport. = make an effort to be on time Try doing yoga. = do it to see if you like it. Remember to phone him. = Don’t forget to do it I remember meeting him a year ago. = I have a memory of it.

A Underline the correct form.

1. He provides an easy way to access/accessing the Internet.

2. He wouldn’t like to reveal/revealing his personal information in interviews.

3. After to graduate/graduating from Queens College he got his first job in a big company.

4. To smoke/Smoking was banned in his college.

5. Were they afraid of to take/taking your Calculus exam?

6. It was difficult to prove/proving this theorem.

7. His colleagues were not interested in to learn/learning that computer language.

8. My friend takes a course in Applied Maths to get/getting a job in Ukrtelecom.

9. Be careful not to make/not making a noise when you come home tonight.

10. He doesn’t mind to invite/inviting my colleague to the party.

 

B Complete the dialogue with the verbs in the gerund or infinitive.

Ivan So, have you decided 1 ________ (ask) her, Oleg?
Oleg Well, I was planning 2 ________ (do) it yesterday, but then I didn’t. What if she says ‘no’? 3__________(get) engaged is such a big step. She might think it’s too soon. I’m worried about 4 _________ (lose) her.
Ivan You can’t afford 5 ________ (wait) forever. You love her, don’t you?
Oleg Yes, of course. And I love 6 ________ (be) with her, I can’t stop 7 _______ (think) about her.
Ivan Then do it. Phone her now. Invite her out for meal, somewhere very romantic.
Oleg You’re right. I’ll phone her now. … Hi, Ann. I’ve just called 8 _______ (ask) you if you are doing anything on Friday night. Would you like 9________ (go) out for a meal? At the restaurant Golden Lion… OK. Great. I’ll pick you up at 8.00… No, I won’t forget 10 _______ (book) a table…

Speaking

Group work


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