Find the words or phrases (1 – 6) in the text above which are explained / defined (a – f)? The first and the last letter are given to help you.

1 m---n a (colloq.) stupid person
2 s----y b give or provide
3 a-------d c sign used to show direction or position
4 a---r d make or become different
5 e-------e e remove, take or put away, get rid of (because unnecessary or unwanted)
6 a-------y f with great surprise or wonder

Test yourself. Cover the dictionary meanings and look at the words. What are the meanings?

Answer the following questions .

1. What were the first computers compared with?

2. Why is it safer to think of computers as high-speed morons?

3. Why is a job of a programmer so important today?

4. What are the main stages in program writing?

5. What are the ways to keep up with new developments in computing?

HELP box

Grammar focus: Must, have to, should (obligation)

· Must and have to have a very similar meaning. Have to is more common for general, external obligations, for example rules and laws; must is more common for specific (i.e. on one occasion) or personal obligations, e.g.: I have to wear a black uniform at work (It’s the rule in this company). I must buy a new black shirt – this one is too old now (It’s my own decision). · Have to is a normal verb and it exists in all tenses. · Must is a modal verb. The only forms are must and mustnt. (Present simple) · You can also use have to or must for strong recommendations, e.g. You have to / must see that film – its fantastic. obligation / necessity: have to / must (+ infinitive)
You have to wear a seatbelt in a car. Do you have to work on Saturdays? I had to wear a uniform at my secondary school. I’ ll have to get up early tomorrow. My interview is at 9.00.
I must remember to phone Nadya tonight – it’s her birthday. You must be on time for class tomorrow – there’s teat.


· Dont have to and mustnt are completely different.   You mustnt drive along this street. = It’s prohibited, against the law. You dont have to drive – we can get a train. = You can drive if you want to but it’s not necessary / obligatory. · Use can`t or not allowed to instead of mustnt. You mustn`t park here. You cant park here. Youre not allowed to park here. no obligation / necessity: dont have to
You don ’ t have to pay for the tickets. They’re free. You don ’ t have to go to the concert if you don’t want to.

prohibition: mustnt (+ indinitive)

You mustn ’ t eat that cake – it’s for the party. You mustn`t touch that. It’s dangerous.
Have got to is often used instead of have to in spoken English, e.g. Ive got to go now. Its very important.
advice or opinion: should / shouldnt (+ infinitive)
You should take warm clothes with you to go to Lviv. It might be cold in the morning. I think the government should do something about unemployment
· Should is not as strong as must / have to. Use should to say if you think something is the right or wrong thing to do. · Should is a modal verb. The only forms are should and shouldn`t. · Use ought to and ought not to instead of should / shouldnt. You should take an umbrella with you. You ought to take an umbrella with you

A Underline the correct form.

1.People must/have to monitor what the machines do at all time

2. You, Peter must/should always virus-check an email attachment before opening it.

3. When they have designed a code for a system and tested it, they then must create/have to create documentation.

4. Helen, you must/should check your email regularly.

5. Programs usually must be debugged/have to be debugged, i.e. tested and altered to eliminate all the errors, before they are used.

6. David, if you work with computer more than two hours you must/should have a break.

7. You must/should keep your network password secret.

8. Theymust be involved/have to be involved in the initial training of users to make changes to the program according to information obtained from the users.

9. You mustnt/don’t have to access other peoples data.

10. Oksana, you mustnt/shouldn’t, believe every email message that warns you about viruses.

B Complete the second sentence with two or three words so it means the same as the first.

1. It isnt a good idea to work with computer for a long time without any break.

You _____ work with computer for a long time without any break .

2. Was it necessary for them to pay cash?

Did _____ pay cash?

3. The meeting isnt obligatory.

You _____ go to the meeting.

4. Its a bad manner to talk loudly on a mobile on a train.

People _____ talk quietly on their mobile on a train.

5. Lorries are not allowed to go on this road.

Lorries _____on this road.

6. It is prohibited to smoke in a petrol station.

You _____ smoke in a petrol station.

7. It’s not good of you to speak with your mouth full when you are having dinner with people you don’t know well.           

You _____ speak with your mouth full.


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