Give English equivalents of the following words and phrases.



Восстанавливать мир; сокращение; изменение отношения; сохранять мир; в интересах мира; увеличение числа; призыв к; постоянный военный контингент; устав; защищать; миротворчество.

Read the article again and answer the questions.

1. What has become a cliché of international rhetoric?

2. What idea has been urged in connection with the UN's role in the modern world?

3. Has the number of open conflicts reduced since the end of the Cold War?

4. What does the UN have to defend?

5. What is in the world's interest?

Questions for discussion.

1. Why do you think a standing UN military force is of growing importance today?

2. What principles and practices to your mind does the UN have to defend?

3. Do you agree that the UN could and should have a more active peacekeeping function?

4. What shift in attitude is needed?

IV

Translate the following articles into English using Translation Notes.

1

Президент Российской Федерации посетит с официальным визитом штаб-квартиру НАТО. Об этом сообщил заместитель главы МИД. Первоначально планировалось, что посещение штаб-квартиры НАТО будет носить протокольный характер, однако после терактов в Нью-Йорке и Вашингтоне предстоящие беседы будут серьезные.

Главные юристы борются с терроризмом

В Люксембурге вчера открылось совещание министров юстиции и внутренних дел государств-членов Европейского союза. Во встрече участвуют также министры экономики и финансов стран ЕС. Предполагается, что они обсудят меры по борьбе с терроризмом, а также примут новую стратегию в отношении банков и стран, сотрудничающих с террористами.

3. Визит Генерального секретаря ООН [13]

Генеральный секретарь ООН посетит Россию с официальным визитом. Как заявил вчера замминистра иностранных дел РФ, «в ходе визита предполагается обсудить[14] пути сотрудничества России с ООН в целях повышения эффективности организации в интересах поддержания мира, стабильности и международной безопасности». Российская сторона рассчитывает, что визит Генерального секретаря ООН будет способствовать укреплению роли ООН в урегулировании кризисов и конфликтов в различных регионах мира. В день прибытия Генсек ООН встретится с российским президентом. Он также встретится с главой правительства РФ, министром иностранных дел и министром обороны.

SECTION B

I

Read the article and look up the meaning of the underlined words and phrases in the dictionary.

How the UN works

The United Nations was established on 24 October 1945 by 51 countries committed to preserving peace through international cooperation and collective security. Today, nearly every nation in the world belongs to the UN: membership now totals nearly 200 countries.

When states become members of the United Nations, they agree to accept the obligations of the UN Charter, an international treaty which sets out basic principles of international relations. According to the Charter, the UN has four purposes: to maintain international peace and security, to develop friendly relations among nations, to cooperate in solving international problems and in promoting respect for human rights, and to be a center for harmonizing the actions of nations.

UN members are sovereign countries. The United Nations is not a world government, and it does not make laws. It does, however, provide the means to help resolve international conflicts and formulate policies on matters affecting all of us.

The United Nations is much more than a peacekeeper and forum for conflict resolution. Often without attracting attention, the United Nations is engaged in a vast array of work that touches every aspect of people's lives around the world.

Child survival and development. Environmental protection. Human rights. Health and medical research. Alleviation of poverty and economic development. Agricultural development and fisheries. Education. Family planning. Emergency and disaster relief. Air and sea travel. Peaceful uses of atomic energy. Labor and worker's rights. The list goes on and on.

The United Nations has six main organs. Five of them — the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council and the Secretariat — are based at UN Headquarters in New York. The sixth, the International Court of Justice, is located at the Hague, the Netherlands.

The General Assembly

All UN member states are represented in the General Assembly — a kind of parliament of nations which meets to consider the world's most pressing problems. Each member state has one vote. Decisions on «important matters», such as international peace and security, admitting new members, the UN budget are decided by two-thirds majority. Othermatters are decided by simple majority. In recent years, a special effort has been made to reach decisions through consensus, rather than by formal vote.

The Assembly holds its annual regular session from September to December. When necessary, it may resume its session, or hold a special or emergency session on subjects of particular concern.

The Security Council

The UN Charter gives the Security Council primary responsibilities for maintaining international peace and security. The Council may convene at any time, day or night, whenever peace is threatened.

There are 15 Council members. Five of these — China, France, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom and the United States — are permanent members. The other 10 are elected by the General Assembly for a two-year term. Decisions of the Council require nine yes votes.

What the UN does for peace

Preserving world peace is a central purpose of the United Nations. Under the Charter, member states agree to settle disputes by peaceful means and refrain from threatening or using force against other states.

UN efforts have produced dramatic results. The UN helped defuse the Cuban missile crisis in 1962 and the Middle East crisis in 1973. In 1988 a UN-sponsored peace settlement ended the Iran-Iraq war. In the 1990s, the UN was instrumental in restoring sovereignty to Kuwait and played a major role in ending civil wars in Cambodia, El Salvador, Guatemala and Mozambique.

UN peacemaking brings hostile parties to agreement through diplomatic means. The Security Council may recommend ways to avoid conflict or restore or secure peace — through negotiation, for example, or undertake mediation, or recourse to the International Court of Justice. In the event of fighting the UN tries to secure a ceasefire. It may send a peacekeeping mission to help the parties maintain the truce and to keep opposing forces apart. Peacekeeping operations may last for a few months or continue for many years.


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