Реорганизуйте действительный залог предложений в страдательный и наоборот: 1. Latin-English dictionary explains the primary meaning of the word «science». 2. Creatures who lived and died without passing on their experiences to following generations inhabited the earth for many thousands of years. 3. Rocks and trees were used to help an early man to hunt for food. 4. As knowledge grew and the art of writing developed, people recorded their ideas thus giving birth to different branches of science. 5. Until the practice of medicine became well established, sick people were treated by witch doctors. 6. Each branch of science is constantly enriched by new ideas. 7. Since classical antiquity people have looked upon science as the tool to make their life better. 8. Nowadays cognitive science is much written and spoken about.   Старайтесь увидеть страдательный залог в любом переводимом Вами тексте.

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Science (from Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge") is an enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the world. An older and closely related meaning still in use today is that of Aristotle for whom scientific knowledge was a body of reliable knowledge that can be logically and rationally explained.

Since classical antiquity science as a type of knowledge was closely linked to philosophy. In the early modern era the words "science" and "philosophy" were sometimes used interchangeably in the English language. By the 17th century, natural philosophy (which is today called "natural science") had begun to be considered separately from «philosophy» in general, while, "science" continued to be used in a broad sense denoting reliable knowledge about a topic, in the same way it is still used in modern terms such as library science.

However, in modern use, "science" is still mainly treated as synonymous with 'natural and physical science', and thus restricted to those branches of study that relate to the phenomena of the material universe and their laws, sometimes with implied exclusion of pure mathematics. This is now the dominant sense in ordinary use. The word "science" became increasingly associated with the disciplined study of physics, chemistry, geology and biology. This sometimes left the study of human thought and society in a linguistic limbo, which was resolved by classifying these areas of academic study as social science.

In its turn the term «humanities» or «arts» refers to the subjects of study that are concerned with the way people think and behave, for example literature, language, history and philosophy (as it understood nowadays).


Какие из приведенных ниже предложений истинны (T), а какие ложны (F)?

1. The term «science» is applied only to natural science.

2. The word «knowledge» is derived from the negation «no», meaning the path leading from ignorance to understanding the world.

3. Natural and physical sciences deal with testable explanations and predictions.

4. Aristotle studied the body of a human being and gained a reliable knowledge in this sphere.

5. There was a time when «science» and «philosophy» meant the same.

6. The word «science» and the word combination «natural and physical science» are looked upon as synonymous.

7. Pure mathematics is included into the notion «natural and physical science».

8. Library science naturally belongs to humanities.

 Прочитайте текст, найдите в нем слова интернационального корня и подберите к ним русские эквиваленты.

Scientific Progress

Science is often distinguished from other domains of human culture by its progressive nature: in contrast to art, religion, philosophy, morality, and politics, there exist clear standards or normative criteria for identifying improvements and advances in science. For example, the historian of science George Sarton argued that “the acquisition and systematization of positive knowledge are the only human activities which are truly cumulative and progressive,” and “progress has no definite and unquestionable meaning in other fields than the field of science”.

However, the traditional cumulative view of scientific knowledge was effectively challenged by many philosophers of science in the 1960s and the 1970s, and thereby the notion of progress was also questioned in the field of science.

Debates on the normative concept of progress are at the same time concerned with axiological questions about the aims and goals of science. The task of philosophical analysis is to consider alternative answers to the question: What is meant by progress in science? This conceptual question can then be complemented by the methodological question: How can we recognize progressive developments in science? Relative to a definition of progress and an account of its best indicators, one may then study the factual question: to what extent, and in which respects, is science progressive?



(From "This is Columbia University")


Columbia University and New York City have grown up together for more than 200 years. During this time, the University and the City have used their combined resources to advance the human interests to their community and of society as a whole.

At the turn of the last century* Pres. Low envisioned the Momingside Heights campus**, newly built in a style recalling Greek temples and Roman halls, as a place where "civic enterprise and independent scholarship would work together as equal partners for man's improvement and progress." His simultaneous interest in the growing University and the expanding City was typical over the years, 14 mayors of New York City and 10 governors of the state have graduated from Columbia. Today, approximately one-third of Columbia's 90,000 alumni*** live and work in the New York area as lawyers, journalists, scientists, publishers, business executives, artists, and financiers.


* at the turn of the century – на рубеже веков

** campus– университетский городок

*** alumnus (pi. alumni, alimnae) (Lat.) = a graduate– выпускник университета


Since its founding in 1754, Columbia University has attracted students interested in the issues of their times. Even before the revolution, King's College, renamed Columbia College in 1787, began to develop the impressive curriculum that resulted in its designation, in 1912, as Columbia University. Instruction in engineering, law and medicine, as well as liberal arts was available before 1800. By the turn of the century, Barnard College for women, the Graduate Faculties of Philosophy and of Pure Science, the schools of Architecture and the Political Science, and Teachers College had been established. Since 1900, the University has grown to include more than 20 schools and programs for undergraduate and graduate study in disciplines as diverse as the arts, business, health sciences, international affairs, liberal arts, library service, and social work.

Columbia University is a magnet for leaders in the arts and politics as well as for prominent scholars in all academic fields. Art exhibits, commercial and student-made films, poetry readings, concerts, dance recitals, and every other sort of musical experience are offered on the campus. Whether directly or indirectly related to the students course of study, participation in the City's activities stimulates the individual and narrows the gap* between learning and living.


1. Speak on the history of Columbia University.

2. Explain why the University today is a magnet for leaders in the arts and politics, for prominent scholars in all fields.

3. Say what particularly strikes you in Columbia University.


* to narrow the gap – уменьшить разрыв



Teachers College, affiliated with Columbia University since 1898, is the world's largest and most comprehensive graduate school of education. Instruction, research and service activities are addressed to urban, national, and international specializations, preparing men and women for professional careers on every academic level as well as in government, industry, and service fields.

Teachers College offers degree programs leading to the Master of Arts, Master of Science, Master of Education, Doctor of Education, Doctor of Education in College Teaching of an Academic Subject, and, under the auspices of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. The College also welcomes non-degree students.

Courses in more than 130 specializations are offered by a full-time faculty* of nearly 200, supplemented by an equal number of special lecturers and instructors. Various institutes and topical study center reflect the concern of society and the challenges to professions within the framework of traditional academic disciplines.


* faculty – преподавательский состав


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