Match the parts of the sentences.

1. The word geology comes a. with the practical use of geological knowledge.
2. Geology has become subdivided b. to a particular area.
3. We can draw c. into several more specialized disciplines.
4. The upper part of the crust is affected d. at the integration of the geological information.
5. The exogenous forces act at the Earth’s surface and do not drive e. in stark contrast to giant dinosaurs.
6. The crust is constantly subjected f. from within it.
7. The small organisms stand g. by two different kinds of forces.
8. Regional geology aims h. to vertical and horizontal movements.
9. This information pertains i. on information from several disciplines.
10. Applied geology is concerned j. from the Greek language.



2.2.5 Study the following verbs. Fill in the gaps with one of the verbs from the list in the correct form and a suitable preposition. Use the passive where necessary.

come from происходить
draw on получить
be subdivided into быть разделенным на
be affected by находиться под воздействием ч.-л.
be subjected to подвергаться
tend to иметь тенденцию (к чему-либо)
derive from извлекать, получать
stand in оказаться
aim at целить, метить во что-либо
pertain to принадлежать, иметь отношение к
be concerned with касаться, иметь отношение к


1. The word “geology” _____________ the Greek language.

2. Geology ____________ many different disciplines.

3. Many geological processes ____________endogenous and exogenous forces.

4. Geological information _____________ direct or indirect evidence of the past.

5. Mammoths ______________ great contrast to the nowadays animals.

6. Integration of all the geological information ________a particular area.

7. The Earth’s surface _______________ many destructive forces, such as weathering, erosion, etc.

8. Applied geology _____________ the practical use of geological knowledge.

9. Geology ______________ two Greek words-«geo», which means earth, and «logy» which means knowledge.

10. Geology is the study of the Earth’s history and _________all the technological resources of modern science in deciphering the record of the rocks as documents of Earth history.

2.2.6 Match the word phrases in right column with the word phrases in the left one and compile your own sentences.

1. to come form a. dinosaurs stand in contrast to mammoth
2. to draw on b. the landscape is leveled
3. to be affected by c. evidence from the past
4. to subdivide into d. the Earth’s crust
5. to aim at e. two kinds of forces
6. to pertain to f. inner and outer core
7. to be concerned with g. upper mantle
8. it is possible h. the study of sedimentary rocks
9. thereby i. to trace the development
10. in terms of j. erosion, weathering
11. however k. velocity
12. to derive from l. the remains of small algae

2.2.7 Give the English equivalents to the Russian words:

1. Classical geology (объясняет) events of the past (на основании) processes which (происходят) at present.

2. Regional geology (нацелена) at the integration of all the geological information which (имеет отношение к) particular area.

3.  (Возможно проследить) changes during (геологического времени) and (установить) development of mountain belts.

4. Only recently geologists (предоставили) enough information about (составе) of the Earth.

5. Geology (имеет отношение) the study of development of (земной коры) and those parts, which are (доступны или обнажены).

6. We (достигли) the present state of geology as a result of much work and (расшифровывания) of records of rocks as documents of its history.

7. The most obvious (воздействия) of such (сил) are the (разрушительные) effects of (выветривания, эрозии и переноса пород) which (имеют тенденцию) to (выравнивать) landscape and irregularities of the surface.

8. (Посредством этого попытаться) to reconstruct (силы) which were at work in the past.


2.2.8 Read the text and find the English equivalents to the following terms and phrases.

Относительно недавно, был в действительности применен, должна прежде всего иметь дело с, горные области, любое свидетельство, явное или косвенное, в поисках ответов на вопросы, получая информацию, как описано выше, объяснить события прошлого на основе процессов, происходить в настоящее время, действовать внутри Земли, в покое, явное проявление, не выходят за пределы, сглаживать неровности, основные агенты.

2.2.9 Match the science with the description of what it studies:

1. Palaeontology- combines all the information from different fields of geological science and makes maps.
2. Classical geology- is concerned with the study of Earth’s geological history on the basis of research of sedimentary rocks.
3. Geology- deals with observations and classification of the remains in the rocks and thus constructs their evolution.
4. Regional geology- studies the Earth history and uses technology to decode the records of rocks.
5. Stratigraphy- deals with practical application of geological knowledge.
6. Applied geology- seeks to interpret the past events in terms of the processes which are at work at present.

2.2.10 Choose the correct variant.

1. The surface of the Earth is formed by

A. endogenous forces B. exogenous forces C. both


2. The oldest traces of life which people could find in the rock were the remains of

A. ice age mammoths B. predecessors of algae C. giant dinosaurs

3. Geological maps

A. show all geological information B. geological information from particular areas C. essential bases of all kinds of mining


4. In the present days, views on the Earth evolution and development of a man

A. have changed B. are not complete C. have not been determined


5. Geologists

A. input different geological events B. establish history of the Earth C. both


6. Applied geology deals with

A. practical application of geological science B. present day processes

C. geological maps of different areas


7. The principle of uniformitarianism means

A. natural laws of today    B. present day processes C. today processes were the same in the past


3. WATCH THE VIDEO- Fundamental Principles of Geology

3.1. Before watching

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