Find the words or phrases (1–7) in the text above which are explained / defined (a–g)? The first and the last letter are given to help you.


1 s----y a A general description or report about a particular subject or situation
2 c-----t b Belonging to the present time, of the present day
3 t-------t c Something is done to cure someone who is injured or ill
4 f--------r d Chemical plant food
5 p-----m e An additional amount of money
6 m-----------n f An idea which is wrong or untrue, but which people believe because they do not understand the subject properly
7 a-----e g The ordinary or usual standard


Test yourself. Cover the dictionary meanings and look at the words. What are the meanings?

Work in pairs. Make a list with statistics applications mentioned in the text.

Answer the questions on the text.

1. What does statistics deal with?

2. What is official statistics?

3. How is statistics used in medicine?

4. How does statistical procedure vary?

5. How is statistics connected to probability?

6. What is the stereotype about the job of a statistician?

7. What is the main task of a statistician today?

HELP box

Grammar focus: Passive

The subject of a passive verb corresponds to the object of an active verb


Passive: This house was built in 1486.


Active: They built this house in 1486



German is spoken in Austria.

Austrians speak German.


to be + Past Participle (pp)



  Simple present Present progressive   Simple past Past progressive Present perfect Past perfect Will future Future perfect   Going to future

am/are/is + past participle (pp)

am/are/is being + pp


was/were + pp

was/were being + pp

have/has been + pp

had been + pp

will be + pp

will have been + pp


am/are/is going to be + pp

English is spoken here. Excuse the mess: the house is being painted I wasn’t invited, but I went. I felt I was being watched. Has Mary been told? I know I had been forgotten. You’ll be told soon. Everything will have been done by Tuesday. Who’s going to be invited?

A Underline the correct form: active or passive.

1. Statistics uses/is used as a science which is concerned with scientific methods for collecting, organizing, summarizing, presenting and analyzing data.

2. Statistics uses/is being used more and more in various applications

3. Statisticians involve/are involved in agriculture, with the comparison of different fertilizers.

4. Statistical procedures involve/are involved a few simple graphs.

5. We gave/were given specialized courses by our dean`s assistant a year ago.

6. Some students gave/were given attention to their patients.

7. Fermat’s last theorem had proved/had been proved by the end of the 20th century.

8. This profession requires/ is required a profound knowledge of the theory of probability and calculus Statistics

9. In 1900 a list of 23 unsolved problems in mathematics made/was made by David Hilbert.

10.  When he made up/was made up his mind to be a statistician his friends laughed at him.

B Rewrite the sentences in the passive.

1. Tom’s writing a lecture in Statistics now.

2. People are using Statistics more and more in various applications.

3. Collecting data from surveys involves many people in government.

4. An inevitable link between Statistics and Probability provides the mathematical basis for setting up models to describe random phenomena.

5. This profession requires a profound knowledge of the Theory of Probability and Calculus.

6. The faculty of Mathematics gives its students specialized courses in Sampling theory, Statistical estimation, Statistical decision theory, Correlation theory.

7. The statistician collects data in a manner that allows him to answer the exact question posed.

8. Statisticians needed important preliminary procedures before making a specific analysis. 

9. Researchers have already carried out several tests to obtain definite data.

10.  Statisticians will display data in a table.


Give the reasons behind your decision to take a course in statistics.

Group work. Discuss what knowledge a statistician requires.

Unit 11


    Reading and Vocabulary

Match the definitions/explanations in A (1–6) with the words in B (a–f):  

1 The physical components of a computer system a


2 The programs and data used in a computer b


3 A piece of equipment that is connected to the central processing unit of computer system c


4 An electronic integrated circuit in a small package d


5 Having nothing inside, containing nothing e


6 quantities f


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