Find the words or phrases (1 – 6) in the text above which are explained / defined (a – f)? The first and the last letter are given to help you.
|1||m---n||a||(colloq.) stupid person|
|2||s----y||b||give or provide|
|3||a-------d||c||sign used to show direction or position|
|4||a---r||d||make or become different|
|5||e-------e||e||remove, take or put away, get rid of (because unnecessary or unwanted)|
|6||a-------y||f||with great surprise or wonder|
Test yourself. Cover the dictionary meanings and look at the words. What are the meanings?
Answer the following questions .
1. What were the first computers compared with?
2. Why is it safer to think of computers as high-speed morons?
3. Why is a job of a programmer so important today?
4. What are the main stages in program writing?
5. What are the ways to keep up with new developments in computing?
Grammar focus: Must, have to, should (obligation)
| · Must and have to have a very similar meaning.
Have to is more common for general, external obligations, for example rules and laws;
must is more common for specific (i.e. on one occasion) or personal obligations, e.g.:
I have to wear a black uniform at work (It’s the rule in this company).
I must buy a new black shirt – this one is too old now (It’s my own decision).
· Have to is a normal verb and it exists in all tenses.
· Must is a modal verb. The only forms are must and mustn’t. (Present simple)
· You can also use have to or must for strong recommendations, e.g. You have to / must see that film – it’s fantastic.
obligation / necessity: have to / must (+ infinitive)
| · Don’t have to and mustn’t are completely different.
You mustn’t drive along this street.
= It’s prohibited, against the law.
You don’t have to drive – we can get a train. = You can drive if you want to but it’s not necessary / obligatory.
· Use can`t or not allowed to instead of mustn’t.
You mustn`t park here. You can’t park here. You’re not allowed to park here.
no obligation / necessity: don ’ t have to
prohibition: mustn ’ t (+ indinitive)
| advice or opinion: should / shouldn ’ t
|· Should is not as strong as must / have to. Use should to say if you think something is the right or wrong thing to do. · Should is a modal verb. The only forms are should and shouldn`t. · Use ought to and ought not to instead of should / shouldn’t. You should take an umbrella with you. You ought to take an umbrella with you|
A Underline the correct form.
1.People must/have to monitor what the machines do at all time
2. You, Peter must/should always virus-check an email attachment before opening it.
3. When they have designed a code for a system and tested it, they then must create/have to create documentation.
4. Helen, you must/should check your email regularly.
5. Programs usually must be debugged/have to be debugged, i.e. tested and altered to eliminate all the errors, before they are used.
6. David, if you work with computer more than two hours you must/should have a break.
7. You must/should keep your network password secret.
8. Theymust be involved/have to be involved in the initial training of users to make changes to the program according to information obtained from the users.
9. You mustn’t/don’t have to access other people’s data.
10. Oksana, you mustn’t/shouldn’t, believe every email message that warns you about viruses.
B Complete the second sentence with two or three words so it means the same as the first.
1. It isn’t a good idea to work with computer for a long time without any break.
You _____ work with computer for a long time without any break .
2. Was it necessary for them to pay cash?
Did _____ pay cash?
3. The meeting isn’t obligatory.
You _____ go to the meeting.
4. It’s a bad manner to talk loudly on a mobile on a train.
People _____ talk quietly on their mobile on a train.
5. Lorries are not allowed to go on this road.
Lorries _____on this road.
6. It is prohibited to smoke in a petrol station.
You _____ smoke in a petrol station.
7. It’s not good of you to speak with your mouth full when you are having dinner with people you don’t know well.
You _____ speak with your mouth full.
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